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added in the infinitive to verbs of appearing, seeming, &c., such as φαίνομαι, δοκώ, έoικα, which may also serve as copula without any such addition.
(a) ó Oeós éotiv åyadós, “God is good.”
οι Πέρσαι ένομίζοντο άλκιμώτατοι, « the Persians were
considered bravest." (d) 'Αράσπας επέμφθη κατάσκοπος, « Araspas was sent as a () ',
(e) 'Αλκιβιάδης ήρέθη στρατηγός, “Alcibiades was chosen (e) ',
« general.” (4) ούτ' έλαχε τειχοποιός, ούτ' εχειροτονήθη, «he was not
chosen to build the walls by lot or show of hands."
Regularly, these primary predicates agree with their subjects in gender and number; and all verbs, whether they merely serve as copula or contain in themselves the primary predicate, agree with the subject of the sentence in number and person. But the following irregularities are not of unfrequent occurrence :
(a) The primary predicate does not agree with the subject in gender and number.
(aa) The predicate may stand in the neuter singular without regard to the gender and number of the subject, if we wish to indicate that the subject belongs to a particular class of things; as oỦk åyabòv toukoipavín (Il. 11. 204), “a multitude of rulers is not a good thing”—does not belong to the class of good things; ai METABonai Autrnpóv (Eurip. Herc. F. 1263), “changes are a troublesome thing."
(bb) The predicate takes its gender from the meaning and not from the grammatical form of the subject; as tò necpáxlov éryÉVETO καλός, “the boy grew up handsome;" and this applies also to epithets (above, 414) and secondary predicates, as piae TéKVOV (Od.xv. 509) ; ώ φίλη ψυχή, οίχει δη απολιπων ημάς (Χen. Cyr. VΙΙ. 3, 88).
(B) The verb does not agree with the subject in number.
(aa) When the subject is a neuter plural the verb is generally singular, as τα ζώα τρέχει. The reason for this has been already given (381, (d)); and the same rule occasionally applies to the dual, as Π. ΧΧΙΙΙ. 477: δέρκεται όσσε. But the plural may follow a neuter plural nominative (1) if it indicates a plural personality, as Plat. Lach. p. 180 Ε: τα μειράκια έπαινούσιν; (2) if the objects referred
. to are necessarily distributed and numerous, as Xen. Anab. 1. 7, 8 17: φανερά ήσαν και ίππων και ανθρώπων ίχνη πολλά; (3) if the objects are separated by locality or otherwise, as Xen. Cyr. II. 2, 8 17: ταύτα μεν δη τοιαύτα ελέγoντo, because the sayings of diverse parties are alluded to. In general this use of the plural verb with the neuter plural is more common in Xenophon, and in the Ionic and Doric poets, than in the majority of the prose writers.
. (66) With čoti and some other verbs the singular verb is used with the plural subject, even when the latter is masculine or feminine; as Plat. Euthyd. 302 c: έστι γαρ έμοιγε και βωμοί. Sympos. 188 Β: και γαρ πάχναι και χάλαζαι και ερυσίβαι γίγνεται: This idiom is called the schema Pindaricum, and Pindar uses a singular verb as a copula between a plural subject and a plural predicate, οι. Χ. 4: μελιγάρυες ύμνοι υστέρων άρχαι λόγων τέλλεται.
(cc) If the subject, though singular, is a collective noun, the verb is plural; this applies not only to nouns of multitude, as dñuos, πλήθος, στρατόπεδον, &c., but also to words or expressions like έκαστος, τις, άλλος άλλον, εί τις, όστις, ος άν, &c. Thus Alciphron, Ep. ΙΙΙ. 10: ο δήμος εις το θέατρον προελθόντες έβόων. Ρlat. Resp. p. 550 Ε: άλλος άλλον όρων και εις ζήλον των το πλήθος τοιούτον αυτών απειργάσαντο.
(dd) The plural verb stands beside a singular vocative, if the act refers to the companions also of the person addressed, as Soph. Phil. 466: ήδη, τέκνον, στέλλεσθε;
(ee) When the plural of the first person is used royally and majestically, as it is called, for the singular, the proper number may
, , be resumed even in the same sentence; as Eurip. Troad. 904: ws ου δικαίως, ήν θάνω, θανούμεθα.
