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referring to time and place, as Herod. vII. 237: πрóσw ȧρerns, "far with regard to virtue." Plat. Prot. 326 c: πрwïaíTаTа TŶS λkías, "very early with respect to age." Some of these approximate very closely to the genitive of derivation (above, 451, (dd)).

(cc) Many adjectives take a genitive of relation, on the same principle as the adverbs just mentioned; thus we have Plat. Leg. 643 D: TÉXELOS TÊ≤ ȧpeτñs, “perfect with respect to virtue." Herod. 1. 107: παρθένος ἀνδρὸς ὡραίη. Ibid. 196: γάμου ὡραίη, "of age with regard to a husband or marriage." Esch. Suppl. 468: θέλω δ' ἀϊδρις μᾶλλον ἢ σοφὸς κακῶν εἶναι, “ I wish to be ignorant rather than wise with regard to misfortunes." It is easy to see that the genitive stands in the same grammatical reference to these adjectives as it does to the adverb of manner. Compare for exampie Plat. Αpol. p. 17 D, ξένως ἔχω τῆς ἐνθάδε λέξεως, “Ι am in the condition of a stranger, I am not at home, with regard to this mode of speaking," with 26 d, olei avtoùs àπeípovs ypaμμáτwv elvai, “you think them unskilled with regard to literature." The adjectives compounded with a- privative are particularly used with this genitive of relation (see above, 414, (ee)).

(dd) The genitive of estimation, value or price, seems to connect itself immediately with the genitive of relation and comparison. We see the identity of these uses of the genitive in the construction οἱ ἄξιος, ἀντάξιος, ἀνάξιος. Thus Plat. Leg. p. 728 Α: πᾶς ὅ τ ἐπὶ γῆς καὶ ὑπὸ γῆς χρυσὸς ἀρετῆς οὐκ ἀντάξιος, “ all the gold upon and below the earth is not of equal value as compared with virtue." And so of a punishment, which was regarded as the price or penalty paid for a transgression; Isocr. Nicocl. p. 37 E: VOμÍŠETE TηS AVTηS εἶναι ζημίας ἀξίους τοὺς συγκρύπτοντας τοῖς ἐξαμαρτάνουσι, “ consider that those who compound a crime are deserving of the same penalty with those who commit it." Hence this genitive is placed after all verbs which require the determination of value, namely, those which signify "to buy, to sell, to exchange, to spend money, to charge, to set free, to ransom," and the like (oveîobaι, πρíaobai, ἀγοράζειν, κτάσθαι, λαμβάνειν, παραλαμβάνειν, ἀποδίδοσθαι, πως λεῖν, ἀμείβειν, ἀλλάσσειν, προΐεσθαι, πράττεσθαι, λύειν, λύεσθαι, &c.); those which signify "to fix a punishment" (Tipμâv, tiμâolai); and those which signify "to lay a wager" (πepidídoσlai), with the adjectives ὤνιος and ὠνητός. Thus Herod. v. 6: ὠνέονται

τὰς γυναῖκας παρὰ τῶν γονέων χρημάτων πολλῶν, " they buy their wives from the parents for (the value of) large sums of money." Xen. Mem. 1. 2, § 60: Tоλλoû Tois anλois éπλovv, "they sold it for a good deal to others." Eurip. Med. 963: Tŵv éμŵv πaídwv φυγὰς ψυχῆς ἂν ἀλλαξαίμεθ', οὐ χρυσοῦ μόνον, “I would give in exchange not gold only, but even my life, to save my children from exile." Dem. Phil. 11. p. 68: μndevòs åv képdοvs тà Kowà díκaia τῶν Ἑλλήνων προέσθαι, “ not to give up (part with) the common rights of the Greeks for (the value of) any gain." Il. xI. 106: ěλvσev àπoívæv, "be set free for a ransom.' Plat. Apol. p. 36 ▲ : τιμᾶταί μοι ὁ ἀνὴρ θανάτου, “the man estimates my punishment at the price of death.” II. XXIII. 485: δεῦρό νυν ἢ τρίποδος περιSwμedov nè Xéẞηтоs, "come now, let us make a wager at the price of a tripod or a caldron" (but the genitive is generally accompanied by a repetition of Tepí in Attic, as in Arist. Eq. 798: ἐθέλω περὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς περιδόσθαι). Isocr. Nicocl. p. 21 B: δόξα χρημάτων οὐκ ὠνητή, “glory is not purchasable at the price of money.'

(ee) From the genitive of price to that of the cause or motive the transition is immediate. This construction is found (a) with verbs, (B) with the adjective, (y) with the substantive.

