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bb. With the article, or as an epithet, μéoos means that which stands between two other objects. Without the article, or as a secondary predicate, μéσos is a local predicate signifying the middle point or part of a particular object. Thus ǹ μéon ȧyopá is "the middle market-place," that which stands in the midst of several others ; but μέση ἡ ἀγορά οι ἡ ἀγορὰ μέση is “ the middle of the market-place, or the market-place at its middle." Similarly μéσos πoxíτns is "a citizen of the middle class" (Thucyd. vI. 54, § 2); тà μéσа Tŵν TоMтŵν, "the moderate party in the state' (Id. 111. 82, fin.); oi dià péσov, "the neutral party" (Id. vIII. 75, §1); pov porov ev μéow, “the middle class" (Eurip. Suppl. τριῶν μοιρῶν ἡ μέσῳ, 247); but exopai μéoos, "I am caught by the waist, at the middle of my body" (Arist. Ach. 571; Ran. 469; Eq. 388). In the same way we distinguish oxárn, "the last island" of a group or ἡ ἐσχάτη, cluster; voos éoxárn, "the island at its extremity" or "the end of the island;" о äкρos πоλíτηs, "the perfect (tip-top) citizen" ἄκρος (Plat. Leges, p. 823 A); èπT' äкpois Tois Kúλois, "at the extremities of the limbs" (Id. Tim. p. 76 E).

CC. With the article, wâs and aλλos signify the entirety or whole residue of a collection of objects; thus oi Távтes are cuncti, oi ao are reliqui. But without the article, they are merely pronominal words expressing collection and difference. In the same way we may distinguish between such phrases as tŷs ημépas ὅλης, "the whole day" (Xen. Anab. III. 3, § 11); di' öλns Tŷs VUKTÓS, "through the whole night" (Ib. IV. 2, § 4); and such as TÒ ÓλOV πрÓσWπov, "the whole face" (Plat. Protag. p. 329 E); Tò oλov yévos, "the whole race" (Id. Crat. p. 392 c); yvvaɩkòs tŷS ons, "the whole of the women" (Id. Symp. p. 191 B). "EKAσTOS ὅλης, is either a pronominal word of this kind, or it is a secondary predicate expressive of separate locality (see above, 398, (d), (e)).


To this idiom we may at once refer the absolute use of the participle in the nominative (15148 This is particularly com- 148 mon in the case of those verbs which are used impersonally; here the participle appears in a sort of causal or concessive sense: as δέον ἀπιέναι, “ since it was necessary to depart;” οὐδὲν δέον, “ although it was not at all necessary;" oυdèv πρоσîкov avтoîs, “although it did not concern them;" eipnμévov, "although it has been said;" dedoyμévov, "after it had been resolved;" adúvaтov ov, "since

it is impossible;" ädnλov ov, "since it is uncertain;" TUXóv, “since it may so happen," i. e. "perhaps;" dóğav Taûтa, "whereas these things had been determined;" and sometimes with us, as in the regular causative sentence (below, 616, Obs. 3); thus, os Tód' aîμa χείμαζον πόλιν (Soph. Cd. Τ. 101); ὡς οὐ μετὸν αὐτοῖς Ἐπιδάμνου (Thucyd. 1. 28). The adverbial nature of the participle in this construction is established by the fact that an adverb may be substituted for it. Thus in Thucyd. IV. 20, ảσapŵs óπотéρwv åp§ávτων, the author might have written ἄδηλον ὄν for ἀσαφῶς (above, 437).

446 This adverbial apposition of the nominative of the participle sometimes assumes an appearance of great syntactical laxity, as when a nominative plural is placed by the side of a verb in the singular; thus Herod. II. 133: ταῦτα δὲ ἐμηχανᾶτο ἵνα οἱ δυώδεκα ἔτη ἀντὶ ἓξ ἐτέων γένηται, αἱ νύκτες ἡμέραι ποιεύμεναι; or where a nominative singular stands by the side of another nominative in the plural; thus,

λόγοι δ ̓ ἐν ἀλλήλοισιν ἐῤῥόθουν κακοί,

púλağ èλéyxwv púλara (Soph. Antig. 260);
or when a participle stands between two verbs; thus,
ἦν δὲ πᾶσ ̓ ὁμοῦ βοή,

ὁ μὲν στενάζων, ὅσον ἐτύγχανεν πνέων,
ai Sáraçov (Eurip. Bacch. 1084).

