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out of the extent of the earth;” πόθι φρενός, “in what part (out) of the range of my mind;” ἵν' εἶ κακοῦ, “ in what situation (out) of misfortune you are." A special application of this is the genitive of sonship, as ̓Αλέξανδρος ὁ Φιλίππου, “Alexander the son of (sprung or derived from) Philip;" for the idea of ablation is clearly shown in the occasional use of a preposition, as in Soph. Αj. 557 : ὅπως πατρὸς δείξεις ἐν ἐχθροῖς οἷος ἐξ οἵου τράφης. Also in the use of words like ἔκγονος, &c.

(ee) Hence also the genitive is found with all kinds of substantives to denote the cause or origin of a thing, as Il. II. 396: κύματα παντοίων ἀνέμων, “ the waves proceeding from, caused by, all sorts of winds;” Eurip. Οr. 610: ὀνείρατ ̓ ἀγγέλλουσα τἀγαμέμνονος, “ announcing the dreams sent from Agamemnon.”

(ff) Verbs and nouns indicating fulness or want take a genitive of ablation, the former according to (cc) as denoting the materials, and the latter according to (bb), as implying separation or removal from the object. To this class belong the following: πιμπλάναι, πλήρουν, μεστοῦν, γέμειν, κορεννύναι, βρίθειν, βρύειν, πλουτεῖν, εὐπορεῖν, with the adjectives μεστός, πλέος, πλήρης, πλούσιος, ἀφνειός, εὔπορος, and the adverbs ἄδην, ἅλις; also the converse of these, κενοῦν, ἐρημοῦν, γυμνοῦν, ἀπογυμνοῦν, μονοῦν, στερεῖν, ἀποστερεῖν, ἀποδύειν, ἐκδύειν, σπανίζειν, πένεσθαι, ἀπορεῖν, ἐλλείπειν, λείπεσθαι, δεῖσθαι, δεῖν, with the adjectives κενός, ἔρημος, γυμνός, ἄπορος, πένης, ἐνδέης, ψιλός, ὀρφανός, καθαρός, &c.; also words denoting mental fulness and deficiency, as μέμνησθαι and its converse λανθάνεσθαι; thus, χρημάτων μὲν εὐποροῦμεν, λόγων δὲ ἀποροῦμεν, “ we abound in (we have an abundance derived from) money, but we are lacking in (we are deprived of, separated from) eloquence."

To this class belong the collective words which are followed by the genitive, as πλῆθος ἀνθρώπων, ἀγέλη βοῶν, σωρὸς λίθων. Also quantitative nouns estimated by a measurement, as τεῖχος σταδίων ὀκτώ, “a wall of made up of materials extending to) eight stades;” ὁδὸς τριῶν ἡμερῶν, “ a road or journey of (made up of the space traversed in) three days." Hence the genitive is frequently used in estimates of space and time, with perhaps a tacit reference to some such word as μῆκος. Thus in Hom. Π. XVIII. 7, τί νηυσὶν ἔπι κλονέονται ατυζόμενοι πεδίοιο; “why do

they rush about in confusion by the ships, being driven in flight over the plain?" we must understand or imply some word of extent or magnitude on which wedíoto may depend. And similarly of time, when we wish to express that something has happened or is to happen within a certain period. Thus in Esch. Agam. 288, 9, we have the question and answer: Trolov xpóvov dè kal TETTÓρONTAI TÓλs; "out of (within the space of) what time has the city been sacked?” τῆς νῦν τεκούσης φῶς τόδ ̓ εὐφρονῆς λέγω, "I maintain within the (space of) night which is the mother of this morning." Pind. Ol. II. 95: ékatóv ye étéwv, "within a hundred years." Lys. Nicom. § 3: Tроσтаxlèv avт@ тεσσapŵv μnvŵv ἀναγράψαι τοὺς νόμους τοὺς Σόλωνος, “ whereas it was assigned to him to publish the laws of Solon within four months." Xen. Anab. I. 9, § 25 : οὔπω δὴ πολλοῦ χρόνου ἡδίονι οἴνῳ ἐπέτυχον, “ not yet, within a long time, have I met with pleasanter wine." That this genitive is really ablative is clear from the occasional appearance of a preposition, as in Soph. Εl. 780: οὔτε νυκτός, οὔτ ̓ ἐξ ἡμέρας. That this usage approximates very closely to that of the partitive genitive we shall see below.

