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536: σîya πâs ¤στw λews, “let all the people exist silently, i.e. be in a state of silence.” I. VII. 424: διαγνώναι χαλεπῶς ἦν ἄνδρα eKaσTOV, "it was hardly possible (it was allowed or possible with difficulty) to distinguish each man." Ibid. IX. 551: Kovρýτeσσi Kaks v, "it went badly with the Curetes." Xen. Anab. IV. 3, § 24: ἐπεὶ τὰ πέραν ἑώρα καλῶς γιγνόμενα, “when he saw the matters on the other side of the river going on, turning out, well." Isocr. Paneg. § 5: ὥστ ̓ ἤδη μάτην εἶναι τὸ μεμνῆσθαι περὶ τούτων, "so that already it is in vain (i. e. it exists in vain, it comes to pass fruitlessly) to remember these things.”

(c) We have seen above (259), that adverbs, etymologically considered, are cases of nouns, pronouns or adjectives, which express the time, place, cause, form or manner of an action. The only difference, therefore, between the adverbs and other secondary predicates consists in this, that while the adverbs signify general affections, the cases of nouns predicate specially some secondary relation. Thus we may say, specially,

or generally,

ἐπεδήμει τῇ Σπάρτῃ οι ἐν Λακεδαίμονι,

ἐπεδήμει ἐκεῖ.

And we may say, with reference to a person's general state, exel Kaλws, bene se habet, "he is well," or we may append a particular reference, ἔχει καλῶς τὸ σῶμα οι τοῦ σώματος, bene se habet quoad corpus, "he is well in his body." In fact, the use of a verb with an adverb, as well as with a case, is a degree less definite than the employment of two cases with the verb. Thus, if we say, πатáσσei páßow, "he strikes, and a stick is the instrument," we add one particular; if we say, mатáσσe iσxvpws, "he strikes, and his manner of striking is violent," we add another particular: but we may say, πατάσσει ἰσχυρῶς ῥάβδῳ, “he strikes violently with a stick;" and we may add to this an accusative case expressing the object, πατάσσει ἰσχυρῶς ῥάβδῳ τὸν ὄνον: we have then three adjuncts to the primary predication, "he is striking," and besides "the manner is violent, the stick is the instrument, the ass is the object of his striking."

436 The conditional proposition, which is a relative sentence with an indefinite antecedent, is of an adverbial nature. For it is

an equally adverbial predication to say generally, "I will go to London conditionally," and to say more distinctly, "I will go to London if you will accompany me," i. e. conditionally on your accompanying me.

437 The causal sentence, which is often expressed by the absolute use of the participle, may be contained in the simple adverb; thus in Thucyd. 1. 39, ad fin.: ¿yêλŋμátwv póvwv åμeTóxws means "you being free from their inculpation alone," aueτόχων ὄντων ὑμῶν. And in the same author, IV. 20, § 3 : πολεμοῦνται ἀσαφῶς ὁποτέρων ἀρξάντων, “they are involved in war, without knowing who began it,” ἄδηλον ἂν ὁπότεροι ἦρξαν.

438 The illative sentence may be expressed by a mere adverb; thus (Thucyd. I. 21, § 1): τὰ πολλὰ ὑπὸ χρόνου αὐτῶν ἀπίστως ἐπὶ τὸ μυθῶδες ἐκνενικηκότα, “ most of these old stories having won their way to fabulousness, so as to lose all credit." So also in the same writer, VI. 58: ἀδήλως τῇ ὄψει πλασάμενος πρὸς τὴν ξυμ popáv, "having dissembled in his countenance with reference to the calamity, so as not to betray his feelings or disclose what had happened."

439 Parallel adverbs are sometimes used to express a tertiary by the side of a secondary predication; thus in Thucyd. 11. 64, § 2: φέρειν τε χρὴ τά τε δαιμόνια αναγκαίως τά τε ἀπὸ τῶν πολεμίων avopeíws, "one must bear what the gods inflict as necessary things, i.e. because they are unavoidable, and face the assaults of enemies courageously, i.e. after the manner of brave men," where avaykaiws amounts to a tertiary predication of the object, and avopeíws is a secondary predication referring to the subject.