(B) The Genitive.

447 The genitive signifies that the object referred to is considered as the source from which something proceeds-that it is sustaining a loss-that something is being taken from or out of it.

All the meanings of this case in Greek syntax belong to one or other of the three following classes:

a. The genitive of ablation, or the ablative case; as áπaλλáTTЄiv Tivà vóσov, liberare aliquem a morbo, "to free some one from a disease."

b. The genitive of partition, or the partitive case; as edwкá σоι тŵν Xpnμáτwv, dedi tibi de mea pecunia, “I gave you a part of my money."


The genitive of relation, or the relative case; as

οὐδὲν διαφέρει τὰ ἕτερα τῶν ἑτέρων, “ as compared with one another, the things do not differ."

448 To the first two classes belong all those usages which are expressed in English by the prepositions "of" or "from." And whenever we wish to express that an object is the starting point from which we set out, the cause of some action, the substance from which we derive a sensation, or the source from which something else proceeds, the material of which it is made, or of which it is full; that it is something from which we desist, from which we are separated or set free, or of which we are deprived; in all these instances we have the Greek genitive as an ablative case. And when we wish to express that an object is a whole, from or out of which we take or give a part, we employ the Greek genitive as a partitive case.

449 The transition from the ideas of ablation and partition to that of relation is immediate. Indeed, the word proportion, which is applied to the latter, refers more literally to the former. And there are many examples in which it would be difficult to say whether the genitive signifies relation or partition. Thus, "to be king of a country,” ἀνάσσειν τῆς γῆς, may be periphrased into "to be king in regard to the country;" or, "to belong to the country as king." There is always this option in the case of possessives, comparatives, and superlatives: for it matters not whether we consider the genitive as a partitive or relative case. We sometimes find in the same sentence two genitives, one of which is partitive and the other relative; and yet the difference between their significations is so slight, that they might be termed both of them partitive or both relative; thus in Plat. Resp. p. 439 A, we have où TOûTO Ońσeis Tŵv tɩvòs elvai, i. e. "tanquam partem eorum, quæ ad aliud quid referuntur." We might have expressed either genitive in English by the phrase "belonging to"-"as belonging to those things which belong to something else."

450 The genitive case plays such a prominent part in Greek syntax that we must either leave the student to apply these principles to the instances which he meets with in the course of his reading, or endeavour to illustrate the rules with very numerous

examples. The former is the more useful course for one who wishes to master the idiom of the Greek language, and to exercise himself in reasoning; but for purposes of reference and in order to verify the statement which has been made, it will be convenient to enumerate and classify the chief idiomatic usages of the Greek genitive. We shall therefore give (1) the regular uses of the Greek genitive according to the above arrangement of its meanings as ablative, partitive and relative; and (2) those special uses in which the primary signification is subordinated to the idiomatic practice.

(1) Regular uses of the Greek Genitive.

(a) The Genitive of Ablation.

451 The genitive denotes ablation, that is, separation or detachment from something,

(aa) With all verbs of motion from a place; as Soph. Ed. Col. 572: yns oπoías lov, "from what sort of a land I came ;' Phil. 613: εἰ μὴ τόνδε ἄγοιντο νῆσου τῆσδε, “ if they did not take this man with them from this island."

(bb) With all verbs denoting separation or removal, such as

(α) “To remove or separate” (χωρίζειν, διορίζειν, ἀποκρίνειν, εἴργειν, ἀποκλείειν, ἐκβάλλειν, ἀφιστάναι), or “ to be removed or stand away from” (ἀπέχειν, διέχειν, ἀπεῖναι, ἀφίστασθαι, ἀποστα τεῖν, ἐξίστασθαι', μεθίστασθαι, &c.), or to yield and give way” (εἴκειν, ὑπείκειν, παραχωρεῖν, &c.), “to fee, to escape” (ἀλύσκειν, φεύγειν, ἐκφεύγειν, &c.).

