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(ff) The future sometimes implies that a thing is doomed or destined, as in the lines of Philemon:

οὐκ ἔστ ̓ οὐδὲ εἰς

ᾧ μὴ κακόν τι γέγονεν ἢ γενήσεται.

Hence the phrase ὦ κακῶς ἀπολούμενε, “Ο thou, that art doomed to perish basely," of an execration; and this too with the article, as in Euripides:

νικά με χρεία χὴ κακῶς ὀλουμένη

γαστήρ ̓ ὑφ ̓ ἧς δὴ πάντα γίγνεται κακά,

(gg) In the infinitive the future is used after verbs of requesting, wishing, &c., where in English we are content to employ the present; thus, ἐδεήθησαν οἱ Κορίνθιοι τῶν Μεγαρέων ναυσὶ σφᾶς ξυμπροπέμψειν, “ the Corinthians requested of the Megarians to (that they would) assist in escorting them with a feet;” τὸν πόλεμον διενοοῦντο προθύμως οἴσειν, " they intended to (that they would) carry on the war with spirit;" oi’A0ŋvaîoɩ ἐφίεντο τῆς Σικελίας ἄρξειν, “ the Athenians desired to (that they might) rule over Sicily."

425 C, 1. The Perfect.

(aa) The perfect expresses the state or condition consequent on an action; thus Xen. Cyr. vi. 4, §14: ἠσκήκατε μὲν τὰ εἰς τὸν πόλεμον πολὺ μᾶλλον τῶν πολεμίων, συντέτραφθε δὲ καὶ συντέ ταχθε ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ πολὺ πλείω ἤδη χρόνον ἢ οἱ πολέμιοι καὶ συννενικήκατε μετ ̓ ἀλλήλων, τῶν δὲ πολεμίων οἱ πολλοὶ συνήττηνται μεθ ̓ ἑαυτῶν, “ you have been exercised, and the discipline remains; you have been nurtured and drawn up together, and have shared in victories up to this time; but most of your enemies have been continually partners in defeat:" so that the two states or conditions may be contrasted.

(bb) Hence the perfect often denotes the completion of an act, especially the fixed result of a thought or determination; thus Thucyd. I. 120: ὁ ἐν πολέμῳ εὐτυχίᾳ πλεονάζων οὐκ ἐντεθύμηται θράσει ἀπίστῳ ἐπαιρόμενος, “he, who in war is lifted up by prosperity, has not reflected, has not come to the just conclusion, that he is elated by a boldness on which he ought not to rely ;' cf. the ἐνθυμεῖται γὰρ οὐδείς which immediately follows, and means "no one reflects," i. e. is in the habit of reflecting. Simi

larly Dem. Phil. I. § 19: ταῦτα μέν ἐστιν ἃ πᾶσι δεδόχθαι φημὶ Seiv, "these are the sentiments, which, I maintain, ought to be δεῖν, the fixed convictions of all."


(cc) The perfect often denotes an immediate consequence with or without the explanatory particles εὐθύς, ταχύ, παραχρῆμα; thus Thucyd. II. 45: τὸ μὴ ἐμποδὼν ἀνανταγωνίστῳ εὐνοίᾳ τετίμη Tai, "that which is no longer in the way is at once (ipso facto) held in honour;" Xen. Cyr. IV. 2, § 26: о уàρ кратŵν äμа πáνта σνvýρπаκеv, "he who conquers at once carries off everything;" Plat. Crat. 432 4: ἀριθμός, ἐὰν ἀφέλῃς τι ἢ προσθῇς, ἕτερος εὐθὺς yéyove, "a number, if you add anything to it, or subtract from it, becomes at once (ipso facto) different."

Indefinite Tenses.