(a) The varieties of this use will be best shown by examples. Verbs of prosecuting or accusing (such as διώκειν, αἰτιᾶσθαι, λαχεῖν, γράφεσθαι, εἰσάγειν, καλεῖσθαι, ἐπαιτιᾶσθαι, ἐπεξιέναι), of convicting (as aipeîv), of judging (as diráţei), of being accused (as peúyew), of being convicted (as áλŵvai), take a genitive signifying "on account of," e.g. Herod. vI. 104: Miλriadéa édíwğav Tupavvidos τῆς ἐν Χερσονήσῳ, "they prosecuted Miltiades on account of his tyranny in the Chersonesus." Similarly verbs signifying "to be angry or indignant” (as χαλεπώς φέρειν, μηνίειν, κεχολώσθαι), e. g. Soph. Antig. 1177: патρì μnvíoas póvov, "incensed with his father on account of the murder;" verbs signifying "to grieve or lament" (23 ἀλγεῖν, δακρύειν, στένειν), e. g. Asch. Αg. 582: τί χρῆ τὸν ζῶντα ἀλγεῖν τύχης παλιγκότου, “ why must the survivor lament on account of adverse fortune?" verbs signifying "to praise or blame" (as ἐπαινεῖν, ἄγασθαι, μακαρίζειν, εὐδαιμονίζειν, ὀνειδίζειν), e. g. Eurip. Iph. Α. 1381: τὸν μὲν οὖν ξένον δίκαιον αἰνέσαι προθυμίας, “ it is just to praise the stranger for his readiness;" verbs signifying “to envy, hate, grudge, punish” (as ζηλοῦν, φθονεῖν, στυγεῖν,

τιμωρεῖσθαι), e. g. Soph. Εl. 1027: ζηλῶ σε τοῦ νοῦ, τῆς δὲ δειλίας σтUу, “I envy you on account of your prudence, but abhor you on account of your cowardice;" verbs signifying" to intreat or adjure" (as λίσσομαι, ἱκετεύω, γουνάζομαι) take a genitive meaning “ for the sake of, e. g. Hom. Od. II. 68 : λίσσομαι ἠμὲν Ζηνὸς Ολυμπίου ἠδὲ Θέμιστος, OéμOTOS, "I intreat you for the sake of Zeus and Themis ;" and in the same way the genitive is construed with many other verbs. That this usage really belongs to that of the genitive of relation is clear from the parallel cases in which the genitive dependent on an adverb in -ws (above, (bb)) is interchangeable with the idiom now under consideration. Thus we find Xen. Cyr. v. 2, § 7: TEVÕIKŵs ἔχειν τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ τεθνηκότος, “ in a state of grief on account of his brother being dead." When the genitive after these verbs appears in the form of an infinitive with the article, the cause generally assumes the character of a motive of action, as in Thucyd. 1. 4: TÒ λῃστικὸν καθῄρει ἐκ τῆς θαλάσσης τοῦ τὰς προσόδους μᾶλλον ἰέναι avr, "he cleared away the pirates from the sea in order that his revenues might the better come in for him." Id. 1. 23: Tàs airías ἔγραψα τοῦ μή τινα ζητῆσαί ποτε, ἐξ ὅτου τοσοῦτος πόλεμος κατέ"I have written down the causes, in order that no one may ever have to inquire, on what grounds so great a war arose." Xen. Cyr. I. 6, § 40 : τοῦ μὴ διαφεύγειν τὸν λάγων ἐκ τῶν δικτύων σκοποὺς καθίσταμεν, " we set people to look out in order that the hare might not get away out of the nets." Plat. Gorg. p. 457 E: ov πρὸς τὸ πρᾶγμα τοῦ καταφανὲς γενέσθαι, “ not with a view to the object, in order that it become plain." Soph. Phil. 198: oví čσľ ὡς οὐ θεῶν τοῦ μελέτῃ, τοῦ μὴ πρότερον τόνδ ̓ ἐπὶ Τροίᾳ τεῖναι τὰ βέλη, πρίν κ.τ.λ., " it is not possible that this is not with the contrivance of some one of the gods, to the intent that he should not aim his bolts against Troy, before," &c. (below, 606, (a)).


(B) The adjectives with which the genitive of the cause is found are very often of the same kind as the verbs which admit of the same construction; thus, as we have Plat. Resp. p. 516 c: čavтòV εὐδαιμονίζειν τῆς μεταβολῆς, “ to consider himself happy on account of the change;" so we have Id. Phædo, p. 58 E: evdaíμwv poi oi avmp εὐδαίμων μοι ἐφαίνετο καὶ τοῦ τρόπου καὶ τῶν λόγων, “ the man appeared to me happy both on account of his character and on account of his words." And very frequently in exclamatory sentences, as Eurip. Iph. A.1287: o ủy cò Đavator Tôi tou peréa, ah me, wretched on

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account of thy death!" Whence the interjection alone is followed by the genitive, as Eurip. Phon. 384: olμoi tŵv éμŵv ¿yw kakŵv, "ah me, how wretched am I on account of my misfortunes!" Xen. Cyr. III. 1, § 39: þeû тoû avôpós, "ah, what a man!"

