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τὴν ἄλλην οὐσίαν πλὴν ὧν ἐμεμίσθωτο οὑτοσί, because the obligation to divide, under the will, stands in a certain opposition to the act of division, which the executors performed with the same amount of care and interest as if they had divided the property among themselves; so that the distinction, between véμw in the one case and véμopal in the other, is much the same as that between the active véμe and the middle dieσTоixieтo in the passage from Eschylus. Afterwards we have (947, 1. 13): éveíμaтo ovтos πρÒS Tòv ådeλþóv, of one of the parties immediately interested.

ПIРOIEMAI, "I part with or spend my money," &c. (Thucyd. II. 43; Lys. 162, 35; Demosth. Dionysod. 1297, 14; Æsch. c. Ctesiph. 78), is so regularly used in this sense, that Demosthenes employs the periphrastic form of the pluperfect passive in the same signification without any accusative of the object, pro Phormione, p. 946, 8: εἵλετο μᾶλλον αὐτὸν τὸν Πασίωνα χρήστην ἔχειν τούτων τῶν χρημάτων ἢ τοὺς ἄλλους χρήστας οἷς προειμένος ἦν, “ he preferred to have Pasion himself as his debtor for these sums than the other debtors to whom he had lent them."


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ПIPOXIEMAI, "I admit to myself," not only bears the sense "I approve,” as in Plat. Phæd. p. 97 в: Toûtov tòv тpótov ovdaμñ πроσieμaι, "I do not at all admit or approve of this method; but is even used in the third person to signify "it approves itself to me," as in Aristoph. Equit. 359: tà μèv äλλa'μ' ñpeσas λéywv, ἓν δ ̓ οὐ προσίεταί με, “ in the rest of what you said you pleased me, but one point does not approve itself to my judgment or taste."



ΣIENAOMAI, "I pour forth libations with a special object," i. e. "I make a treaty."

ПIРOΣТРEПOMAI, "I turn myself towards," has the special meaning "I go as a suppliant," especially for purification from homicide; whence the name pоσтρóжаιos. Thus Æsch. Eumen. 196: καὶ προστραπέσθαι τούσδ ̓ ἐπέστελλον δόμους, “I bad him apply for purification at this temple." Whence it seems probable that προστετραμμένος πρὸς ἄλλοισιν οἴκοις (Eumen. 229), “ having applied for and received supplication at another temple," is the true reading instead of πроσтетρμμévos (New Cratylus, § 218).

ПIPOΣTPIBOMAI, "I cause to be rubbed in" or "I rub in diligently," is applied idiomatically to express any act which

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It takes an accusative of the wrong avenged, and of the person punished, as well as the accusative of Sin, "the satisfaction or penalty." Thus Hom. Odyss. XXIV. 326: λßηy Tivúμevos kaì κακὰ ἔργα; Οd. xv. 236: ἐτίσατο ἔργον ἀεικὲς ἀντίθεον Νηλῆα; Eurip. Οrest. 323 : αἵματος τινύμεναι δίκην.

TРEIOMAI is used both as the reflexive middle, "I turn myself or take to flight," Herod. VIII. 91: Tŵv Bapßápwv és þvyηv τρaπoμévwv; and as the causative middle, "I turn another to flight, I rout him," Eurip. Heracl. 842: éтpe↓áμeσľ' 'Apyeîov ἐς φυγὴν δόρυ.

TПOAEIПOMAI, "I cause to be left for myself, I retain or preserve,” Herod. iv. 121: οἱ Σκύθαι ὅσα σφι ἐς φορβὴν ἱκανα ἦν τοσαῦτα ὑπολιπόμενοι, τὰ ἄλλα τῇσι ἁμάξῃσι προέπεμψαν. Dem. de Coron. 301, 23: væreλeíTTETO (some read úπéλeɩπe) yàp αὐτῶν ἕκαστος ἑαυτῷ ἅμα μὲν ῥᾳστώνην, κ. τ. λ.

OPAZOMAI, “I speak or confer with myself, I consider or devise, I provide beforehand," whence, even in the form of a perfect passive, we have Soph. Antig. 364: vóowv þvyàs oVμTÉÓρAOTAI.

