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Bovλeveσlai, “to act as a councillor" (Thucyd. 11. 15: avtoì ëxaστοι ἐπολιτεύοντο καὶ ἐβουλεύοντο). Finally, some verbs of this class are employed only in the middle form, because they do not admit any signification except of an habitually appropriated and characteristic act; such are av@pwπeveσlaι, "to act like a man" (Kaт' ǎv◊ρwπov), as opposed to the gods and lower animals (Arist. Eth. N. x. 8, 6) ; εὐτραπελεύεσθαι, " to be habitually witty;” πονη peveσdaι, “to play the rogue.”


(bb) The appropriative middle often exhibits a signification which might be called intensive, but which really implies an immediate reference to some result in which the agent is interested. One of the most common of the cases, in which the passive form is thus distinguished from the active, is that of the aorists ideîv and idéolai, of which the former means simply "to see," the latter "to behold, to look with interest, or with a view to some contemplated and desired effect'." We have them both in one sentence in Homer, Il. I. 262: οὐ γάρ πω τοίους ἴδον ἀνέρας οὐδὲ ἴδωμαι, “ I have not yet seen such men, nor is it probable that I shall behold their like," i. e. if I looked for them; also in Herod. II. 32: ei ti πλéov idolev Tŵv τὰ μακρότατα ἰδομένων, “ whether they might see anything more than those who had surveyed (i. e. with a special object and interest, as travellers are wont to do) the most distant regions." For this reason idoû is more frequently used than ide in calling attention to something worth seeing. In much the same way dewpeîν, πρоoрâν, and σκοπεῖν are distinguished from θεωρεῖσθαι, προορᾶσθαι and σкOжεîσdaι. Thus we have Plat. Gorg. 474 D: càv èv tậ Oewρεῖσθαι χαίρειν ποιῇ τοὺς θεωροῦντας, “ if the beauty of person gives pleasure to the spectators in the act of beholding them, gazing on them with interest." Again, Demosth. p. 664, 1. 13: aio@ávetai ταῦτα καὶ προορᾷ Χαρίδημος, " Charidemus is aware of these things and foresees them (as a fact);" but Demosth. p. 234, 1. 8: à èyw προορώμενος καὶ λογιζόμενος τὸ ψήφισμα τοῦτο γράφω, “I, providing for (earnestly looking forward to) these things and estimating the consequences, drew up this decree." And Xen. Anab. v. 2, § 20 : ὁ Ξενοφῶν καὶ οἱ λοχαγοὶ ἐσκόπουν...σκοπουμένοις δ ̓ αὐτοῖς edoţe, “Xenophon and the captains examined; and as they were carefully reconnoitering the place, it appeared to them," &c.

1 See Kenrick on Herod. II. 32.

Obs. In this particular use of the middle there is a great difficulty in distinguishing between the signification of the active and the middle forms of the same verb, the latter being apparently used only as a deponent. In these cases it will generally be found that the middle implies a certain special diligence and earnestness in the action. Thus κρύπτω means "I conceal;" κружтоμаι passive, "I am concealed;" κpúπтоμаι middle, in its more usual sense, "I conceal myself or something belonging to myself;" but also "I conceal diligently or entirely or by some means dependent solely on myself." For example, in the same passage of Sophocles we have (Ajax, 658): κpúw Tód yxos Touμóv, "I will hide this sword of mine ; and (Ibid. 647): χρόνος φύει τ' ἄδηλα καὶ φανέντα κρύπ τεται, "time both brings forth what is unknown, and diligently or completely conceals (has in itself the means of concealing) things after they have come to light." So of a communication not yet made, Soph. Trach. 474 : πᾶν σοι φράσω τἀληθὲς οὐδὲ κρύψομαι, “I will tell you all the truth, nor will I keep it to myself, take pains to conceal it," where the proper force of the middle is more apparent. The more perplexing instances of this use of the middle are discussed in the subjoined list of verbs.

(cc) The causative middle exhibits some usages of a special character.