(ff) The dual, which is only an exceptional plural, may have a plural predicate or verb; as Plat. Resp. p. 478 A: δυνάμεις αμφότεραι έστον, δόξα τε και επιστήμη. Soph. Αntig. 55: αδελφώ δύο κοινόν μόρον κατειργάσαντο. And a feminine dual may agree with
a masculine predicate or epithet; as Xen. Cyr. I. 2, § 11: plav άμφω τούτω τώ ημέρα λογίζονται.
(99) If two or more subjects are referred to a common copula or predicate, the latter may either be plural or take its inflexion from the nearest or the predominant subject; but the adjectival predicate is in the neuter plural if the subjects denote inanimate things ; as Χen. Anab. 11. 4, 8 15: έτυχον εν τω περιπάτω όντες Πρόξενος και Ξενοφών. Τhucyd. 1. 29: έστρατήγει των νεών 'Αριστευς και Καλλικράτης και Τιμάνωρ. Χen. Anab. I. 10, 81: βασι
1 λεύς και οι συν αυτώ είσπίπτει. Ρlat. Euthyd. p. 279 Β: ευγένειαι τε και δυνάμεις και τιμαι δήλά έστιν αγαθα όντα.
(hh) The copulative verb may agree in number with either the subject or predicate, if the latter is a substantive or a substantival adjective; as Herod. ΙΙ. 16: το πάλαι αι Θήβαι Αίγυπτος εκαλέρτο. Thucyd. IV. 26: αίτιον ήν οι Λακεδαιμόνιοι προειπόντες.
419 As the predicate is necessarily a general term, it is properly distinguished from the subject by the omission of the article ;
ο Σωκράτης ήν άνθρωπος.
ο άνθρωπος ήν σοφός. See, however, above, 394, (B).
(a) When the predication is thus distinct, the copula is often omitted ; as λευκός ο ίππος, « the horse is white.”
" . (6) The copula is very frequently omitted, when the following qualitative phrases form the predicate: φρούδος, έτοιμος, ράδιον, εικός, δηλον, χαλεπόν, άξιος, δυνατός, οιός τε, αδύνατος, θαυμαστόν, αμήχανον όσον, ανάγκη, χρεών, θέμις, ώρα, καιρός, ου πολύς χρόνος εξ ου, &c.; as
φρούδα ταπειλήματα (Soph. Ed. Col. 660). They are often predicated in the neuter plural; as
χαλεπά εστι περιγίγνεσθαι (Herod. IX. 2). (c) The omission of the copula is most usual in the third person, but there are examples of its absence with the other persons ; thus we have with the emphatic pronoun (Esch. Εum. 547), φόνου δε τούδ' εγώ καθάρσιος, and (Pind. Oι. ΙV. 24), ούτος εγώ ταχυτάτι, “ such a one am I here before you for Swiftness;” "Έλλην εγώ, “a Greek am I;” and the like. And εσμέν is understood with έτοιμοι
in Ρlat. Resp. 499 D: περί τούτου έτοιμοι τω λόγω διαμάχεσθαι, where the pronoun peis is also omitted.
(d) The copula is often omitted in relative sentences; thus Eurip. Alc. 171: πάντας δε βωμούς, οι κατ' 'Αδμήτου δόμους [εισί), προσήλθε. This is sometimes found to be the case with the relative particles ότι and εί; thus (Plat. Resp. VI. p. 505 Α): ότι γε η του αγαθού ιδέα μέγιστον μάθημα [εστί], πολλάκις ακήκοας. Soph. Phil. 1246: αλλ' ει δίκαια [εστί], των σοφών κρείσσω τάδε.
(e) The omission of the copula with the antecedent is regular in such phrases as ουδείς [εστίν] όστις ου, and the like, where the construction is often obliterated by an attraction of the antecedent into the case of its relative (above, 405).