ΧΕΙΡΟΥΜΑΙ, "I subdue for myself,” like δουλοῦμαι; as in Herod. Ι. 211 : έχειρώσαντο τοὺς ἐναντίους.

XEOMAI, "I pour out for myself, i. e. libations," is used like Ovoμai, evxoμai, &c., to express the special interest of the worshipper. We find both voices in Soph. Ed. Col. 478, 9: xoàs Xéaodai στάντα πρὸς πρώτην ἕω—ἢ τοῖσδε κρώσσοις οἷς λέγεις χέω τάδε; In the former the act of worship is distinctly implied, in the latter the reference is to the effusion itself and its instrument: cf. σπévdw, σπένδομαι.

§ VI. B. Secondary Predicates. (a) Adverbs.

435 (a) The name of the adverb (148) implies that it is intimately connected with some verb, which contains a primary predication; and it may be said, that all secondary predications are adverbial words and sentences (383). In stating, however, that the adverb, in accordance with its name, is a secondary predicate intimately connected with some verb, we must bear in mind that the verb, on which the adverb depends, may be itself in some form, which subordinates it to another verb, or the adverb may be

attached to some predicable word. Thus we may say not only ev παρασκευάζεται, but εὖ παρεσκευασμένος, where the verb contains a primary predicate, but the participle is in itself adverbial; and we may not only say τῶν ὁμοίων σωμάτων οἱ αὐτοὶ πόνοι οὐχ ὁμοίως ἅπτονται ἄρχοντός τε ἀνδρὸς καὶ ἰδιώτου Xen. Cyr. I. 6, § 25), where the adverb óμoíws is intimately connected with the verb aπтоvтαι, but we may use the same adverb as qualifying an adjective only; thus (Herod. I. 52): Tò EUσTÒV Tŷσi Xorxnoi oμoiws Xpúocov. To this distinction Cicero refers in the following passage (de Fin. IV. 27, § 75): "ut in fidibus pluribus, si nulla earum ita contenta numeris sit, ut concentum servare possit, omnes æque incontentæ sint: sic peccata, quia discrepant, æque discrepant; paria sunt igitur. Hic ambiguo ludimur: æque enim contingit omnibus fidibus, ut incontentæ sint: illud non continuo, ut æque incontentæ." For in the former case the adverb belongs to the verb containing the primary predicate; thus, ai xopdaì óμoíws μμeλovσ; in the latter it belongs to the predicated adjective, αἱ χορδαί εἰσιν ὁμοίως ἀσύμφωνοι.


(b) These considerations will enable the student to see that grammarians (for instance Matthiä, § 309; Rost, p. 464) are in error when they state that the adverb can take the place of the adjective as a primary predicate. In all cases where this seems to occur the adverb in its proper sense qualifies some verb predicating in itself the existence or nature of the subject. The adverbs used in this way are almost always secondary predicates of time, place, quantity or manner, and the verb is always capable of predicating substance. Thus we have Il. VI. 130: οὐδὲ γὰρ Λυκόοργος δὴν ἦν, "for neither did Lycurgus exist a long time." Ibid. 1. 416: ἐπεί νύ τοι αἶσα μίνυνθά περ οὔτι μάλα δήν, “ since it is your fate [to live] a short and not at all a long life." Xen. Anab. 1. 8, § 8 őte dè ¿yyútepov éyiyvovтo, "when they came (i. e. were come into a position) nearer." Similarly, Id. Cyr. Iv. 1, §18: xwpis yevóμevoi, having gone apart.” Thucyd. iv. 61 : οὐ γὰρ τοῖς ἔθνεσι, ὅτι δίχα πέφυκε, τοῦ ἑτέρου ἔχθει ἐπίασιν, " for they do not invade nations, because their origin is different (because they have been born in different places), through hatred of one of our races" (i.e. the Dorian). Eurip. Iph. T. 1014: äλis tò keívns aiμa, “the blood of her (Clytemnestra) has been shed so as to satisfy all demands" (unless as is really a substantive, like the Latin satis). Id. Hec.


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