(gg) A genitive of ablation is used to express the perceptions of the senses; and that in two ways. Primarily the object itself is regarded as the source or material from which the perception emanates; and thus properly and literally the percipient is said to draw his perception from the object, which is therefore placed in the genitive; whereas the perception exists to or for some percipient or person endowed with sensation, and this person is therefore expressed in the dative. Thus Plato says (Theaetet. 160 A, B): ȧváyêŋ ἐμέ τε τινὸς γενέσθαι, ὅταν αἰσθανόμενος γένωμαι, ἐκεῖνό τε τινὶ γενέσθαι, ὅταν γλυκὺ ἢ πικρὸν ἢ τι τοιοῦτον γίγνηται, “ it is necessary both that I (the percipient) should be percipient of (derive a perception from) something, when I have become sentient; and also that it (the object of sensation) should have become so to or for some sentient person, whenever it becomes sweet or bitter or any such thing." In a secondary sense, the object may be said to be the genetic origin of the sensation. Practically then, while in the former case a verb signifying "I smell," i. e. "I have the perception or sense of smell," may have the genitive of the object from which the scent emanates, as Arist. Ran. 654: кроμμúшv ỏσppaívoμai, "I smell onions;" in the latter case, a verb signifying φραίνομαι,

"it smells," i. e. "it emits the smell," may have the genitive of the object from which that particular scent usually proceeds; as Esch. Agam. 1281: Tód' oleι Ovμáтwv èpeoтiwv, "this smells of (this is τόδ ̓ ὄζει θυμάτων ἐφεστίων, the smell from) victims at the hearth." Arist. Ach. 191: ččovoi πίττης καὶ παρασκευῆς νεῶν, “ this treaty smells of has the smell which comes from, pitch and the equipment of ships of war;" Soph. Fragm. 147: περὶ δ ̓ ἐμῷ κάρᾳ κατάγνυται τὸ τεῦχος οὐ μύρου πνέον· ἐδειματούμην δ ̓ οὐ φίλης ὀσμῆς ὕπο, “ about my head there is broken a vessel not breathing forth (the scent) of (from) ointment; I was terrified by no pleasant smell."

To this class belong not only the verbs which refer to specific senses, as ἀκούειν, ἀκροᾶσθαι, ὀσφραίνεσθαι, &c., but general words, like αἰσθάνεσθαι, and secondary applications, like μανθάνειν, ξυνιέναι and πvvláveσdai. The genitive is strengthened in the last verb by the occasional use of the prepositions από, ἐξ, and παρά.

(hh) Verbs signifying the derivation of advantage or enjoyment from an object are followed by a genitive of ablation, on the same principle as the verbs of perception; thus we have a genitive after yeveolai, "to taste of;" wάoaolai, "to feed from;" aπoλαύειν, ἐπαυρεῖν, ἐπαύρεσθαι, ὄνασθαι, “ to get enjoyment from;” evwxeîolaι, "to make a feast of;" with their corresponding causatives, yevew, "to give to taste;" éσтiâv, evæɣeîv, "to feast a person," &c. Just so in Latin we have the ablative after fruor, vescor, utor, and the like. Thus we find Xen. Ec. 12, § 7: oi àπoλAÚοντες τῶν σῶν ἀγαθῶν εὐνοί σοι γίγνονται, “ those who derive benefit from your advantages are well disposed towards you." Plat. Resp. p. 352 B: Evwxoû тoû Xóyoυ, "make a feast off the discourse." εὐωχοῦ τοῦ λόγου, Ibid. p. 571 D: ἑστιῶν τινα λόγων καλῶν, “ to regale a person on (off) fine speeches."

(b) The Genitive of Partition.

452 The manner in which the genitive of ablation passes into that of partition is strikingly shown in two of the applications of the former. Thus the genitive of time (451, (ff)) is undoubtedly ablative in the first instance, according to the definition given, namely, as a genitive of the amount, which serves as the materials from which the collective term is made up. But in other idioms it seems to be merely a possessive genitive dependent on some specific