(2) The substantives, to which this genitive is subjoined, belong also to the same class; thus, as we have Eurip. Herc. F. 529: Saкpúεiv σvμpoρâs Tuós, “to weep on account of some misfortune," we have Id. Orest. 426: μελάμπεπλος κουρᾷ τε θυγατρὸς πενθίμῳ KEKаρμévos, "clothed in black and shorn with a mournful tonsure κεκαρμένος, on account of his daughter."

(ff) The genitive of relation is used (a) after a verb or (B) noun or (y) absolutely, to mean "in respect to, as to what concerns," where we often find also the preposition πepí. Thus we have (α) Soph. d. C. 355: μαντεία ἃ τοῦδ ̓ ἐχρήσθη σώματος, "the oracles which were pronounced concerning this body of mine" (i.e. περὶ ἐμοῦ). (β) Id. Antig. 632: τελείαν ψῆφον τῆς μελ Xovúμpov, "the ratified decree touching, concerning thy affianced bride” (περὶ τῆς μελλονύμφου). (γ) Eurip. Andr. 361: ἡμεῖς μὲν οὖν τοιοίδε· τῆς δὲ σῆς φρενός, ἕν σου δέδοικα, “ we for our part are thus determined; but with regard to your mind (Tepì Tĥs σns Opevós), I fear one characteristic of yours."


(2) Idiomatic usages of the Greek Genitive.

454 Besides the applications which have been now discussed, and in which we can trace one of the original meanings of the Greek genitive-ablation, partition, relation-or some analogy immediately springing from them, there are certain idiomatic usages of frequent occurrence, in which it is possible indeed to assign the original meaning, but which are stamped with a special impress, and therefore entitled to a separate consideration. These are (aa) the possessive genitive, (bb) the genitive of contact, (cc) the tentative use of the genitive, and (dd) the genitive absolute.

(aa) The Possessive Genitive.

We have seen (452, (cc)) that the substantive verb is connected with many uses of the genitive of partition. In the instances there given the genitive meant a person when a quality was expressed.

ἄστρων εὐφρονή,


If we invert this and make the genitive signify a thing or a person considered as an object, it becomes a possessive case, and amounts to an attributive adjective. Thus, if we say (Thucyd. 1. 113), Tηs avτîs yvwμns eiμí, “I am of the same opinion," or (Pind. Pyth. III. 108), olas coμèv aloas, "of what condition in life we are," the genitive amounts to an attribution of consistency or specific destiny. And this kind of genitive is actually used by the poets as the substitute for an epithet. Thus Soph. Antig. 114: λevkîjs xíovos πτέρυξ, "a a wing of white snow," means a snow-white wing." Electr. 19: aorрwv evoрový, "a night of stars," means "a starry night." Eurip. Phoen. 1529: σTOλìs Tρupâs, “a robe of luxury," means "a luxurious robe." Ibid. 1616: τραύματα αἵματος, “wounds of blood," means "bloody wounds," &c. Compare the genitive denoting the result of manufacture (451, (cc)). This genitive, when it refers to a person considered as object, is used after demonstrative or relative pronouns; as Xen. Ages. 1, § 8: πολλοὶ ἠγάσθησαν αὐτοῦ τοῦτο, τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι, &c., “many admired this as belonging to him, his desiring," &c. Thucyd. 1. 84: τὸ βραδὺ καὶ τὸ μέλλον ὃ μέμφονται μάλιστα ἡμῶν, “ the slowness and delay, which they most blame as a characteristic of us." The genitive of possession may, like the possessive pronouns derived from the genitive of the personal pronouns, denote either the subject or the object. Thus exeos Kopiviwv may signify either “the hatred felt by the Corinthians" or "the hatred felt towards or against the Corinthians;" Tólos vioû may signify either "the desire felt by the son" or "the desire of which the son is the object;" and in cases where the main noun implies an action, and the genitive denotes a thing, this objective use of the genitive is the only allowable one, as in Plat. Sympos. 220 A: Σwкрáτηs πρоs τàs тоÛ χειμώνος καρτερήσεις θαυμάσια εἰργάζετο, “ Socrates did wondrous things with regard to his bearing up against the winter." So in διδάσκαλος λόγων, ἐπιθυμία χρημάτων, ἀγγείων ἀπορία, ἀφορμὴ epywv, and the like, it is clear that the genitive must denote the object. But both genitives may depend on the same noun, as in Plat. Resp. 329 Β: αἱ τῶν οἰκείων προπηλακίσεις τοῦ γήρως, “ the insults directed against old age by their own relatives." On the other hand, if the leading noun implies a person or thing, and the genitive denotes a person, the genitive must signify the subject, as in κῆποι Επικούρου, οἰκέτης Δημοσθένους, ἔργον Πραξιτέλους, σύγ ypaμμа Пλáтwvos, and the like. The same remark applies to the

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