« PreviousContinue »
given above; as Plat. Phaedr. p. 234 Β: τὴν αὑτῶν ἀρετὴν ἐπιδείξονται, “ they will exhibit their own excellence;” Demosth. 788, 17: τῆς ἑαυτοῦ πονηρίας ἐπίδειξιν ποιούμενος, " making an exhibition of his own wickedness."
ΕΠΙΔΙΑΤΙΘΕΜΑΙ is used in the special sense “I make a deposit of a stake or pledge" as a guarantee for the performance of a certain engagement. Harpocr. s. v.: ἐπιδιατίθεσθαί ἐστι τὸ συνθήκας τινὰς ποιεῖσθαι κατατιθέμενός τι ῥητὸν ἀργύριον παρά τινι τῶν μεταξὺ γενομένων. Demosth. c. Apatur. 896, 22: ἐπιδιαθέμενος ἀργύριον ἐὰν μὴ ὀμόσῃ, “ having staked some money to be forfeited in case he should not take the oath;” Jul. Poll. ix. 96 (of gamblers): μνᾶν αὐτῶν ἐπιδιατεθειμένων ἑκάστῳ κύβῳ.
ΕΠΙΣΚΗΠΤΟΜΑΙ, “I cause an indictment (ἐπίσκηψις), especially for false witness or murder,-" to be heard in court," is properly used in the middle, like γράφομαι, δικάζομαι, and other forensic terms; thus Æschines, c. Tim. 18, 27: ψευδομαρτυριῶν ἐπισκήψασθαι ; Plat. Euthyphr. 9 A: ἐπισκήπτεσθαι φόνου τὸν υἱὸν τῷ πατέρι; Legg. ΧΙ. 937 Β: οὐδενὶ τῶν ψευδομαρτύρων ἐπεσκημ μένος. But it may be used in the active without reference to an actual hearing in court, when we imply that the veracity of an individual is challenged, and that too in a passage where σκήπτομαι is used in the sense “I pretend or allege,” as in Plat. Theætet. 145 ε: ἀλλὰ μὴ ἀναδύου τὰ ὡμολογημένα σκηπτόμενος παίζοντα λέγειν τόνδε, ἵνα μὴ καὶ ἀναγκασθῇ μαρτυρεῖν· πάντως γὰρ οὐδεὶς ἐπισκήψει αὐτῇ, " but do not retract what you have promised, on the pretence that he spoke in jest, lest he should be compelled also to put in formal testimony: for assuredly no one will challenge his veracity.” In the passive ἐπισκήπτομαι may mean “I am solemnly charged,” i. e. with murder; as in Soph. Αntig. 1313: ὡς αἰτίαν ἔχων τῶνδε κἀκείνων ἐπεσκήπτου μόρων.
ΕΥΡΙΣΚΟΜΑΙ, “I procure or obtain for myself," bears a sense more nearly approaching that of the form ἐπ-αυρίσκομαι, “Ι derive advantage from,” ἀπαυράω, “I receive or get,” than its active εὑρίσκω, “ I find, discover, or invent.”
ΘΗΡΩΜΑΙ, as distinguished from θηρῶ, means “I pursue eagerly for myself," especially in a metaphorical sense, as in Soph, Ajax, 2: πεῖράν τιν' ἐχθρῶν ἁρπάσαι θηρώμενος, " endeavouring to get some means of attacking your enemies." But Onpw bears
sometimes a scarcely distinguishable signification, and Onpáow, Onpáσoμai are equivalent forms of the future.
OTOMAI, "I sacrifice with a special object," e. g. to draw an inference from the appearance of the viscera; as Herod. Ix. 62: ἐγένετο θυομένοισι τὰ σφάγια χρηστά. Hence it means “I take the auspices," and may be followed by an infinitive, as Xen. Anab. II. 2, § 3 : θυομένῳ ἰέναι ἐπὶ βασιλέα οὐκ ἐγένετο τὰ ἱερά, “ when he was consulting the auspices about going to the king, the sacrifices did not allow it."
KAAOTMAI, "I call a person to me," as Hom. Il. III. 161: Πρίαμος δ ̓ Ἑλένην ἐκαλέσσατο φωνῇ. Also to " call down upon a person,” as Soph. d. C. 1385: ἀράς, ἅς σοι καλοῦμαι; cf. ἀρῶμαι, εὔχομαι, which are always in the middle form.
