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This verb and Kowvwveîv are also used occasionally with other cases, when the noun of direct reference has to be supplied (e. g. Thucyd. II. 16; Plat. Resp. p. 452). With έvußálλoμai we have not only μépos and other words of quantity, but also the further object generally expressed by the accusative with eis or πρός, as Xen. Hel. vi. 5, § 5 : τρία τάλαντα ξυνεβάλλοντο αὐτοῖς εἰς τὴν δαπάνην. Cyr. II. 4, § 21 : τοῦτο συμβαλεῖται πρὸς τὸ λανθάνειν.
(bb) Verbs of all kinds, even those which are generally followed by an accusative of the object, take the partitive genitive when the action is limited to a part only of the thing designated; thus Sidóval and Xaußáveiv are used with the accusative when it is implied that the whole of the object is given or received, but with the genitive when the giving or taking is limited to a part of it; Isocr. de Pac. § 23: TŶs aνтŵν πроodάσovσ, "they will give in addition a part of their own land;" Xen. Anab. 1. 5, § 7: λaßóvtes τοῦ βαρβαρικοῦ στρατοῦ, “ having taking a division of the barbarians." And similarly with many other verbs, as xapiceolai, ἐσθίειν, φαγεῖν, πέμπειν, τέμνειν, &c. For example, Π. ΙΧ. 214: χαριCoμévn πaρeóvτwv, "freely giving a part of the provisions;" Eurip. Iph. Τ. 1216: σὺν δέ μοι σύμπεμπ ̓ ὀπαδῶν, “ send some of your attendants with me;" Il. IX. 214: Táoσe & aλós, "he sprinkled some (of the) salt over it;" Thucyd. 1. 30: Tŷs Yês Ĕтeμov, “they laid waste a part of the territory;" Id. 1. 143: Kiveîv тŵv Xpημáτwv, "to touch a part of the treasure;" Arist. Pax, 30: πapoíças Tĥs Oúpas, "having opened the door partially;" Plat. Symp. p. 213 E: λaẞóvтa Tâν Tavov, "having taken some of the fillets," immediately after μετάδος τῶν ταινιῶν; Arist. Ach. 1180: τῆς κεφαλῆς κατέαγε περὶ λίθων πεσών, “ and fell down on the stones and broke a part of his head (inflicted a wound on the scalp).'
(cc) The substantive verb is connected with many uses of the genitive of partition.
(a) It implies "to be one out of a certain class," "to belong to it as a part;" Plat. Gorg. 458 a: ei où ei tŵôv åv¤púπwv ŵvπep ¿yú, "if you are one of the same class of men with myself;" Thucyd. 1. 65: ἤθελε τῶν μενόντων εἶναι, “ he wished to be one of those who staid behind;" III. 70: ÉTúyxave Bovλîs wv, “he was at that time a member of the senate;" Plat. Resp. p. 360 a: Sieπρáğaто тŵv ȧyyéλwv yevéolat, "he managed to be one of the messengers ;' Ibid. p. 462 Ε: ἡ τοιαύτη πόλις μάλιστα φήσει ἑαυτῆς εἶναι τὸ
Táσyov, "such a city more than any other will say that the suffering member belongs to herself, is a constituent part of the whole body."
(8) It implies "to belong to somebody, as a property or function;” Herod. III. 117: τοῦτο τὸ πεδίον ἦν ποτε Χορασμίων, “ this plain belonged formerly to the Chorasmians;" Soph. Ed. T. 917: ἀλλ ̓ ἔστι τοῦ λέγοντος, ἣν φόβους λέγῃ, “ he belongs to is the property of) the speaker, if he brings terrible news;" Antig. 737: πόλις γὰρ οὐκ ἔσθ', ἥτις ἀνδρός ἐσθ' ἑνός, “ a city has no existence, when it belongs to (is the property of) one man.'
(7) It implies "to belong as a quality or duty;" Soph. El. 1054: Tons ȧvoías (éori), "it is a thing of (has the quality of) no slight folly;" Thucyd. 1. 83: čσтiv ó Tóλeμos OVX OTλWV TÒ πλéοv ảλλà daπávns, "war is a thing of (partakes of the quality of, presumes or requires) expenditure rather than arms;" Plat. Gorg. 461 A: ovê dxíyns ovvovoías èorí, "it is a thing of (requires) no small discussion;" Soph. Ed. C. 1429: σтρаτηλaтoû χρηστοῦ τὰ κρείσσω λέγειν, “ it is the part or duty of a good general to speak of success."
(8) It implies "to belong as a capacity or qualification;" Soph. d. Τ. 393: τό γ' αἴνιγμ ̓ οὐχὶ τοὐπιόντος ἦν ἀνδρὸς διει πεî, “the riddle did not belong to the capacity or qualification of every man to solve," and so in the proverb: où Tavτòs ȧvôpòs εἰς Κόρινθόν ἐσθ ̓ ὁ πλοῦς, “ non cuivis hominum contingit adire Corinthum."
