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τιμωρεῖσθαι), e. g. Soph. Εl. 1027 : ζηλῶ σε τοῦ νοῦ, τῆς δὲ δειλίας σтvy, "I envy you on account of your prudence, but abhor you on account of your cowardice;" verbs signifying " to intreat or adjure" (as λίσσομαι, ἱκετεύω, γουνάζομαι) take a genitive meaning “ for the sake of,” e. g. Hom. Od. II. 68 : λίσσομαι ἠμὲν Ζηνὸς Ὀλυμπίου ἠδὲ Oéμotos, "I intreat you for the sake of Zeus and Themis ;" and in Θέμιστος, the same way the genitive is construed with many other verbs. That this usage really belongs to that of the genitive of relation is clear from the parallel cases in which the genitive dependent on an adverb in -ws (above, (bb)) is interchangeable with the idiom now under consideration. Thus we find Xen. Cyr. v. 2, § 7: πevdikŵs ἔχειν τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ τεθνηκότος, “ in a state of grief on account of his brother being dead." When the genitive after these verbs appears in the form of an infinitive with the article, the cause generally assumes the character of a motive of action, as in Thucyd. I. 4: TÒ λῃστικὸν καθῄρει ἐκ τῆς θαλάσσης τοῦ τὰς προσόδους μᾶλλον ἰέναι aur, "he cleared away the pirates from the sea in order that his revenues might the better come in for him." Id. 1. 23: Tàs airías ἔγραψα τοῦ μή τινα ζητῆσαί ποτε, ἐξ ὅτου τοσοῦτος πόλεμος κατέστη, I have written down the causes, in order that no one may ever have to inquire, on what grounds so great a war arose." Xen. Cyr. I. 6, § 40 : τοῦ μὴ διαφεύγειν τὸν λάγων ἐκ τῶν δικτύων σκοποὺς καθίσταμεν, “ we set people to look out in order that the hare might not get away out of the nets." Plat. Gorg. p. 457 E: où πρὸς τὸ πρᾶγμα τοῦ καταφανὲς γενέσθαι, “ not with a view to the object, in order that it become plain." Soph. Phil. 198: ovк čσơ ὡς οὐ θεῶν τοῦ μελέτῃ, τοῦ μὴ πρότερον τόνδ ̓ ἐπὶ Τροίᾳ τεῖναι τὰ βέλη, πρίν κ.τ.λ., “ it is not possible that this is not with the contrivance of some one of the gods, to the intent that he should not aim his bolts against Troy, before," &c. (below, 606, (a)).

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(B) The adjectives with which the genitive of the cause is found are very often of the same kind as the verbs which admit of the same construction; thus, as we have Plat. Resp. p. 516 c: čavтòV εὐδαιμονίζειν τῆς μεταβολῆς, “ to consider himself happy on account of the change;" so we have Id. Phædo, p. 58 E: evdaíμwv poi oi àvýp ἐφαίνετο καὶ τοῦ τρόπου καὶ τῶν λόγων, “ the man appeared to me happy both on account of his character and on account of his words." And very frequently in exclamatory sentences, as Eurip. Iph. A. 1287: oi èyà lavátov Toû σoû μeλéa, “ah me, wretched on

account of thy death!" Whence the interjection alone is followed by the genitive, as Eurip. Phon. 384: olμoi тŵv éμŵv ¿yw kakŵv, "ah me, how wretched am I on account of my misfortunes!" Xen. Cyr. III. 1, § 39 : peu toi cuòpós, “ ah, what a man!”

(y) The substantives, to which this genitive is subjoined, belong also to the same class; thus, as we have Eurip. Herc. F. 529: Saкρúεiv σvμpоpâs Twós, "to weep on account of some misfortune,' we have Id. Orest. 426: μελάμπεπλος κουρᾷ τε θυγατρὸς πενθίμῳ κεκαρμένος, "clothed in black and shorn with a mournful tonsure on account of his daughter."