(cc) There are many verbs in which the causative middle is the correlative of the active. Thus we have aπodidóval, "to give back," but aπodidoolai, "to sell;" ypápew, "to enrol," but ypápeolai, "to get enrolled," i.e. "to indict;" aπoypάpew, “to put down on a register," aπoyрáþeolai, "to get put down on the register," i.e. "to proscribe as belonging to the state;" Savelleiv, "to lend," davelÇeolai, "to get lent," i.e. "to borrow;" dikáče, "to try a cause" (of the judge), dixáleσbai, "to get a cause tried, to bring an action," (of the plaintiff); èπynpíçew, “to put the question," impíšeσdai, “to get the question put" (to vote); Deivaι vóμov, "to propose a law" (of the legislator), béolai vóμov, "to pass a law," it having been proposed (of the people); o els Tηv oikiav, "the mortgager," who raises money on his house, ó léμevos τηv oikiav, "the mortgagee," who lends the money, and receives the house as a security; (similarly vπоτíonμı, “I pledge” or "pawn," vπотíbeμai, "I lend money on a pledge” (úπоðýêη); but conversely ἐνεχυράζω, “I take a pledge,” ἐνεχυράζομαι, “ Ι receive a pledge"); podów, "to let out," poloûolai, “to get let out," i.e. "to hire;" πepididóval, "to give all round," but πepidiδοσθαι, “ to wager;” τίειν, τιννύειν, “to pay,” τίνεσθαι, “to exact payment;" xpâv, "to lend," also "to consult an oracle," Xpĥobai, "to borrow," also (of the god) "to return an oracular response."

(cc) The causative middle not unfrequently amounts to an expression of mutuality. Thus (Xen. Anab. III. 1, § 5), Socrates recommends Xenophon ἐλθόντα εἰς Δελφοὺς ἀνακοινώσαι τῷ θεῷ περὶ τῆς πορείας, " to go to Delphi and consult the god about the journey;" but he had previously said, ó Eevopþŵv ȧvakoivoûtaι Σωκράτει περὶ τῆς πορείας, “Χenophon confers with Socrates about the journey," because they talked it over together. This is particularly observable in such verbs as diaλéyeolai, "to talk with one another;" diaλveolai, "to make it up with one another" (also καταλύεσθαι); κοινολογεῖσθαι, “to commune together; véμeolaι, "to divide it among themselves;" and the opposite notions are implied in διατείνεσθαι, “ to strive together;” διαφέpeolau, "to quarrel;" Xoidopeîobal, "to abuse one another;" piλoriμeîolai, "to vie with one another."

(cc) The causative sense of the middle may appear even in the case of verbs which have another and regular employment of this voice. Thus although xaliçew is used intransitively, xaíLeola regularly means "I seat myself or am seated." But we have it said of an arbitration (Demosth. p. 897, 1. 4): ěva ékáteρos παρεκαθίσατο, “ each of the parties caused one arbiter to sit beside the main referee as his representative."

(c) Deponent Verbs.

433 A deponent verb is one which, though exclusively passive or middle in its inflexions, has so entirely deponed or laid aside its original meaning, that it is used in all respects like a transitive or neuter verb of the active form. Some of the verbs which have been already discussed as belonging to the middle voice, are virtually deponent in meaning (especially those which are mentioned 432, (2), (bb) and (cc)). But in these cases the coexistence of the active form leads to a recognition of the proper middle force of the verb; and we cannot give the name of deponent to any verb which is ever active in form or passive in usage.

The proper classification of deponent verbs is according to the usages of the middle in which they respectively originated.

(aa) The following were originally reflexive: àλâôμai, “I make myself to roam" (cf. vagor, palor); Súvapai, "I make myself good (Súvos = duonus, bonus), I am strong enough, able, equal;"

yoûμaι, “I make myself go before, I take the lead;" yiyvopai, "I bring myself into being, I come forth, exhibit myself in a certain way” (as γίγνομαι ἀγαθὸς ἀνήρ); ἔρχομαι, “I make myself go in a straight line;" invoûμaι, "I make myself come, I bring myself;” μιμούμαι, “I make myself like;” φείδομαι, "I restrain or deny myself" (like aπéxoμai); so also the verbs expressing a corporeal act, as äλλopal, "I jump myself;" opxoûμai, "I make myself dance."

(bb) The following are appropriative: ȧpiσтоπоιοûμaι, “I take my dinner;" ȧκpāτiçoμai, “I breakfast," i. e. dip bread for myself in pure wine; avλíçoμai, "I encamp or bivouac," i. e. make an αὐλή or temporary shelter for myself, ξυλίζομαι, “I gather wood for myself" (lignor); with the more general words doπáCopal, "I draw to myself," i. e. I embrace; xтáoμaι, "I acquire;" ἐπασάμην, “ I have got;” ἐπασάμην (πατοῦμαι), “ I have eaten ;” μηχανώμαι, “ I contrive or provide for myself;” ὠνοῦμαι ἐπριάμn), "I buy for myself," and the like.

