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with the genitive implying a part, such uses as the genitive following a demonstrative; Xen. Ages. 1. 7: Táď avтoû ayaμai, “I admire these things (as a part of) in him." Or without a demonstrative in the same sense; Isocr. Nicocl. p. 27 A, B: θαυμάζω τῶν ταύτην τὴν γνώμην ἐχόντων, "I wonder at this point in the persons who entertain this sentiment." Or before a relative sentence; Thucyd. II. 65: dieλóvtes Toû Teixous ǹ προσέπιπτε τὸ χῶμα, “ taking down that part of the wall where the mound was raised against it." Or compare with the genitive denoting a quality or property, such uses as the genitive following oikeios, idios, and the like; Isocr. Nicocl. p. 19 B: ἅπαντα τὰ τῶν οἰκούντων τὴν πόλιν οἰκεῖα τῶν καλῶς βασιλευόντων ἐστί, “ all the property of those who inhabit the city belongs to those who govern well."

(dd) Verbs, which do not in themselves denote participation, like those enumerated in (aa), but which imply attainment generally limited to a part of the object sought, are followed generally and regularly by a genitive of partition. Such are Tuxάvew, τυγχάνειν, κυρεῖν, ἀντιᾶν, λαγχάνειν, all signifying a contingent attainment. With regard to the first of these verbs, it is to be observed that although Tyɣáve in itself means primarily "to hit the mark,” and though it is often used with the participle merely to indicate coincidence in time, the noun Túxn is synonymous with Saíuwv and μoîpa, which denote respectively "a divider" and "a share." The verb κυρείν corresponds in many of its usages with τυγχάνειν, and while τυγχάνειν is sometimes found with the accusative, κυρείν takes not only the genitive, but the accusative and the dative, the latter sometimes with èri. The same remark applies to ἀντιᾶν, and λαγχάνειν, which conveys the idea of obtaining a λάχος or lot, is often construed with the accusative. Of the use of these verbs with the genitive of partition the following are examples: Isocr. Nicocl. p. 22 B, C: θνητοῦ σώματος ἔτυχες, ἀθανάτου δὲ yuxês, "you have obtained a share in (you partake of) a mortal body, but an immortal soul." Eur. Iph. A. 1624: Xéywv óπoías λέγων ἐκ θεῶν μοίρας κυρεί, “ saying in what sort of a destiny from the gods he is made a sharer." Herod. II. 119: ξεινίων ἤντησε μεγά Awv, "he obtained great presents." Soph. Ed. C. 450: ovтi μnj Xáxwσi toûde ovμμáxov, "they shall not gain me as an ally."

(c) The Genitive of Relation.

453 The proper criterion of a genitive of relation is furnished. by the fact, that in translating this usage we may always introduce the words "in regard or respect to;" in some cases this will be the

most natural and obvious rendering; but in all it will be found that it comes to this.

(aa) The genitive follows comparatives and superlatives to indicate the standard of comparison; as ἀμείνων ἄλλων, “better with regard to, in relation to, others;” ἄριστος ̓Αχαιών, “best of, with regard or respect to, the Achæans." Hence verbs involving a comparative or superlative govern a genitive of relation; as Xen. Hiero, I. § 18: μειονεκτεῖν τῶν ἰδιωτῶν, “ to have less in regard to private individuals.” Eurip. Ηipp. 1009: ἐκαλλιστεύετο πασῶν γυναικῶν, “ it (her body) was most beautiful as compared with all women." Xen. Anab. I. 7, § 12: votépnoe tŷs μáxns, “he came after with regard to the battle." From this notion of a comparison, we have the genitive after all verbs signifying superiority or pre-eminence, whether they involve a comparative or superlative adjective or not ; such are κρατεῖν, ἐπικρατεῖν, ὑπερέχειν, προέχειν, ὑπεραίρειν, ὑπερφέρειν, προφέρειν, ὑπερβάλλειν, πλεονεκτεῖν, περιεῖναι, περιγίγνεσθαι; and the same rule applies to those denoting inferiority, as ἡττᾶσθαι, ἐλασσοῦσθαι, μειοῦσθαι, μειονεκτεῖν, ὑστερί ζειν οι ὑστερεῖν, λείπεσθαι, ἀπολείπεσθαι, ἐλλείπειν; and to those involving a preference, as προαιρεῖσθαι, μᾶλλον αἱρεῖσθαι, προκρίνειν, προτιμᾶν; e. g. Χen. Cyr. III. 1, § 9 : περιγίγνεσθαί τινος ταχύτητι, “ to be superior in running as compared with some perThe verb διαφέρειν signifes not only to excel,” as in Plat. Leg. 711 Ε: τῇ τοῦ λέγειν ῥώμῃ πολὺ διαφέρειν ἀνθρώπων, greatly to excel as compared with other men in power of speaking;” but also “ to differ,” as Plat. Charm. 166 Β: ὅτῳ διαφέρει πασῶν τῶν ἐπιστημῶν ἡ σωφροσύνη, " wherein temperance differs as compared with, in relation to, all the sciences." According to the same analogy, all verbs signifying to rule, as ἀνάσσειν, βασιλεύειν, ἄρχειν, σημαίνειν, ἡγεῖσθαι, and the corresponding class of adjectives, as ἐγκράτης, ἀκράτης, πότνια, &c. take a genitive of relation, as Herod. 1. 206: βασίλευε τῶν σεωυτοῦ, καὶ ἡμέας ἀνέχευ ὁρέων ἄρχοντας τῶνπερ ἄρχομεν, " be king in relation to your own subjects, and endure to see us ruling in respect to these, whose rulers we are." Conversely, the verbs signifying to be obedient or disobedient will fall under the same construction; such are ἀκούειν, ὑπακούειν, πείθεσθαι, ἀνηκουστεῖν, ἀπειθεῖν; e. g. Hom. Od. v.11: θεοῦ δ ̓ ὡς δῆμος ἄκουεν, “ the people were obedient in respect to him as though he had been a god." Hence also äpxew and ǎp