word which would be expressed, if at all, in the dative. Thus the genitive of time not only expresses, as we have seen, "out of (within the space of) a certain amount of time," but also "within the limits of a general division of the year or the twenty-four hours." Now this latter usage is partitive, whether we consider the genitive itself to bear this meaning, or think it necessary to supply μépei or "pa, the latter of which actually appears with this use of the genitive. Thus, on the one hand we say, тoû μŋvós, тoû èviavтoû, "at intervals of a month or year," the whole month or year being counted, so that we must supply unke, if anything, and the genitive will be ablative, as indicating the materials; or, on the other hand we say, οἱ πολέμιοι ἀπεχώρησαν νυκτός, “ the enemy departed in the night, at some hour in the night," where the whole period cannot be intended, and the genitive must therefore be partitive, or, what is the same thing, possessive. The same remark applies to the genitive as denoting some season of the year. For while we have the genitive alone in Xen. Mem. III. 8, § 9 : ἡδὺ μὲν θέρους ψυχεινὴν ἔχειν τὴν οἰκίαν, ἡδὺ δὲ χειμῶνος ἀλεεινήν, " it is pleasant to have one's house cool during the summer and warm during the winter," where the whole of these seasons are intended, and μýket, if anything, would be supplied, we often find these genitives dependent on "pa, in which use they seem to be partitive; as Oépovs "pa (Hes. Op. et D. 582); pos év pa (Arist. Nub. 1008), &c. And while To MoTÓV includes "the whole of future time," TOû XOTоû means "at times during the future," which is manifestly partitive. Again, although the primary sense of the verbs denoting enjoyment (451, (hh)) leads to the inference that the genitive dependent on them signifies ablation or derivation; though this is confirmed by the analogy of the Latin fruor, vescor, &c.; and though there are passages, like Plat. Resp. 606 Β: ἀπολαύειν ἀνάγκη ἀπὸ τῶν ἀλλοτρίων εἰς τὰ oikeîa, where the ablative use is so plain that it has been proposed to change ἀπολαύειν into ἀπολαβείν,—on the other hand the word μépos is actually supplied by Isocrates, c. Soph. p. 293 в: our av ἐλάχιστον μέρος ἀπελαύσαμεν αὐτῆς; this verb governs the accusative in many passages (as Xen. Mem. 1. 6, § 2: Tȧvavτía TŶs σopías ἀπολελαυκέναι); and in one passage the genitive alone is placed in opposition to the genitive with ex, Plat. Resp. 395 c: va un èx τῆς μιμήσεως τοῦ εἶναι ἀπολαύσωσιν, " that they may not as a result of their imitation gain the reality" (where some read To εἶναι).

But while in these instances the connected ideas of ablation and partition can hardly be distinguished, there are very many examples in which the partitive use of the genitive is unmis


(aa) Verbs signifying "to partake or participate in anything" are followed by a genitive of the object from which the part is taken; such are μετέχειν, μεταλαμβάνειν, ξυλλαμβάνειν, ξυναίρεσθαι, μεταλαγχάνειν, κοινωνεῖν, κληρονομεῖν, &c. ; also the impersonal verbs μέτεστί μοι, “ there is to me a share ;” προσήκει μοι, “there has come to me a share ;” and the transitive μεταδιδόναι, “ to impart or give a share;" ξυμβάλλεσθαι, “ to make a contribution."


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Thus Thucyd. IV. 10: ἄνδρες οἱ ξυναράμενοι τοῦδε τοῦ κινδύνου, 'ye men, who have taken on yourselves a share of this danger.' Soph. El. 1168: ξὺν σοὶ μετεῖχον τῶν ἴσων, “ with thee I had a share of an equal fortune.” Cd. Τ. 630: κἀμοὶ πόλεως μέτεστιν, οὐχὶ σοὶ μόνῳ, “I too have a share in the state, not you only.” Arist. Av. 970: τί δὲ προσήκει δῆτ ̓ ἐμοὶ Κορινθίων, “ what share in the Corinthians has come to me? what have I to do with them?" Xen. Cyr. VII. 5, § 78: θάλπους καὶ ψύχους καὶ σιτῶν καὶ ποτῶν καὶ πόνων καὶ ὕπνου ἀνάγκη καὶ τοῖς δούλοις μεταδιδόναι, “it is necessary to give even the slaves a share of heat and cold and food and drink and labour and sleep.” Eurip. Med. 288: ξυμβάλλεται δὲ πολλὰ τοῦδε δείματος, “ many things contribute a part of this fear;” and the true reading in Thucyd. III. 36, § 2, is προσξυνεβά λοντο τῆς ὁρμῆς αἱ νῆες τολμήσασαι παρακινδυνεῦσαι, “ the ships, having dared to venture on a cruise to Ionia, contributed an additional ingredient in their passion."

The partitive value of the genitive after ξυμβάλλομαι and μετέχω in particular is shown by the introduction of μέρος, as in Lysias, c. Nicom. 184, 31: τοῦ μὲν γὰρ ὑμᾶς φεύγειν μέρος τι καὶ οὗτος ξυνεβάλετο, cf. Plat. Resp. 331 B; and in Asch. Αg. 518 : μετέχειν μέρος τάφου; οι μοῖρα, as in Herod. IV. 145: μετέχειν μοῖραν τιμέων. So also we have μέρος as the nominative of the otherwise impersonal μέτεστι, as in Eurip. Iph. Τ. 1310 : μέτεστιν ὑμῶν τῶν πεπραγμένων μέρος; or τὸ ἴσον appears with μέρος understood, as in Thucyd. III. 37 : μέτεστι πᾶσι τὸ ἴσον.

Obs. Μετέχω takes the accusative of other words besides μέρος and μοίρα; as χάριν, Soph. (Ed. C. 1482; τὰς ἴσας πληγάς, Arist. Plut. 1142.

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