(b) The following express a mental act: aio@ávoμaι, "I perceive,” with the special verbs ἀκροῶμαι, “I hear,” ὀσφραίνομαι, “Ι smell,” θεώμαι, “ I see,” &c.; λογίζομαι, “ I reckon up;” διανοοῦμαι, “I think over something” (διὰ τοῦ ἔχω); ἐνθυμοῦμαι, “I think deeply of something” (ἐν θυμῷ ἔχω); τεκμαίρομαι, " I set up an end or boundary (Téxμap) for myself," "I decree, design, conclude or judge." Similarly aidoûpat, "I feel shame or pity" (aidws); wdvσáμny, "I was wroth" (cf. odi), and the like.


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(b) The following imply that the cause of the action is appropriated to the subject: épyáloμai, "I work out;" ȧкoûμaι, "I effect a cure" (similarly ipai); Swpoûμai, "I make a present ἰώμαι); δωροῦμαι, (Swp is of very rare occurrence); vπioxvоûμaι, "I make a promise;" xapicopal, "I bestow a free gift or confer a favour;" and perhaps novμai, "I cause a damage" (cf. deleo). To this sense rather than to the causative middle we may attribute such deponents as airi@pai, "I charge;" aπокpivoμai, "I make answer from myself” (cf. ἀπολογοῦμαι, ἀπαμείβομαι); ἰσχυρίζομαι, διϊσχυ picopa, "I maintain obstinately;" apvoûμaι, "I deny;" with many verbs expressing the utterance of the voice, as péyyoμai, βρυχώμαι, μυθοῦμαι, εὔχομαι, ἀρῶμαι, λίσσομαι, παῤῥησιάζομai, &c.

(cc) The following are causative: μαρτύρομαι, ἐπιμαρτύρομαι, "I call as a witness;" déxopal, "I cause to give," i.e. I receive (it implies an original déxw or Séxw, "I hold out the hand," cf. δείκνυμι); ἔρομαι, “ I ask,” i.e. cause to speak; ἱλάσκομαι, “Ι propitiate," i.e. make iλaós; and the like. The sense of mutuality is given by such verbs as páxoμat, "I fight;" ȧywviçoμai, “I contend;" μéppoμai, "I find fault;" poppai, "I blame," &c.

List of Middle or Deponent Verbs with peculiar significations.

434 The following list of verbs with passive inflexions contains those, which, in certain passages, exhibit a peculiarity of usage or signification:

"ATOMAI means especially "I carry off with myself,” “I take away to my house," in speaking of marriage, as in Hesiod, Theog. 508: ἠγάγετο Κλυμένην καὶ ὁμὸν λέχος εἰσανέβαινεν. But in this sense ayew is also used, as in Eschyl. Prom. 557. And both voices occur in the same passage, Soph. Phil. 1018: kaì vûv tí μ' ἄγετε; τί μ' ἀπάγεσθε; τοῦ χάριν ;

AIPOTMAI, in the middle, generally means "I take to myself, I choose, I elect;" but in Homer it signifies "I take something belonging to me,” as Π. Χ. 31: δόρυ δ' εἵλετο χειρὶ Taxein, "he took his own spear;" hence, "I appropriate or take for my own enjoyment," as Il. XVI. 381: Sǹ TÓTe koiμýσavto kai ÚπVOV Sŵρov XovTO; hence it means any kind of appropriation, as in Od. XXIII. 368:

ὦρσε δὲ Τηλέμαχον καὶ βούκολον ἠδὲ συβώτην, πάντας δ ̓ ἔντε ̓ ἄνωγεν 'Αρηΐα χερσὶν ἑλέσθαι, where the order is merely that they should take arms to themselves respectively.

̓ΑΝΘΟΜΟΛΟΓΟΥΜΑΙ, “I exact a formal acknowledgment of a debt, or a promise to pay it," is rather an unusual example of the causative sense of the middle of ópoλoy, "I promise to do a thing" (Plat. Sympos. 174 A; Phædr. 254 B), especially in its construction with πpós c. accus. of the debtor, and the accusative of the debt: Dem. c. Apatur. 894, 26: τὰς τρεῖς, ἃς προειλήφει οὗτος παρ ̓ ἐκείνου, ἀνθομολογησάμενος πρὸς τοῦτον, “ having exacted an acknowledgment (got a promissory note) from Apaturius for the

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