§ VII. Secondary Predicates. (b) Cases of Nouns.

440 As the Greek language is in an etymological, as well as in a syntactical state, it expresses the relations of case, both by inflexions, and by an apposition of those inflexions to certain pronominal adverbs called prepositions. The preposition, as an adverb, belongs to the first class of secondary predicates; but as the special meanings of the prepositions depend on the cases with which they are used, we must consider, in the first instance, the syntax of the cases themselves.

(a) The Nominative.

441 We have seen that the nominative regularly designates the subject, and that it is predicated directly through certain verbs, which serve as copula. As the nominative cannot represent the object of the verb, it is clear that the words, capable of employment as secondary predicates in the nominative, are those which are adapted for the expression of the adverbial relations of time, place, manner, degree, &c. These are, in the first place, participles as temporal predicates; next, adjectives and pronouns as predicates of place and manner; and finally, those substantives which are by their nature categorical. In general, those words which appear as tertiary predicates in the oblique cases are best suited for secondary predication in the nominative.

442 The following examples will explain this usage:

(a) Participles are used as secondary predicates of time, or as equivalent to a temporal sentence.

Thus we have yeλáoas novxî eon (Plat. Phæd. 101 в), “he laughed gently and said," i.e. at the same time; Öтe ev aywv αὐτῷ τὰ παρὰ τῶν συμμάχων δώρα (Xen. Econ. 4, § 20), which Cicero renders (Cato, 17, § 59): quum venisset ad eum eique dona a sociis attulisset. We should say indifferently, "he came and brought," i.e. at the same time, or "he brought with him."

There are cases in which some caution is required, lest we should miss this adverbial sense of the participle. For instance, the punctuation of the ordinary editions leads students to mistranslate Thucyd. 1. 39, init.: xaì paoì dǹ díky πpótepov ¿Deλîjσai κρίνεσθαι, ἥν γε οὐ τὸν προὔχοντα καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ἀσφαλοῦς προκαλούμενον λέγειν τι δοκεῖν δεῖ, ἀλλὰ τὸν ἐς ἴσον τά τε ἔργα καὶ τοὺς λόγους πρὶν διαγωνίζεσθαι καθίσταντα, where we must observe that τόν belongs to προκαλούμενον, and that προύχοντα, “ when he has the advantage," is quite as adverbial, or quite as much a secondary predicate of time, as ek тоû ảσpaλoûs, "from a safe position," "when he is in safety." Compare the parallel sentiment in III. 82, § 6, where we have ei πрoxolev, i. e. "as often as (whenever) those who made the proposal had the advantage." And even when there is no article to confuse the meaning, the student is apt to lose the predicative force of the participle because it agrees in case with the object of the verb; thus in Esch. Agam. 372-4:

οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἔπαλξις πλούτου, πρὸς κόρον ἀνδρὶ λακτίσαντι μέγαν Δίκας βωμόν, εἰς ἀφάνειαν, “ when a man has wantonly spurned the mighty altar of justice, wealth furnishes no bulwark against destruction." Sometimes the participle appears by the side of an adjective in these secondary predications, as in Thucyd. IV. 130, § 3: ὁ δῆμος ἀναλαβὼν τὰ ὅπλα περιοργὴς ἐχώρει ἐπὶ τοὺς Πελοποννησlovs, “the people, having snatched up the arms, rushed, in great wrath, on the Peloponnesians." Sometimes two participles, both as secondary predicates of time, may appear together to indicate consecutive events, as in Thucyd. I. 75, § 2: Kal TiVwv Kaì nồŋ ἀποστάντων κατεστραμμένων, “ and as some had revolted and were reduced (permanently) to a subject state" (cf. Id. 1. 50, § 4), or even to express the contemporary state, as II. 5, § 2: Tŵv μèv διεφθαρμένων, τῶν δὲ ζώντων ἐχομένων, “ some having been killed, and others being detained alive." And a participle may be accompanied by two other secondary predicates, one in the form of an adjective, the other in that of a regular adverb, as in Thucyd. IV. 61, ad fin.: οἵ τ ̓ ἐπίκλητοι, εὐπρεπῶς ἄδικοι ἐλθόντες, εὐλόγως аπρактоι άπíασ, "and those who have been called in, as they came with fair pretences and dishonest thoughts, shall go back again with fair reasons and disappointed hopes."