son."

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Xeobal, "to begin," take a genitive of relation; as Theocr. 1. 70: ἄρχετε βωκολικᾶς, Μοῦσαι φίλαι, ἄρχετ ̓ ἀοιδᾶς, " begin with regard to, make a beginning of, the bucolic strain."

(bb) The genitive of relation is used especially after adverbs in -ws, predicating the manner of an action, in order to express the special relation or respect in which the manner is predicated. Thus Thucyd. II. 90: ὡς εἶχε τάχους ἕκαστος, “ as each of them was situated in the manner in which each of them held himself-in regard or relation to swiftness." Herod. VI. 116: oi 'Aonvaîo ws ποδῶν εἶχον τάχιστα ἐβοήθεον ἐς τὸ ἄστυ, “ the Athenians, in the fastest manner in which they held themselves with regard to their feet (as fast as their feet could carry them), hastened to the succour of the city.” Thucyd. I. 22: ὡς ἑκατέρων τις εὐνοίας ἢ μνήμης exo, "according as the individuals stood in relation to the favour with which they regarded either of the belligerents, or in relation to their recollection of the facts," i.e. according as they favoured either of the parties or remembered the events. Id. 1. 36: Κέρκυρα τῆς Ἰταλίας καὶ Σικελίας καλῶς παράπλου κεῖται, “in regard to Italy and Sicily, Corcyra lies well for a coasting voyage.' Id. III. 92: τοῦ πρὸς ̓Αθηναίους πολέμου καλῶς αὐτοῖς ἐδόκει ἡ πόλις καθίστασθαι—τῆς τε ἐπὶ Θράκης παρόδου χρησίμως ἕξειν, "the city (Trachin) seemed to be well situated for them in regard to the war with the Athenians-and to be likely to be usefully placed in regard to the passage towards Thrace." If a third circumstance has to be added, it is expressed by πpós with the accusative, as in Plat. Gorg. p. 451 c: Tρòs avтà κai πρòs ärλŋλa πῶς ἔχει πλήθους—πῶς πρὸς ἄλληλα τάχους ἔχει, where we have three circumstances, (1) the manner of the relation expressed by the adverb in -ws, (2) the special relation in which the manner is predicated, expressed by the genitive, (3) the object of the relation expressed by πpós with the accusative. Sometimes the intermediate expressions are omitted and the third circumstance is alone specified, as in Soph. Phil. 23: a μo πрoσeλ0ŵv σîya σήμαιν ̓ ἔτ ̓ ἔχει χῶρον πρὸς αὐτὸν τόνδε γ', εἴτ ̓ ἄλλῃ κυρεῖ, “ approach silently and tell me whether these things are (thus) situated with regard to this very place, or whether they chance to be otherwise," where ouros is implied in the opposition of aλλŋ. With the adverbs in -ws, to which the genitive of relation is so regularly added, we must class other adverbs, especially those

referring to time and place, as Herod. VII. 237: πρóσw ȧρeтηĤs, "far with regard to virtue." Plat. Prot. 326 c: πрwïαíтата TηS Muxías, "very early with respect to age." Some of these approximate very closely to the genitive of derivation (above, 451, (dd)).

(cc) Many adjectives take a genitive of relation, on the same principle as the adverbs just mentioned; thus we have Plat. Leg. 643 D: TÉNELOS TAS ȧpeтns, "perfect with respect to virtue." Herod. 1. 107 : παρθένος ἀνδρὸς ὡραίη. Ibid. 196: γάμου ὡραίη, "of age with regard to a husband or marriage." Esch. Suppl. 468: θέλω δ' ἀϊδρις μᾶλλον ἢ σοφὸς κακῶν εἶναι, “ I wish to be ignorant rather than wise with regard to misfortunes." It is easy to see that the genitive stands in the same grammatical reference to these adjectives as it does to the adverb of manner. Compare for example Plat. Αpol. p. 17 D, ξένως ἔχω τῆς ἐνθάδε λέξεως, “ Ι am in the condition of a stranger, I am not at home, with regard to this mode of speaking," with 26 D, olet avтoùs àπeípovs ypaμμáτwv elvai, "you think them unskilled with regard to literature." The adjectives compounded with ȧ- privative are particularly used with this genitive of relation (see above, 414, (ee)).

