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οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἔπαλξις πλούτου, πρὸς κόρον ἀνδρὶ λακτίσαντι μέγαν Δίκας βωμόν, εἰς ἀφάνειαν, “ when a man has wantonly spurned the mighty altar of justice, wealth furnishes no bulwark against destruction." Sometimes the participle appears by the side of an adjective in these secondary predications, as in Thucyd. IV. 130, § 3: ὁ δῆμος ἀναλαβὼν τὰ ὅπλα περιοργὴς ἐχώρει ἐπὶ τοὺς Πελοποννησlovs, “the people, having snatched up the arms, rushed, in great wrath, on the Peloponnesians." Sometimes two participles, both as secondary predicates of time, may appear together to indicate consecutive events, as in Thucyd. I. 75, § 2: Kal TiVwv Kaì nồŋ ἀποστάντων κατεστραμμένων, “ and as some had revolted and were reduced (permanently) to a subject state" (cf. Id. 1. 50, § 4), or even to express the contemporary state, as II. 5, § 2: Tŵv μèv διεφθαρμένων, τῶν δὲ ζώντων ἐχομένων, “ some having been killed, and others being detained alive." And a participle may be accompanied by two other secondary predicates, one in the form of an adjective, the other in that of a regular adverb, as in Thucyd. IV. 61, ad fin.: οἵ τ ̓ ἐπίκλητοι, εὐπρεπῶς ἄδικοι ἐλθόντες, εὐλόγως аπρактоι άπíασ, "and those who have been called in, as they came with fair pretences and dishonest thoughts, shall go back again with fair reasons and disappointed hopes."
(b) Adjectives are used as secondary predicates of place, time, manner, cause, extent, &c.
(aa) We have secondary predicates both of place and manner in Soph. Aj. 594 sqq.:
ὦ κλεινὰ Σαλαμίς, σὺ μέν που
ναίεις ἁλιπλαγκτὸς εὐδαίμων
where kλeivá is the epithet, and aȧλλaуктós the local predicate, whereas evdaípov and Teρípavтos are predicates of manner: "thou, O glorious Salamis, dwellest in the midst of the breakers ever happy and glorious." These predicates of manner are often best rendered by a primary predicate; as "thou art happy and glorious, where thou dwellest." Thucyd. III. 56: éπéρxeode dewoí, “you are formidable when you attack." And this must be the case when the secondary predicate of manner appears twice in the same sentence; as in Thucyd. II. 98, ad fin.: ó dè annos oμinos ξύμμικτος πλήθει φοβερώτατος ἠκολούθει, “ the rest of the crowd
which followed was a mixed multitude, and exceedingly formidable from its numbers." Adjectives denoting time are regularly used as secondary predicates; thus Hom. Il. 1. 423: xogos eßn, “he went away yesterday;" Herod. vI. 120: тpiтaîοi éyévovтo, “they arrived on the third day;" Plat. Resp. 614 в: ávaιpedévтwv dekaταίων τῶν νεκρῶν ἤδη διεφθαρμένων, “ the dead bodies having been taken up ten days afterwards, when they were already decayed." The local predicate will often be best rendered by an adverbial phrase, as in Arist. Metaph. 1. 3, p. 983 a, 28: ȧváyetai yàp tÒ διὰ τί εἰς τὸν λόγον ἔσχατον, αἴτιον δὲ καὶ ἀρχὴ τὸ διὰ τί πρῶτον, "the wherefore is introduced last into the definition, but the wherefore, as being the first, is the cause and the first principle." The local predicate is very common in poetry, as Soph. Ant. 784: φοιτᾶς ὑπερπόντιος. d. C. 119: ἐκτόπιος συθείς. Ed. Τ. 1411: θαλάσσιον ἐκρίψατε. Ibid. 32: ἑζόμεσθ' ἐφέστιοι. Eurip. Andr. 516: ἴθ ̓ ὑποχθόνιοι. Ibid. 357: Bópio TíтVOVтES. Ibid. 266: Kálno' édpaía, where we use the noun with its preposition: "over the main," "out of the way," "into the sea," "at the hearth," "under the ground," "at the altar," "on the seat."