(ff) The genitive of relation is used (a) after a verb or (B) noun or (y) absolutely, to mean "in respect to, as to what concerns," where we often find also the preposition Teрí. Thus we have (α) Soph. d. C. 355: μαντεία ἃ τοῦδ ̓ ἐχρήσθη σώματος, "the oracles which were pronounced concerning this body of mine" (i.e. περὶ ἐμοῦ). (β) Id. Antig. 632: τελείαν ψῆφον τῆς μελ Xovúμpov, “the ratified decree touching, concerning thy affianced bride” (περὶ τῆς μελλονύμφου). (γ) Eurip. Andr. 361: ἡμεῖς μὲν οὖν τοιοίδε· τῆς δὲ σῆς φρενός, ἕν σου δέδοικα, “ we for our part are thus determined; but with regard to your mind (πepì tŵs oĥs Opevós), I fear one characteristic of yours.'

(2) Idiomatic usages of the Greek Genitive.

454 Besides the applications which have been now discussed, and in which we can trace one of the original meanings of the Greek genitive-ablation, partition, relation—or some analogy immediately springing from them, there are certain idiomatic usages of frequent occurrence, in which it is possible indeed to assign the original meaning, but which are stamped with a special impress, These are and therefore entitled to a separate consideration. (aa) the possessive genitive, (bb) the genitive of contact, (cc) the tentative use of the genitive, and (dd) the genitive absolute.

(aa) The Possessive Genitive.

We have seen (452, (cc)) that the substantive verb is connected with many uses of the genitive of partition. In the instances there given the genitive meant a person when a quality was expressed.

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If we invert this and make the genitive signify a thing or a person considered as an object, it becomes a possessive case, and amounts to an attributive adjective. Thus, if we say (Thucyd. 1. 113), Tηs avτñs yvwμns eiμí, "I am of the same opinion," or (Pind. Pyth. III. 108), olas coμèv aioas, "of what condition in life we are," the genitive amounts to an attribution of consistency or specific destiny. And this kind of genitive is actually used by the poets as the substitute for an epithet. Thus Soph. Antig. 114: Nevis xiovos πтéρν, "a wing of white snow," means "a snow-white wing." Electr. 19: dorρwv evoрový, "a night of stars," means "a starry night." Eurip. Phon. 1529: σToλìs тρupâs, “a robe of luxury," means "a luxurious robe." Ibid. 1616: τραύματα αἵματος, “wounds of blood," means "bloody wounds," &c. Compare the genitive denoting the result of manufacture (451, (cc)). This genitive, when it refers to a person considered as object, is used after demonstrative or relative pronouns; as Xen. Ages. 1, § 8: πολλοὶ ἠγάσθησαν αὐτοῦ τοῦτο, τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι, &c., “ many admired this as belonging to him, his desiring," &c. Thucyd. 1. 84: τὸ βραδὺ καὶ τὸ μέλλον ὃ μέμφονται μάλιστα ἡμῶν, “ the slowness and delay, which they most blame as a characteristic of us." The genitive of possession may, like the possessive pronouns derived from the genitive of the personal pronouns, denote either the subject or the object. Thus exeos Kopivoiwv may signify either "the hatred felt by the Corinthians" or "the hatred felt towards or against the Corinthians;" Tólos vioù may signify either "the desire felt by the son" or "the desire of which the son is the object;" and in cases where the main noun implies an action, and the genitive denotes a thing, this objective use of the genitive is the only allowable one, as in Plat. Sympos. 220 a: Σwкpátηs πρòs tàs toÛ χειμώνος καρτερήσεις θαυμάσια ειργάζετο, “ Socrates did wondrous things with regard to his bearing up against the winter." So in διδάσκαλος λόγων, ἐπιθυμία χρημάτων, ἀγγείων ἀπορία, ἀφορμὴ ěpywv, and the like, it is clear that the genitive must denote the object. But both genitives may depend on the same noun, as in Plat. Resp. 329 Β: αἱ τῶν οἰκείων προπηλακίσεις τοῦ γήρως, “the insults directed against old age by their own relatives." On the other hand, if the leading noun implies a person or thing, and the genitive denotes a person, the genitive must signify the subject, as in κῆποι Επικούρου, οἰκέτης Δημοσθένους, ἔργον Πραξιτέλους, σύγ yрaμμа Пxáтwvos, and the like. The same remark applies to the