(f) The copula is sometimes wanting even in the dependent moods ; thus the imperative is omitted (Xen. Anab. III. 3, § 14): τους θεούς χάρις [έστω]; the subjunctive (ΙΙ. Ι. 547): ον μέν κ' επιεικές [η] ακούεμεν; the optative (Theocr. XVIII. 25): ταν ουδ' άν τις άμωμος [είη], επεί χ’ Ελένα παρισωθή; the objective infinitive (Plat. Phad. p. 74 Ε): ούκουν ομολογούμεν αναγκαιόν που [είναι]. (. .
(9) A preposition with its case, or a compound involving this combination, seems to be specially adapted for predication, without the copula or some other verb containing the primary predication implied; thus Esch. Agam. 675: πολύανδροί τε φεράσπιδες κυναγοί κατ' ίχνος πλατάν άφαντον (ήεσαν or είποντο), « the shielded huntsmen went or followed in the invisible track of their oars.” Eurip. Electr. 733: νεφέλαι δ' ένυδροι προς άρκτον, “the watery clouds went to the north.” And even in a secondary predication we have the same usage, as in Thucyd. IV. 126: κατά πόδας [ιόντες or επόμενοι] το εύψυχον εν τώ ασφαλεί οξείς ενδείκνυνται, “ following at their heels, they keenly exhibit their courage when there is no risk.” Hence we have the same omission with compound adjectives, as in Esch. Agam. 277: υπερτέλης τε ήρθη], πόντον ώστε νωτίσαι ιχθύς [?], πορευτου λαμπάδος προς ηδονήν, πεύκη, το χρυσοφεγγες ώς τις ήλιος σέλας παραγγείλασα Μακίστου σκοπαίς, where there is a secondary predicate of time in the aorist participle παραγγειλασα, « the pine torch was lifted aloft,-s0 that the fishes rose to the surface of the sea to enjoy the passenger light-having sped forward its blaze to the watch-towers of Macistus."
In this case, as in those mentioned above (d), where we have given an instance of the phrase with the preposition (Eurip. Ale. 171), the copula is omitted in relative sentences; thus Arist. Pol. 1. 9, 8 6: το εισάγεσθαι ών ένδεείς [είσι] και εκπέμπειν ων πλεονάGovor, " by the importation of the things which they want, and by the exportation of their superfluities.”
§ III. Primary Predicates. (6) Participles and other Verbals.
(a) Participles. 420 (aa) The active participles are not very often used as primary predicates, for the tenses of the verb will generally express our meaning with sufficient definiteness: consequently ó iTTOS τρέχει will be more common than o ίππος έστι τρέχων, which is equivalent to it (above, 381). But we find such phrases as odos ń ópwjévn v áryovo a ävw (Xen. Anab. iv. 3, § 5); and in an emphatic passage we might say, ó ăvopwtós éotiv čutrvéwv (cf. Æschyl. Agam. 629); or, ο παίς έστι πάντ' αγνοών και πάντ' αποβλέπων εις
ó TÒV didáo kalov (ef. Plat. Phæd. p. 239 B); or, in the aorist, nv ó Θεμιστοκλής βεβαιότατα δή φύσεως ισχύν δηλώσας και άξιος θαυMárai (Thucyd. 1. 138, § 3); or, in the perfect, ó xpnouos total dedoprós (Æsch. Ag. 1150). The difference between this mode of predication and that with the finite verb is shown by such passages as the following; Thucyd. Ι. 38, 8 2: δήλον ότι, εί τους πλέοσιν αρέσκοντές εσμεν, τoίσδ' άν μόνοις ουκ ορθώς απαρέσκοιμεν, “it is clear that if we habitually give satisfaction to the greater number, there can be no justice in the dissatisfaction which these alone profess to entertain.” Id. ΙΙΙ. 2, 8 1: & μεταπεμπόμενοι ήσαν, “which things they were sending for."
(66) The passive participle in -révos is very often predicated; indeed, as we have seen above (324, (3)), it is a substitute for certain tense forms; and for the sake of emphasis we have such phrases as kápt' åtrouoúows hoba yeypajpévos (Æschyl. Ag. 733), “ you were painted very unfavourably."
(B) Other Verbals. 421 The verbal adjectives in -rós and -Téos are also very often used as primary predicates; thus,
τούτο ου ρητόν έστι μοί.