(bb) Sometimes this predicate expresses the cause of the main predication; as in Soph. Antig. 941: Ceúxon ¿úxoxos mais ó Δρύαντος, Apúavros, "he was bound, because he was so keen in his wrath." Id. Trach. 936:
κἀνταῦθ ̓ ὁ παῖς δύστηνος οὔτ ̓ ὀδυρμάτων
ἐλείπετ ̓ οὐδέν, κ.τ.λ.
"the boy, like a miserable creature as he was,' or "for he was a miserable creature." When the Greeks wish to express very strongly this mixture of the manner and cause, they add the mere adverb to the adjective; thus,
ἦ κακὸς κακῶς ταφήσει νυκτὸς οὐκ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ
(Eurip. Troad. 448), "since you are a base wretch, you shall be buried in a base manner."
ἄγ ̓ ὦ θύγατερ ὅπως τὸ κανοῦν καλὴ καλῶς οἴσεις
"as you are a pretty lass, bear the basket prettily."
Obs. The Latin writers imitate this idiom; thus Virgil, En. v. 447 :
Ipse gravis, graviterque ad terram pondere vasto
(cc) Many adjectives are used both in prose and verse as secondary predicates of magnitude or amount; as Thucyd. 11. 5: ὁ ̓́Ασωπος ἐῤῥύη μέγας, " the Asopus ran in a full stream;” Xen. Anab. VI. 2, § 4: κρήνη ἄφθονος ῥέουσα, “a fountain running abundantly;” Thucyd. II. 75: ᾔρετο τὸ ὕψος τοῦ τείχους μέγα, "the height of the wall was raised to a great altitude;" Dem. Ol. II. § 8: διὰ τούτων ἤρθη μέγας, “ by means of these he was raised to great power." In such phrases as Aristoph. Eq. 1362, ἄρας μετέωρον ἐς βάραθρον ἐμβαλῶ, this predication of degree is actually locative; for "lifting up high" means "lifting up from the ground."
(dd) There is often a kind of prolepsis in these adverbial adjectives, i.e. they express the effect of the main verb, and therefore approximate to the illative sentence (above, 438). Thus we have Soph. Αj. 945:
ἐμοὶ πικρὸς τέθνηκεν ἢ κείνοις γλυκύς,
i.e. "the effect of his death was grief to me and joy to his enemies, but to himself it brought pleasure."
So Eurip. Hippol. 796 :
λυπηρὸς ἡμῖν τούσδ ̓ ἂν ἐκλίποι δόμους,
i.e. "his leaving this house would cause grief to me.'
Thucyd. III. 23: κρύσταλλος ἐπεπήγει οὐ βέβαιος ἐν αὐτῇ, ὥστ ̓ ἐπελθεῖν, ἀλλ ̓ οἷος ἀπηλιώτου ἢ βορέου ὑδατώδης μᾶλλον, "ice had frozen on the ditch, not to the extent of being firm, so as to admit of their walking on it, but rather of a half liquid kind, such as is found when the wind is east rather than north."
(ee) We may have all these forms of the adjective or participle used as secondary predicates in one sentence, so that this prolepsis or statement of the effect follows upon similar predications of the time, the manner, or the cause. Thus in Plat. Theæt. 175 c: ιλιγγιών τε γὰρ ἀφ ̓ ὑψηλοῦ κρεμασθεὶς καὶ βλέπων μετέωρος ἄνωθεν ὑπὸ ἀηθείας ἀδημονῶν τε καὶ ἀπορῶν καὶ βαρβαρίζων, γέλωτα Θράτταις μὲν οὐ παρέχει οὐδ ̓ ἄλλῳ ἀπαιδεύτῳ οὐδενί, οὐ γὰρ αἰσθάνονται, τοῖς δ ̓ ἐναντίως ἢ ὡς ἀνδραπόδοις τραφεῖσιν ἅπασιν, “being dizzy, because he is held suspended aloft, and there high above the earth looks down from his elevation, so that from
want of habitude he feels nervous and is perplexed and talks inarticulately, he does not (like Thales) cause laughter to Thracian maidservants or to any other uneducated person, for they do not perceive his embarrassment; but he does seem ridiculous to all those who are brought up not as slaves, but in the opposite manner."