426 A, 2. The Imperfect.

(aa) The imperfect, as its name signifies, denotes an incomplete action, one that is in its course, and is not yet brought to its intended accomplishment. It implies therefore that a certain thing was going on at a specified time, but excludes the assertion that the end of the action was attained. Hence it may often be expressed by the paraphrase "began to," "proceeded to," "attempted to," especially by the side of the aorist indicating, as we shall see, the single or completed action. Thus Thucyd. II. 92, § 2: ὡς ἡ ναῦς διεφθείρετο, ἔσφαξεν ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἐξέπεσεν ἐς τὸν Xuéva, "when the ship was sinking, he (Timocrates) slew himself λιμένα, and fell overboard into the harbour;" because the sinking of the ship, after it was pierced by the beak, was a comparatively slow process, whereas the suicide and its result were single and momentary acts. Similarly in a longer passage of Xenophon: ¿πeì úπŋντίαζεν ἡ φάλαγξ καὶ ἅμα ἡ σάλπιγξ ἐφθέγξατο καὶ ἐπαιάνιζον καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἐλάλαζον καὶ ἅμα τὰ δόρατα καθίεσαν, ἐνταῦθα οὐκέτι ἐδέξαντο οἱ πολέμιοι ἀλλ ̓ ἔφευγον, “ when the phalanx proceeded to meet them, and at the same time the trumpet sounded (single and completed act), they proceeded to sing the pean, and after these things raised the war-cry, and at the same time proceeded to level their spears, thereupon the enemies no longer awaited their attack (completed result), but proceeded to flee." The tentative signification is clearly conveyed by such verbs as Kтelvw, when

predicated of a person still living; thus Iphigenia says of herself (Eurip. Iph. Τ. 27): ὑπὲρ πυρᾶς μεταρσία ληφθεῖσ ̓ ἐκαινόμην ξίφει. So in the optative, d. Col. 996: εἴ τίς σε κτείνοι παρα

στάς, πότερα πυνθάνοι ̓ ἂν εἰ πατήρ σ ̓ ὁ καίνων ἢ τίνοι ̓ ἂν εὐθέως ; Indeed the tentative meaning had so attached itself to this verb, that it is sometimes used in the same sense even in the aorist: see Soph. Aj. 1105; Eurip. Ion, 1500. Something of the same kind is observable in cases where an incomplete act is interrupted by its remedy or otherwise; as Andoc. p. 133, 40: éteidỳ tậ ψεύδεσθαι ἀπώλλυτο, ἡγήσατο τἀληθῆ κατειπὼν διὰ τούτου σωθῆναι av, "when he found that he was ruining himself (beginning to be ruined) by falsehood, he thought that he would save himself by giving true information."

(bb) The idea of incompleteness very frequently passes into that of repetition, especially in the case of verbs like exeyov, ἐκέλευον; thus: τοὺς μὲν πρέσβεις εὐθὺς ἀπήλλαξαν· ἑαυτὸν δ ̓ ἐκέ λευεν ἀποστέλλειν ὁ Θεμιστοκλῆς, “they immediately got rid of the ambassadors, but Themistocles proceeded to urge, kept urging, repeatedly recommended them to send him away." Hence we explain the opposition to the aorist in such passages as Herod. VII. 63: οὗτοι δὲ ὑπὸ μὲν Ἑλλήνων ἐκαλέοντο Σύριοι, ὑπὸ δὲ τῶν βαρ βάρων Ασσύριοι ἐκλήθησαν, “ they used to be called Syrians by the Greeks, but they had the name of Assyrians from the barbarians."

(cc) The imperfect is often used to intimate that the circumstances mentioned existed or were observed at a particular time, and it is neither asserted nor denied that the same state of things still continues; thus (Xen. Anab. 1. 4, § 9): ó Xáλos móτaμos žv πλήρης ἰχθύων μεγάλων καὶ πραέων, οὓς οἱ Σύροι θεοὺς ἐνόμιζον καὶ ådɩkeîv ovк eĭwv, "the river Chalus was (at the time when Xenophon was there) full of large tame fishes, which the Syrians at that time regarded as divinities, and did not allow to be injured."

(dd) This is particularly common, when a previous statement is recalled to recollection; thus: ἦν ἡ μουσικὴ ἀντίστροφος τῆς γυμναστικῆς, εἰ μέμνησαι, “ music was (in our previous argument) the counterpart of music, if you remember."

(ee) But it may be implied that the previous admission, assumption, or observation was, after all, erroneous; and this is

idiomatically expressed by the imperfect with the particle apa; thus Soph. Electr. 1175: ὡς οὐκ ἄρ ̓ ἤδη τῶν ἐμῶν οὐδὲν κακῶν, "how it now seems that after all I knew nothing of my miseries!" Eurip. Troad. 414: οὐδέν τι κρείσσω τῶν τὸ μηδὲν ἦν ἄρα, “ they were not a whit better after all than a cypher." Herod. Iv. 64: δέρμα δὲ ἀνθρώπου ἦν ἄρα σχεδὸν δερμάτων πάντων λευκότατον λаμπρоτηтι, "so then it seems that after all the human skin was, what we should not expect, the whitest and brightest of all skins."