KAMNOMAI, “I labour for myself, I effect by my labours;" as Hom. Od. IX. 130: οἵ κέ σφιν καὶ νῆσον ἐϋκτιμένην ἐκάμοντο, "who might make the island well-peopled."
KOAAZOMAI, "I punish, correct, or discipline for my own. purposes or interest," stands in marked contrast to the active Koλaw, which, though it generally has a future of the middle form, is used regularly to denote a chastisement by which the offender is corrected and made better, as distinguished from Tμwpeîolai and δίκην λαμβάνειν, which refer to the vengeance and satisfaction of the injured party. (See Xen. Cyrop. 11. 2, § 7; Arist. Rhet. 1. 10, § 17; Wyttenbach, ad Select. Histor. p. 372). This use of the middle form is comparatively rare, because it is generally superseded by τiμwρоûμaι, and the following are perhaps nearly all the passages in which it occurs; Thucyd. III. 40: Tаρà тò eiκòs Kai τούσδε ξυμφόρως δεῖ κολάζεσθαι, where the turn of the sentence and the adverb şuμpópos show that the Athenians are supposed to consult their interest in the punishment of the Mytilenæans; but lower down in the same chapter we find: κολάσατε ἀξίως τούτους καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ξυμμάχοις παράδειγμα σαφὲς καταστήσατε, because the chastisement of the Mytilenæans is in this case regarded rather as an exemplary castigation for the warning and benefit of the other allies. Id. vi. 78: τὴν τοῦ Συρακοσίου ἔχθραν κολάσασθαι, where there is an expression of vengeance for enmity. Aristoph. Vesp. 405: νῦν ἐκεῖνο, νῦν ἐκεῖνο τοὐξύθυμον ᾧ κολαζόμεσθα κέντρον ἐντέTar' oğú, "now thrust out the sharp sting, that choleric weapon
τὴν ἄλλην οὐσίαν πλὴν ὧν ἐμεμίσθωτο οὑτοσί, because the obligation to divide, under the will, stands in a certain opposition to the act of division, which the executors performed with the same amount of care and interest as if they had divided the property among themselves; so that the distinction, between véμw in the one case and véμopal in the other, is much the same as that between the active véμe and the middle dieσTоixieтo in the passage from Eschylus. Afterwards we have (947, 1. 13): éveíμaтo ovтos πρÒS Tòv ådeλþóv, of one of the parties immediately interested.
ПIРOIEMAI, "I part with or spend my money," &c. (Thucyd. II. 43; Lys. 162, 35; Demosth. Dionysod. 1297, 14; Æsch. c. Ctesiph. 78), is so regularly used in this sense, that Demosthenes employs the periphrastic form of the pluperfect passive in the same signification without any accusative of the object, pro Phormione, p. 946, 8: εἵλετο μᾶλλον αὐτὸν τὸν Πασίωνα χρήστην ἔχειν τούτων τῶν χρημάτων ἢ τοὺς ἄλλους χρήστας οἷς προειμένος ἦν, “ he preferred to have Pasion himself as his debtor for these sums than the other debtors to whom he had lent them."
ПIPOXIEMAI, "I admit to myself," not only bears the sense "I approve,” as in Plat. Phæd. p. 97 в: Toûtov tòv тpótov ovdaμñ πроσieμaι, "I do not at all admit or approve of this method; but is even used in the third person to signify "it approves itself to me," as in Aristoph. Equit. 359: tà μèv äλλa'μ' ñpeσas λéywv, ἓν δ ̓ οὐ προσίεταί με, “ in the rest of what you said you pleased me, but one point does not approve itself to my judgment or taste."
ΣIENAOMAI, "I pour forth libations with a special object," i. e. "I make a treaty."
ПIРOΣТРEПOMAI, "I turn myself towards," has the special meaning "I go as a suppliant," especially for purification from homicide; whence the name pоσтρóжаιos. Thus Æsch. Eumen. 196: καὶ προστραπέσθαι τούσδ ̓ ἐπέστελλον δόμους, “I bad him apply for purification at this temple." Whence it seems probable that προστετραμμένος πρὸς ἄλλοισιν οἴκοις (Eumen. 229), “ having applied for and received supplication at another temple," is the true reading instead of πроσтетρμμévos (New Cratylus, § 218).
ПIPOΣTPIBOMAI, "I cause to be rubbed in" or "I rub in diligently," is applied idiomatically to express any act which