443 (c) Substantives are used in a sort of apposition, which really involves the main category of the sentence. Thus, when we say (Hom. 17. 11. 673):
Νιρεύς, ὃς κάλλιστος ἀνὴρ ὑπὸ Ἴλιον ἦλθεν,
the main point asserted of Nireus is not his having gone to Troy, but his having been the handsomest man among those who went thither. We have an instructive instance of this mode of predication, in connexion with the predicates of time, place and manner, in Soph. Ed. Col. 718:
ἃ δ ̓ εὐήρετμος ἔκπαγλ ̓ ἁλία
where the construction is ἡ εὐήρετμος (epithet); πλάτη, χερσὶ παραπτομένη (predicate of time); θρώσκει (verb containing the primary predicate); čκπaуλа (adverb of manner); áλía (local predicate, almost equivalent to adverb of place); τŵv é. N. ȧkóλovlos (noun in apposition, which involves the main category of the whole sentence); i. e. "the well-poised oar, when graspt by the hands, bounds surprisingly in the sea, and keeps pace with the hundred feet of the Nereids." To this class belong the cases of apposition which have been explained above (407, 8), where we have shown how the apposition to the subject passes from the nature of an epithet to that of a predicate1.
444 (d) There are certain pronouns or pronominal words, which are used specially in this sort of predication, and in a different sense from that which they bear as epithets. Such are the
1 It was necessary to dwell at some length upon these predicative uses of the adjective and substantive in particular, because the whole doctrine of tertiary predicates depends upon them. Perhaps the first writer who treated this subject accurately was K. O. Müller, in the Gött. Gel. Anz. for 1838, p. 1110, where he has correctly explained the passages from Soph. Aj. 594; Ed. Col. 718, quoted above.
adjectival terms which denote (aa) separation, as avтós, μóvos, (bb) local position, as μéσos, eoxатos, äкpos, and (cc) distinct entirety, as πᾶς, ἄλλος, ὅλος, ἕκαστος.
aa. With the article, or as an epithet, autós is idem, "the same." Without the article, or as a secondary predicate, avτós is ipse, "self."
In the oblique cases, as a mere pronoun without the article, it is equivalent to the oblique cases of is, i. e. “him, her, it." Thus, ó avròs ȧvýp=“the same man,"
% cup a’Tós=“ the man himself”
nyúvη avтoû="his wife" or "the wife of him."
Of the use of autós as a mere pronoun of reference, or as indicating the object in the objective sentence, enough has been said above (407, 410, (cc)). The following examples will illustrate the opposition between its use as an epithet and as a predicate. We see tható autós is, in the fullest sense of the term, an epithet or definitive phrase, meaning "the same," "the identical," "the particular," in such a passage as this (Xen. Cyrop. VIII. 7, § 14): οἱ ὑπὸ τῆς αὐτῆς μητρὸς τραφέντες καὶ ἐν τῇ αὐτῇ οἰκίᾳ αὐξηθέντες καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν αὐτῶν γονέων ἀγαπώμενοι καὶ τὴν αὐτὴν μητέρα καὶ τὸν αὐτὸν πατέρα προσαγορεύοντες, πῶς οὐ πάντων οὗτοι οἰκειότατοι; On the other hand, it is equally clear that autós is a secondary predicate, in the first instance denoting locality, whenever it is placed beyond the influence of the article or in apposition to a personal pronoun. Thus Aristoph. Αch. 504: αὐτοὶ γάρ ἐσμεν, οὑπὶ Ληναίῳ T' ȧywv Kоvπw §évoi máρeiσiv, “we are alone (by ourselves), and ἀγὼν κοὔπω ξένοι πάρεισιν, the contest is at the Lenæum, and the foreigners are not yet come" (similarly Thesm. 472; Plat. Leges, p. 836 в); Herod. v. 85: ès ò ἐκ πάντων ἕνα λειφθέντα ἀνακομισθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐς Φάληρον, “ until one being left alive of all the number returned alone (by himself) to Phalerum." And this predicative use is especially conspicuous when autós is used with an ordinal, as Thucyd. II. 13: Περικλῆς στρατηγὸς ὢν ̓Αθηναίων δέκατος αὐτός, " Pericles being general of the Athenians, with nine colleagues" (i. e. himself standing as the tenth). Without the article, μóvos is synonymous with autós, though even more emphatic, in the sense "alone;" as ó raîs μóvos, "the son alone or by himself;" but with the article μóvos μόνος, means "only or unique," as ó póvos maîs "the only son."