(b) Adjectives are used as secondary predicates of place, time, manner, cause, extent, &c.

(aa) We have secondary predicates both of place and manner in Soph. Aj. 594 sqq.:

ὦ κλεινὰ Σαλαμίς, σὺ μέν που

ναίεις ἁλιπλαγκτὸς εὐδαίμων
πᾶσιν περίφαντος αἰεί,

where kλeivá is the epithet, and aȧλλaуктós the local predicate, whereas evdaípov and Teρípavтos are predicates of manner: "thou, O glorious Salamis, dwellest in the midst of the breakers ever happy and glorious." These predicates of manner are often best rendered by a primary predicate; as "thou art happy and glorious, where thou dwellest." Thucyd. III. 56: éπéρxeode dewoí, “you are formidable when you attack." And this must be the case when the secondary predicate of manner appears twice in the same sentence; as in Thucyd. II. 98, ad fin.: ó dè annos oμinos ξύμμικτος πλήθει φοβερώτατος ἠκολούθει, “ the rest of the crowd

which followed was a mixed multitude, and exceedingly formidable from its numbers." Adjectives denoting time are regularly used as secondary predicates; thus Hom. Il. 1. 423: xogos eßn, “he went away yesterday;" Herod. vI. 120: тpiтaîοi éyévovтo, “they arrived on the third day;" Plat. Resp. 614 в: ávaιpedévтwv dekaταίων τῶν νεκρῶν ἤδη διεφθαρμένων, “ the dead bodies having been taken up ten days afterwards, when they were already decayed." The local predicate will often be best rendered by an adverbial phrase, as in Arist. Metaph. 1. 3, p. 983 a, 28: ȧváyetai yàp tÒ διὰ τί εἰς τὸν λόγον ἔσχατον, αἴτιον δὲ καὶ ἀρχὴ τὸ διὰ τί πρῶτον, "the wherefore is introduced last into the definition, but the wherefore, as being the first, is the cause and the first principle." The local predicate is very common in poetry, as Soph. Ant. 784: φοιτᾶς ὑπερπόντιος. d. C. 119: ἐκτόπιος συθείς. Ed. Τ. 1411: θαλάσσιον ἐκρίψατε. Ibid. 32: ἑζόμεσθ' ἐφέστιοι. Eurip. Andr. 516: ἴθ ̓ ὑποχθόνιοι. Ibid. 357: Bópio TíтVOVтES. Ibid. 266: Kálno' édpaía, where we use the noun with its preposition: "over the main," "out of the way," "into the sea," "at the hearth," "under the ground," "at the altar," "on the seat."


(bb) Sometimes this predicate expresses the cause of the main predication; as in Soph. Antig. 941: Ceúxon ¿úxoxos mais ó Δρύαντος, Apúavros, "he was bound, because he was so keen in his wrath." Id. Trach. 936:

κἀνταῦθ ̓ ὁ παῖς δύστηνος οὔτ ̓ ὀδυρμάτων

ἐλείπετ ̓ οὐδέν, κ.τ.λ.

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"the boy, like a miserable creature as he was,' or "for he was a miserable creature." When the Greeks wish to express very strongly this mixture of the manner and cause, they add the mere adverb to the adjective; thus,

ἦ κακὸς κακῶς ταφήσει νυκτὸς οὐκ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ

(Eurip. Troad. 448), "since you are a base wretch, you shall be buried in a base manner."

ἄγ ̓ ὦ θύγατερ ὅπως τὸ κανοῦν καλὴ καλῶς οἴσεις
(Aristoph. Ach. 253),

"as you are a pretty lass, bear the basket prettily."

Obs. The Latin writers imitate this idiom; thus Virgil, En. v. 447 :

Ipse gravis, graviterque ad terram pondere vasto


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