Page images

added in the infinitive to verbs of appearing, seeming, &c., such as φαίνομαι, δοκώ, ἔοικα, which may also serve as copula without any such addition.

(α) ὁ Θεός ἐστιν ἀγαθός, “God is good."

(b) ỏ épŵv èρaσTǹ's Kaλeîτaι, “he who loves is called a lover." οἱ Πέρσαι ἐνομίζοντο ἀλκιμώτατοι, “the Persians were considered bravest."



(α) Αράσπας ἐπέμφθη κατάσκοπος, “ Araspas was sent as a spy."

(ε) Αλκιβιάδης ᾑρέθη στρατηγός, " Alcibiades was chosen general."

() οὔτ ̓ ἔλαχε τειχοποιός, οὔτ ̓ ἐχειροτονήθη, “ he was not
chosen to build the walls by lot or show of hands.”

(9) οἱ νόμοι διαμένουσιν ἀκίνητοι, " the laws remain unchanged.”
(h) χαλεπὸν δοκεῖ τοῦτο τὸ ἔργον, " this work seems difficult.”
() τὸ δέ τοι κῆρ φαίνεται εἶναι, " but this appears to thee to
be death."

(7) εὐδαίμων φαίνεται ὁ ἀνήρ, “ the man appears happy.”

Regularly, these primary predicates agree with their subjects in gender and number; and all verbs, whether they merely serve as copula or contain in themselves the primary predicate, agree with the subject of the sentence in number and person. But the following irregularities are not of unfrequent occurrence:

(a) The primary predicate does not agree with the subject in gender and number.

(aa) The predicate may stand in the neuter singular without regard to the gender and number of the subject, if we wish to indicate that the subject belongs to a particular class of things; as our ȧyaðòv Tоλνкоipavín (Il. 11. 204), "a multitude of rulers is not a good thing"-does not belong to the class of good things; ai μeraBoλai λvπnρóv (Eurip. Herc. F. 1263), "changes are a troublesome thing."

(bb) The predicate takes its gender from the meaning and not from the grammatical form of the subject; as τὸ μειράκιον ἐγένετο Kaλós, "the boy grew up handsome;" and this applies also to epithets (above, 414) and secondary predicates, as piλe Tékvov (Od.XV. 509) ; ὦ φίλη ψυχή, οἴχει δὴ ἀπολιπὼν ἡμᾶς (Xen. Cyr. VII. 3, § 8). (8) The verb does not agree with the subject in number.

(aa) When the subject is a neuter plural the verb is generally singular, as Tà toa тpéxe. The reason for this has been already given (381, (d)); and the same rule occasionally applies to the dual, as Пl. XXIII. 477: Séρкeтαι oσσe. But the plural may follow a neuter plural nominative (1) if it indicates a plural personality, as Plat. Lach. p. 180 E: Tà μeipánia èπaivoûow; (2) if the objects referred to are necessarily distributed and numerous, as Xen. Anab. 1. 7, § 17: φανερὰ ἦσαν καὶ ἵππων καὶ ἀνθρώπων ἴχνη πολλά; (3) if the objects are separated by locality or otherwise, as Xen. Cyr. II. 2, § 17: ταῦτα μὲν δὴ τοιαῦτα ἐλέγοντο, because the sayings of diverse parties are alluded to. In general this use of the plural verb with the neuter plural is more common in Xenophon, and in the Ionic and Doric poets, than in the majority of the prose writers.

(bb) With eσT and some other verbs the singular verb is used with the plural subject, even when the latter is masculine or feminine; as Plat. Euthyd. 302 c: čσti yàp ễμoiye kaì ßwμoí. Sympos. 188 Β: καὶ γὰρ πάχναι καὶ χάλαζαι καὶ ἐρυσίβαι γίγνεται: This idiom is called the schema Pindaricum, and Pindar uses a singular verb as a copula between a plural subject and a plural predicate, ΟΙ. Χ. 4: μελιγάρυες ὕμνοι ὑστέρων ἀρχαὶ λόγων τέλλεται.

(cc) If the subject, though singular, is a collective noun, the verb is plural; this applies not only to nouns of multitude, as duos, πλῆθος, στρατόπεδον, &c., but also to words or expressions like ἕκαστος, τις, ἄλλος ἄλλον, εἴ τις, ὅστις, ὃς ἂν, &c. Thus Alciphron, Ep. III. 10: ὁ δῆμος εἰς τὸ θέατρον προελθόντες ἐβόων. Plat. Resp. p. 550 E: ἄλλος ἄλλον ὁρῶν καὶ εἰς ζῆλον ἰὼν τὸ πλῆθος τοιοῦτον αὑτῶν ἀπειργάσαντο.