(β) “To set free or deliver” ἀπαλλάττειν, λύειν, ἀπολύειν, ἀφιέναι, ἐλευθεροῦν, σώζειν, &c.), “to get off” (ἀπαλλάττεσθαι), " to miss or fall short of” (ἁμαρτάνειν, ἀφαμαρτάνειν, διαμαρ τάνειν, &c.).

(2) “ To repel, keep off, divert or stop” (ἔχειν, ἐπέχειν, ἀμύνειν, ἀλάλκειν, βάλλειν, ἀποβάλλειν, ἀφιστάναι, ἀποτρέπειν, παύειν, καταλύειν, &c.), “ to hinder or prevent” (κωλύειν, εἴργειν, ἐρητύειν, ἐμποδὼν εἶναι), “ to cease, to desist, to remit” (παύεσθαι, ἀφίεσθαι, λήγειν, λωφᾶν, ἐπέχειν, &c.), “ to refrain or restrain oneself”

1 For the use of this verb with the accusative see 430, (bb).

(ἀπέχεσθαι). For example, Hom. Od. xv. 33: ἑκὰς νήσων ἀπéxew vaûv, "to keep a ship far from the islands." Thucyd. IV. 3, § 2: ἀπέχει ἡ Πύλος τῆς Σπάρτης σταδίους τετρακοσίους, "Pylus is distant (i. e. removed or separated) from Sparta 400 stades.” Pind. Οl. 1. 58 : τὸν μενοινῶν κεφαλᾶς βαλεῖν εὐφροσύνας ảλâtaι, “which desiring to push away from his head, he wanders away from joy." Hence p0eipeolaí Tivos, "to leave something to one's destruction" (Esch. Pers. 443; Eurip. Andr. 715). To these must be added many of the nouns derived from such verbs, and conveying the same meaning. Thus we have both amaλλáğaι Tivà κακοῦ οἱ ἀπαλλαγῆναι κακοῦ (Plat. Gorg. 458 Α), and ἀπαλλαγὴ Tóvæv (Esch. Agam. init.), and so forth.

(cc) With all verbs denoting a production or its result; as ποιεῖν, ἐργάζεσθαι, κατασκευάζειν, &c., “ to make;” or their converse, ποιεῖσθαι, γίγνεσθαι, ὑπάρχειν, εἶναι, “ to be made, to come into being, to exist." Thus we have Herod. v. 62: ovykeiμévov σφι πωρινοῦ λίθου ποιέειν τὸν νηόν, Παρίου τὰ ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῦ eğeπoinσav, "it having been covenanted by them to build the temple of tuff-stone, they finished off the front of it with Parian marble." And to show how completely the idea of ablation enters into this use of the genitive, it is sometimes accompanied by aπó, "from," or e, "out of;" as Herod. vII. 65: eiμaтa áπò şûλwv πεποιημένα ; ΙΙ. 96: τὰ πλοῖα ἐστιν ἐκ τῆς ἀκάνθης ποιεύμενα.

To these verbs must be added nouns denoting the result of manufacture ; thus we have οἴκημα ξύλων, λίθων, " a chamber made out of timber or stones;” νόμισμα χρυσοῦ, χαλκοῦ, “ a coin made out of gold or copper ;” λίθου ἐστρωμένη ἐστὶν ἡ ὁδός, “ the road is paved with (out of) stones;" xρyπìs Xílwv čotì μeyáλwv, “the

foundation is made of great stones."

(dd) To the same class we must refer the genitive of derivation or selection, with distributives, as τῶν ὄντων τὰ μὲν ἐφ' ἡμῖν ἐστίν, τὰ δ ̓ οὐκ ἐφ' ἡμῖν, “ (out) of existing things, some are and some are not in our power;" with definite participles, as Tv BowTŵV TOUS μn Bovλoμévovs, "those (out) of the Baotians, who did τῶν τοὺς μὴ βουλομένους, not wish;” with adjectives, as οἱ πολλοὶ τῶν ἐνθάδε εἰρηκότων, "the majority (out) of those who have spoken here;" oi xpnoTol тŵν ȧvěρúжшv, "those out of the number of men who are good;" with the adverb of place, as ăλλo◊ɩ yains, “in a different place

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