(e) It implies "to belong as a custom, wont, or habitude;" Thucyd. III. 39: ἀπόστασις τῶν βίαιόν τι πασχόντων ἐστίν, “ rem volt is the usual resource of those who are oppressed;" Plat. Resp. p. 335: ἔστιν ἄρα δικαίου ἀνδρὸς βλάπτειν καὶ ὁντινοῦν ȧveρúжwv; "is it the wont of a just man to do harm to anybody?"
Obs. 1 In these cases the genitive is sometimes accompanied by πρός, “from the direction of;” Asch. Ag. 603 : ή κάρτα πρὸς γυναικὸς aipeσbaι κéap, "it is very much the part of a woman to have her heart elated."
Obs. 2 That this use springs from that of the ablative-genitive of derivation (451, (dd)) is clear from the use of that genitive with words which, if omitted, must leave a genitive of partition. Thus compare
with the genitive implying a part, such uses as the genitive following a demonstrative; Xen. Ages. 1. 7: Táď avтoû ayaμai, “I admire these things (as a part of) in him." Or without a demonstrative in the same sense; Isocr. Nicocl. p. 27 A, B: θαυμάζω τῶν ταύτην τὴν γνώμην ἐχόντων, "I wonder at this point in the persons who entertain this sentiment." Or before a relative sentence; Thucyd. II. 65: dieλóvtes Toû Teixous ǹ προσέπιπτε τὸ χῶμα, “ taking down that part of the wall where the mound was raised against it." Or compare with the genitive denoting a quality or property, such uses as the genitive following oikeios, idios, and the like; Isocr. Nicocl. p. 19 B: ἅπαντα τὰ τῶν οἰκούντων τὴν πόλιν οἰκεῖα τῶν καλῶς βασιλευόντων ἐστί, “ all the property of those who inhabit the city belongs to those who govern well."
(dd) Verbs, which do not in themselves denote participation, like those enumerated in (aa), but which imply attainment generally limited to a part of the object sought, are followed generally and regularly by a genitive of partition. Such are Tuxάvew, τυγχάνειν, κυρεῖν, ἀντιᾶν, λαγχάνειν, all signifying a contingent attainment. With regard to the first of these verbs, it is to be observed that although Tyɣáve in itself means primarily "to hit the mark,” and though it is often used with the participle merely to indicate coincidence in time, the noun Túxn is synonymous with Saíuwv and μoîpa, which denote respectively "a divider" and "a share." The verb κυρείν corresponds in many of its usages with τυγχάνειν, and while τυγχάνειν is sometimes found with the accusative, κυρείν takes not only the genitive, but the accusative and the dative, the latter sometimes with èri. The same remark applies to ἀντιᾶν, and λαγχάνειν, which conveys the idea of obtaining a λάχος or lot, is often construed with the accusative. Of the use of these verbs with the genitive of partition the following are examples: Isocr. Nicocl. p. 22 B, C: θνητοῦ σώματος ἔτυχες, ἀθανάτου δὲ yuxês, "you have obtained a share in (you partake of) a mortal body, but an immortal soul." Eur. Iph. A. 1624: Xéywv óπoías λέγων ἐκ θεῶν μοίρας κυρεί, “ saying in what sort of a destiny from the gods he is made a sharer." Herod. II. 119: ξεινίων ἤντησε μεγά Awv, "he obtained great presents." Soph. Ed. C. 450: ovтi μnj Xáxwσi toûde ovμμáxov, "they shall not gain me as an ally."
(c) The Genitive of Relation.
453 The proper criterion of a genitive of relation is furnished. by the fact, that in translating this usage we may always introduce the words "in regard or respect to;" in some cases this will be the
most natural and obvious rendering; but in all it will be found that it comes to this.