(dd) The plural verb stands beside a singular vocative, if the act refers to the companions also of the person addressed, as Soph. Phil. 466: ἤδη, τέκνον, στέλλεσθε;

(ee) When the plural of the first person is used royally and majestically, as it is called, for the singular, the proper number may be resumed even in the same sentence; as Eurip. Troad. 904: ws οὐ δικαίως, ἣν θάνω, θανούμεθα.

(ff) The dual, which is only an exceptional plural, may have a plural predicate or verb; as Plat. Resp. p. 478 a: dvváμeis àμpóτεραί ἐστον, δόξα τε καὶ ἐπιστήμη. Soph. Αntig. 55: ἀδελφὼ δύο κοινὸν μόρον κατειργάσαντο. And a feminine dual may agree with

a masculine predicate or epithet; as Xen. Cyr. I. 2, § 11: μίαν ἄμφω τούτω τω ἡμέρα λογίζονται.

(99) If two or more subjects are referred to a common copula or predicate, the latter may either be plural or take its inflexion from the nearest or the predominant subject; but the adjectival predicate is in the neuter plural if the subjects denote inanimate things; as Xen. Anab. II. 4, § 15: ἔτυχον ἐν τῷ περιπάτῳ ὄντες Πρόξενος καὶ Ξενοφών. Thucyd. 1. 29: ἐστρατήγει τῶν νεῶν ̓Αριστεὺς καὶ Καλλικράτης καὶ Τιμάνωρ. Xen. Anab. Ι. 10, § 1 : βασιλεὺς καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ εἰσπίπτει. Plat. Euthyd. p. 279 Β: εὐγένειαί τε καὶ δυνάμεις καὶ τιμαὶ δῆλά ἐστιν ἀγαθὰ ὄντα.

(hh) The copulative verb may agree in number with either the subject or predicate, if the latter is a substantive or a substantival adjective; as Herod. II. 16: τὸ πάλαι αἱ Θῆβαι Αἴγυπτος ἐκαλέετο. Thucyd. IV. 26: αἴτιον ἦν οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι προειπόντες.

419 As the predicate is necessarily a general term, it is properly distinguished from the subject by the omission of the article ;


ὁ Σωκράτης ἦν ἄνθρωπος.
ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἦν σοφός.

See, however, above, 394, (β).

(α) When the predication is thus distinct, the copula is often omitted; as

λευκὸς ὁ ἵππος, “ the horse is white.”

(3) The copula is very frequently omitted, when the following qualitative phrases form the predicate: φροῦδος, ἑτοῖμος, ῥᾴδιον, εἰκός, δῆλον, χαλεπόν, ἄξιος, δυνατός, οἷός τε, ἀδύνατος, θαυμαστόν, ἀμήχανον ὅσον, ἀνάγκη, χρεών, θέμις, ὥρα, καιρός, οὐ πολὺς χρόνος ἐξ οὗ, &c. ; as

φροῦδα τἀπειλήματα (Soph. d. Col. 660). They are often predicated in the neuter plural; as

χαλεπά ἐστι περιγίγνεσθαι (Herod. IX. 2).

(c) The omission of the copula is most usual in the third person, but there are examples of its absence with the other persons; thus we have with the emphatic pronoun (Asch. Eum. 547), φόνου δὲ τοῦδ ̓ ἐγὼ καθάρσιος, and (Pind. Οl. IV. 24), οὗτος ἐγὼ ταχυτάτι, “ such a one am I here before you for swiftness;" "Ελλην ἐγώ, Greek am I;” and the like. And ἐσμέν is understood with ἕτοιμοι

[ocr errors]

in Plat. Resp. 499 D: περὶ τούτου ἕτοιμοι τῷ λόγῳ διαμάχεσθαι, where the pronoun μeîs is also omitted.

(d) The copula is often omitted in relative sentences; thus Eurip. Alc. 171: πάντας δὲ βωμούς, οἳ κατ ̓ Αδμήτου δόμους [εἰσί], προσῆλθε. This is sometimes found to be the case with the relative particles ὅτι and εἰ; thus (Plat. Resp. VI. p. 505 A): ὅτι γε ἡ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ἰδέα μέγιστον μάθημα [ἐστί], πολλάκις ἀκήκοας. Soph. Phil. 1246: ἀλλ ̓ εἰ δίκαια [ἐστί], τῶν σοφῶν κρείσσω τάδε.

(e) The omission of the copula with the antecedent is regular in such phrases as οὐδεὶς [ἐστὶν] ὅστις οὐ, and the like, where the construction is often obliterated by an attraction of the antecedent into the case of its relative (above, 405).