(dd) The genitive of estimation, value or price, seems to connect itself immediately with the genitive of relation and comparison. We see the identity of these uses of the genitive in the construction οἱ ἄξιος, ἀντάξιος, ἀνάξιος. Thus Plat. Leg. p. 728 Α: πᾶς ὅ τ' ἐπὶ γῆς καὶ ὑπὸ γῆς χρυσὸς ἀρετῆς οὐκ ἀντάξιος, “ all the gold upon and below the earth is not of equal value as compared with virtue." And so of a punishment, which was regarded as the price or penalty paid for a transgression; Isocr. Nicocl. p. 37 E: voμíČETE TÊS AVTηS εἶναι ζημίας ἀξίους τοὺς συγκρύπτοντας τοῖς ἐξαμαρτάνουσι, “ consider that those who compound a crime are deserving of the same penalty with those who commit it." Hence this genitive is placed after all verbs which require the determination of value, namely, those which signify "to buy, to sell, to exchange, to spend money, to charge, to set free, to ransom," and the like (oveîolai, πpíaobai, ἀγοράζειν, κτᾶσθαι, λαμβάνειν, παραλαμβάνειν, ἀποδίδοσθαι, πως λεῖν, ἀμείβειν, ἀλλάσσειν, προΐεσθαι, πράττεσθαι, λύειν, λύεσθαι, &c.); those which signify "to fix a punishment" (Tiμâv, Tiμâo0a); and those which signify "to lay a wager" (Tepididoo@ai), with the adjectives ὤνιος and ὠνητός. Thus Herod. v. 6: ὠνέονται

τὰς γυναῖκας παρὰ τῶν γονέων χρημάτων πολλών, “ they buy their wives from the parents for (the value of) large sums of money." Xen. Mem. 1. 2, § 60: TOλλoû TOîs äλλois étáλovv, "they sold it for a good deal to others." Eurip. Med. 963: Tov éμŵv πaídwv φυγὰς ψυχῆς ἂν ἀλλαξαίμεθ', οὐ χρυσοῦ μόνον, “I would give in exchange not gold only, but even my life, to save my children from exile." Dem. Phil. II. p. 68: undevòs av kéρdovs тà KOLà Síkaιa τῶν Ἑλλήνων προέσθαι, “ not to give up (part with) the common rights of the Greeks for (the value of) any gain." Il. xI. 106: ěλvσev áπоívæv, "be set free for a ransom.' Plat. Apol. p. 36 ▲ : τιμᾶταί μοι ὁ ἀνὴρ θανάτου, “ the man estimates my punishment at the price of death." Il. XXIII. 485: Seûρó vvv тρíπodos πEρISwμelov nè Xéßηtos, "come now, let us make a wager at the price δώμεθον λέβητος, of a tripod or a caldron" (but the genitive is generally accompanied by a repetition of Tepi in Attic, as in Arist. Eq. 798: ἐθέλω περὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς περιδόσθαι). Isocr. Nicocl. p. 21 B: δόξα χρημάτων οὐκ ὠνητή, “glory is not purchasable at the price of money."

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(ee) From the genitive of price to that of the cause or motive the transition is immediate. This construction is found (a) with verbs, (B) with the adjective, (7) with the substantive.

(a) The varieties of this use will be best shown by examples. Verbs of prosecuting or accusing (such as διώκειν, αἰτιᾶσθαι, λαχεῖν, γράφεσθαι, εἰσάγειν, καλεῖσθαι, ἐπαιτιᾶσθαι, ἐπεξιέναι), οἱ convicting (as aipeîv), of judging (as dixálew), of being accused (as pevyew), of being convicted (as áλ@va), take a genitive signifying "on account of," e. g. Herod. vi. 104: Miλriadéa ediwžav Tuρavvidos τῆς ἐν Χερσονήσῳ, "they prosecuted Miltiades on account of his tyranny in the Chersonesus." Similarly verbs signifying "to be angry or indignant” (as χαλεπώς φέρειν, μηνίειν, κεχολώσθαι), e. g. Soph. Antig. 1177: πaтρì μnvíoas póvov, "incensed with his father on account of the murder;" verbs signifying "to grieve or lament" (as ἀλγεῖν, δακρύειν, στένειν), e. g. Asch. Αg. 582: τί χρῆ τὸν ζῶντα ἀλγεῖν τύχης παλιγκότου, " why must the survivor lament on account of adverse fortune?" verbs signifying "to praise or blame" (as ἐπαινεῖν, ἄγασθαι, μακαρίζειν, εὐδαιμονίζειν, ὀνειδίζειν), e. g. rip. Iph. Α. 1381: τὸν μὲν οὖν ξένον δίκαιον αἰνέσαι προθυμίας, “ it is just to praise the stranger for his readiness;" verbs signifying “to envy, hate, grudge, punish” (as ζηλοῦν, φθονεῖν, στυγεῖν,

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