(aa) The genitive follows comparatives and superlatives to indicate the standard of comparison; as ἀμείνων ἄλλων, “better with regard to, in relation to, others;” ἄριστος ̓Αχαιών, “best of, with regard or respect to, the Achæans." Hence verbs involving a comparative or superlative govern a genitive of relation; as Xen. Hiero, I. § 18: μειονεκτεῖν τῶν ἰδιωτῶν, “ to have less in regard to private individuals.” Eurip. Ηipp. 1009: ἐκαλλιστεύετο πασῶν γυναικῶν, “ it (her body) was most beautiful as compared with all women." Xen. Anab. I. 7, § 12: votépnoe tŷs μáxns, “he came after with regard to the battle." From this notion of a comparison, we have the genitive after all verbs signifying superiority or pre-eminence, whether they involve a comparative or superlative adjective or not ; such are κρατεῖν, ἐπικρατεῖν, ὑπερέχειν, προέχειν, ὑπεραίρειν, ὑπερφέρειν, προφέρειν, ὑπερβάλλειν, πλεονεκτεῖν, περιεῖναι, περιγίγνεσθαι; and the same rule applies to those denoting inferiority, as ἡττᾶσθαι, ἐλασσοῦσθαι, μειοῦσθαι, μειονεκτεῖν, ὑστερί ζειν οι ὑστερεῖν, λείπεσθαι, ἀπολείπεσθαι, ἐλλείπειν; and to those involving a preference, as προαιρεῖσθαι, μᾶλλον αἱρεῖσθαι, προκρίνειν, προτιμᾶν; e. g. Χen. Cyr. III. 1, § 9 : περιγίγνεσθαί τινος ταχύτητι, “ to be superior in running as compared with some perThe verb διαφέρειν signifes not only to excel,” as in Plat. Leg. 711 Ε: τῇ τοῦ λέγειν ῥώμῃ πολὺ διαφέρειν ἀνθρώπων, greatly to excel as compared with other men in power of speaking;” but also “ to differ,” as Plat. Charm. 166 Β: ὅτῳ διαφέρει πασῶν τῶν ἐπιστημῶν ἡ σωφροσύνη, " wherein temperance differs as compared with, in relation to, all the sciences." According to the same analogy, all verbs signifying to rule, as ἀνάσσειν, βασιλεύειν, ἄρχειν, σημαίνειν, ἡγεῖσθαι, and the corresponding class of adjectives, as ἐγκράτης, ἀκράτης, πότνια, &c. take a genitive of relation, as Herod. 1. 206: βασίλευε τῶν σεωυτοῦ, καὶ ἡμέας ἀνέχευ ὁρέων ἄρχοντας τῶνπερ ἄρχομεν, " be king in relation to your own subjects, and endure to see us ruling in respect to these, whose rulers we are." Conversely, the verbs signifying to be obedient or disobedient will fall under the same construction; such are ἀκούειν, ὑπακούειν, πείθεσθαι, ἀνηκουστεῖν, ἀπειθεῖν; e. g. Hom. Od. v.11: θεοῦ δ ̓ ὡς δῆμος ἄκουεν, “ the people were obedient in respect to him as though he had been a god." Hence also äpxew and ǎp
Xeobal, "to begin," take a genitive of relation; as Theocr. 1. 70: ἄρχετε βωκολικᾶς, Μοῦσαι φίλαι, ἄρχετ ̓ ἀοιδᾶς, " begin with regard to, make a beginning of, the bucolic strain."
(bb) The genitive of relation is used especially after adverbs in -ws, predicating the manner of an action, in order to express the special relation or respect in which the manner is predicated. Thus Thucyd. II. 90: ὡς εἶχε τάχους ἕκαστος, “ as each of them was situated in the manner in which each of them held himself-in regard or relation to swiftness." Herod. VI. 116: oi 'Aonvaîo ws ποδῶν εἶχον τάχιστα ἐβοήθεον ἐς τὸ ἄστυ, “ the Athenians, in the fastest manner in which they held themselves with regard to their feet (as fast as their feet could carry them), hastened to the succour of the city.” Thucyd. I. 22: ὡς ἑκατέρων τις εὐνοίας ἢ μνήμης exo, "according as the individuals stood in relation to the favour with which they regarded either of the belligerents, or in relation to their recollection of the facts," i.e. according as they favoured either of the parties or remembered the events. Id. 1. 36: Κέρκυρα τῆς Ἰταλίας καὶ Σικελίας καλῶς παράπλου κεῖται, “in regard to Italy and Sicily, Corcyra lies well for a coasting voyage.' Id. III. 92: τοῦ πρὸς ̓Αθηναίους πολέμου καλῶς αὐτοῖς ἐδόκει ἡ πόλις καθίστασθαι—τῆς τε ἐπὶ Θράκης παρόδου χρησίμως ἕξειν, "the city (Trachin) seemed to be well situated for them in regard to the war with the Athenians-and to be likely to be usefully placed in regard to the passage towards Thrace." If a third circumstance has to be added, it is expressed by πpós with the accusative, as in Plat. Gorg. p. 451 c: Tρòs avтà κai πρòs ärλŋλa πῶς ἔχει πλήθους—πῶς πρὸς ἄλληλα τάχους ἔχει, where we have three circumstances, (1) the manner of the relation expressed by the adverb in -ws, (2) the special relation in which the manner is predicated, expressed by the genitive, (3) the object of the relation expressed by πpós with the accusative. Sometimes the intermediate expressions are omitted and the third circumstance is alone specified, as in Soph. Phil. 23: a μo πрoσeλ0ŵv σîya σήμαιν ̓ ἔτ ̓ ἔχει χῶρον πρὸς αὐτὸν τόνδε γ', εἴτ ̓ ἄλλῃ κυρεῖ, “ approach silently and tell me whether these things are (thus) situated with regard to this very place, or whether they chance to be otherwise," where ouros is implied in the opposition of aλλŋ. With the adverbs in -ws, to which the genitive of relation is so regularly added, we must class other adverbs, especially those