(ff) In connexion with this usage we find the imperfect in verbs and phrases like edeɩ, ëxpnv, eikòs yv, åpeλov, to signify a dissatisfaction with the present state of things, and a wish or opinion that it ought not to have taken place; thus:

οὐκ ἔχρην ποτε

τῶν πραγμάτων τὴν γλῶσσαν ἰσχύειν πλέον,
ἀλλ ̓ εἴτε χρήστ ̓ ἔδρασε χρήστ ̓ ἔδει λέγειν,
εἴτ ̓ αὖ πονηρὰ τοὺς λόγους εἶναι σαθρούς,

"the tongue ought not to have been stronger than deeds, but when actions were good there ought to have been good words, but the words ought to have been feeble when the deeds were bad." Similarly: εἰκὸς ἦν ὑμᾶς μὴ μαλακῶς, ὥσπερ νῦν, ξυμμαχεῖν, “ it would have been reasonable that you should not, as now, act the part of faint-hearted allies;” ὠφελε μὲν Κῦρος ζῆν, ἐπεὶ δὲ τετελεύ τηκεν, ἐπαγγελλόμεθα ̓Αριαίῳ εἰς τὸν θρόνον τὸν βασίλειον καθιεῖν avтóv, "Cyrus ought to have lived (would that he had lived), but since he is dead, we offer to Ariæus to seat him on the royal throne."

427 B, 2. The Aorist.

Since the aorist, in its fuller and more usual form, contains the adjunct σ-, by which the future expresses time to come, as well as the augment -, which expresses past time, it confines the action predicated within certain limits of previous and subsequent time. From this limitation or isolation of the predicated action spring all the uses and applications of the Greek aorist.

(aa) As a strictly historical tense the aorist denotes single acts, or acts which had both their commencement and their termi

at the time specified; and if a continuance ever seems to be 1, it is to be referred to something consequent on the action

predicated by the aorist, not to that action itself. The following passages will illustrate the usage; Thucyd. III. 22: Yıλoì dvádeka ἀνέβαινον, ὧν ἡγεῖτο ̓Αμμέας καὶ πρῶτος ἀνέβη, twelve men lightly equipped proceeded to go up, and Ammeas was their leader, and he got up first" (i. e. succeeded in getting up, which was the end of the whole proceeding). Xen. Anab. III. 4, § 31: ἐνταῦθα ἔμειναν ἡμέρας τρεῖς, καὶ τῶν τετρωμένων ἕνεκα, καὶ ἅμα éπITýdeιa πoλλà elxov, "there they remained three days (i. e. the ἐπιτήδεια πολλὰ three days contained and completed the period of their stay, so that it was a single and separate incident in the march), both on account of the wounded, and at the same time they had (during those three days, which in themselves were a continuous period) plenty of provisions." Thucyd. I. 14: Δαρεῖος μετὰ Καμβύσην Περσῶν ἐβασίλευσε, " Darius became king of the Persians after Cambyses," i.e. his coming to the throne was a point of time or a single incident between the continued periods of his own and his predecessor's reigns. Plat. Phædr. 243 B: Eтnolxopos πoinσas dǹ πᾶσαν τὴν καλουμένην παλινῳδίαν παραχρῆμα ἀνέβλεψεν, “ Stesi chorus, having composed all the so-called palinode, immediately recovered his sight," i. e. although he continued to see afterwards, the recovery was a single incident between his seeing and his previous blindness.

(bb) From this use of the aorist to denote a single act, or one completed within certain limits in past time, we derive its employment in cases where the singleness of the act is alone regarded, and where the predication of time is, as the name aorist (ảópiσtos) implies, quite indefinite. In fact we might substitute for the aorist the future, which is the same tense without the augment as the mark of past time. Thus in the passage quoted above (424, (cc)): ἀνὴρ σοφὸς τὰς συμφορὰς ῥᾷον οἴσει τῶν ἄλλων, we might substitute йveyke for oloe, and render it "he bears in each separate case,” "he is found, as often as the occasion arises, and for each separate occasion, to bear his misfortunes more easily than others." That we may thus fall back on the future is clear from the fact, that, in the second case of conditional propositions, where the future regularly follows the subjunctive with äv (below, 502), the aorist may take its place, when the habitual act expected is regarded as single, separate, and of repeated but distinct occurrence. Thus of a passage from Ægina to Athens (Plat. Gorg. 511 D): éàv ¿§ Aiyívns

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