(ƒ) The copula is sometimes wanting even in the dependent moods; thus the imperative is omitted (Xen. Anab. III. 3, § 14): τοῖς θεοῖς χάρις [ἔστω]; the subjunctive (Π. Ι. 547): ὃν μέν κ ̓ ἐπιεικὲς [ᾖ] ἀκούεμεν; the optative (Theocr. XVIII. 25): τῶν οὐδ ̓ ἂν τις ἄμωμος [εἴη], ἐπεί χ ̓ Ἑλένα παρισωθῇ; the objective infinitive (Plat. Phaed. p. 74 Ε): οὔκουν ὁμολογοῦμεν ἀναγκαῖόν που [είναι].

(g) A preposition with its case, or a compound involving this combination, seems to be specially adapted for predication, without the copula or some other verb containing the primary predication implied; thus Asch. Agam. 675: πολύανδροί τε φεράσπιδες κυναγοὶ κατ ̓ ἴχνος πλατᾶν ἄφαντον [ᾔεσαν οι εἵποντο], “ the shielded huntsmen went or followed in the invisible track of their oars." Eurip. Electr. 733: νεφέλαι δ' ἔνυδροι πρὸς ἄρκτον, “the watery clouds went to the north." And even in a secondary predication we have the same usage, as in Thucyd. iv. 126: κατὰ πόδας [ἰόντες οι ἑπόμενοι] τὸ εὔψυχον ἐν τῷ ἀσφαλεῖ ὀξεῖς ἐνδείκνυνται, “ following at their heels, they keenly exhibit their courage when there is no risk." Hence we have the same omission with compound adjectives, as in sch. Αgam. 277: ύπερτέλης τε [ἤρθη], πόντον ὥστε νωτίσαι ἰχθὺς [?], πορευτοῦ λαμπάδος πρὸς ἡδονήν, πεύκη, τὸ φεγγὲς ὥς τις ἥλιος σέλας παραγγείλασα Μακίστου σκοπαῖς, where there is a secondary predicate of time in the aorist participle παραγγειλασα, “ the pine torch was lifted aloft, so that the fishes rose to the surface of the sea to enjoy the passenger light,—having sped forward its blaze to the watch-towers of Macistus."


In this case, as in those mentioned above (d), where we have given an instance of the phrase with the preposition (Eurip. Alc. 171), the copula is omitted in relative sentences; thus Arist. Pol. 1. 9, § 6: τῷ εἰσάγεσθαι ὧν ἐνδεεῖς [εἰσὶ] καὶ ἐκπέμπειν ὧν πλεονάCovo, "by the importation of the things which they want, and by the exportation of their superfluities."

§ III. Primary Predicates. (b) Participles and other Verbals.

(a) Participles.

420 (aa) The active participles are not very often used as primary predicates, for the tenses of the verb will generally express our meaning with sufficient definiteness: consequently oπos τρέχει will be more common than ὁ ἵππος ἐστι τρέχων, which is equivalent to it (above, 381). But we find such phrases as ódòs ǹ ópwμév v ayovoa avo (Xen. Anab. IV. 3, § 5); and in an emphatic passage we might say, ó aveρwπós čotiv éμπvéwv (cf. Eschyl. Agam. 629); or, ὁ παῖς ἐστὶ πάντ' ἀγνοῶν καὶ πάντ ̓ ἀποβλέπων εἰς Tov Sidάoxanov (cf. Plat. Phæd. p. 239 B); or, in the aorist, vô Θεμιστοκλῆς βεβαιότατα δὴ φύσεως ἰσχὺν δηλώσας καὶ ἄξιος θαυ páσai (Thucyd. I. 138, § 3); or, in the perfect, ó xρnoμòs čσтaL Sedoрxos (Esch. Ag. 1150). The difference between this mode of predication and that with the finite verb is shown by such passages as the following; Thucyd. Ι. 38, § 2: δῆλον ὅτι, εἰ τοῖς πλέοσιν ἀρέσκοντές ἐσμεν, τοῖσδ ̓ ἂν μόνοις οὐκ ὀρθῶς ἀπαρέσκοιμεν, “it is clear that if we habitually give satisfaction to the greater number, there can be no justice in the dissatisfaction which these alone profess to entertain." Id. III. 2, § 1: à peтateμñóμevoi ĥoav, "which things they were sending for."

(bb) The passive participle in -uévos is very often predicated; indeed, as we have seen above (324, (3)), it is a substitute for certain tense forms; and for the sake of emphasis we have such phrases as κάρτ ̓ ἀπομούσως ἦσθα γεγραμμένος (Æschyl. Ag. 733), "you were painted very unfavourably."

(B) Other Verbals.

421 The verbal adjectives in -Tós and -Téos are also very often used as primary predicates; thus,

τοῦτο οὐ ῥητόν ἐστι μοί,
ἀσκητέα ἐστί σοι ἡ ἀρετή.

« PreviousContinue »