chorographic genitive, when this case denotes the name of the more extensive district in which the lesser locality is contained; and in this case the genitive often precedes; as in τῆς Χερσονήσου ἐν Ελαιοῦντι, but ἐς Ωρωπὸν τῆς πέραν γῆς ; τῆς Ἰταλίας Λόκροι, but Μεθώνη τῆς Λακωνικῆς; τῆς ̓Αρκαδίας ἐς Παῤῥασίους, but πρὸς τὸ Κήναιον τῆς Εὐβοίας; τῆς Λέσβου ἐπὶ τῇ Μαλέᾳ ἄκρᾳ, but ἐν τῇ Ἐλαιάτιδι τῆς Θεσπρωτίας. It belongs rather to speculative philology than to practical grammar to trace the various usages of the possessive genitive to their respective origins. But it is clear that they all approximate to the genitive of partition; that, like the adjectives derived from them, they may be rendered by the English "of or belonging to;" and that they correspond to the Latin genitive as distinguished from the ablative.

(bb) The Genitive of Contact.

It may seem strange that the genitive, which primarily denotes motion from a place and separation, should be regularly used after verbs implying contact and adhesion. But this is invariably the case, and we also find the genitive after excola, ἀντέχεσθαι, λαμβάνεσθαι, ἀντιλαμβάνεσθαι, ἐπιλαμβάνεσθαι, δράτο τεσθαι, ἅπτεσθαι, καθάπτομαι, signifying " to cleave to something, to lay hold of it, to fasten on to it, to grasp it," and generally after Ovyyável and favew, “to touch." Thus we have Xen. Anab. VII, θιγγάνειν 6, § 41: ἢν οὖν σωφρονῶμεν, ἑξόμεθα αὐτοῦ, “if we are wise we shall keep a fast hold of him." Thucyd. I. 140: Tŷs AvTÊs yvwμns exoμal, "I stick to the same opinion." Herod. IV. 169: TOÚTOV exovтai Tixiɣáμμpai, "the Giligammæ come next to these, follow them in close contiguity." Eurip. Hec. 402: Koσòs dρvòs őπws, Tĥod ëçoμai, “I will cling to her, as the ivy clings to the oak,” and similarly with the other verbs of this class. That this genitive is not partitive appears from the fact that either the active form of these verbs is used with the partitive genitive, or, if the middle form is used, a genitive of the word signifying the part is placed by the side of an accusative indicating the whole of the object. With regard to the former distinction, if the partitive genitive follows a transitive verb, we signify that a part of the object is affected, but if the same case follows a middle verb, we signify that we have become a part of the object; thus, exw ToÛTO, “I have this;” ἔχω τοῦ ἀργυρίου, “I have part of the money;” ἔχομαι

Toû ȧpyupíov, "I cleave to the money-I am, as it were, part of it.” Similarly τὸ πῦρ ἦψε τὸ τεῖχος, “the fire lighted the wall;" Tò Tûρ ĥVE TOÙ TEÍXOVS (Thucyd. Iv. 100), "the fire caught a part of the wall;” τὸ πῦρ ἥψατο τοῦ τείχους, “ the fre caught the wall," i. e. clave to it. With regard to the latter distinction, Xaußávei Ti means "to take or receive the whole λαμβάνειν τι of something;" λaußáveiv Tivós, "to take or receive a part of something;" aμßáveolaí Tivos, "to lay hold, fasten on to someλαμβάνεσθαί τινος, thing;" but außáveolaí Tivós T, "to lay hold of something by some part of it." Thus Xen. Anab. 1. 6, § 10: éλáßovTO TŷS CÉVNS Tòv 'OρóvTηy, "they took hold of Orontes by the girdle." Or the τὸν Ὀρόντην, genitive of the part may appear without the accusative of the whole object; as Plat. Parm. 126: кaí μov éλáßeto tŷs Xelpós, “he took hold of me by the hand." This rule applies to other verbs besides those which regularly govern the genitive; thus we have ev τινὰ ποδῶν, “ to drag a person by his feet ;” αὐχένων μάρψας ὄφιας, "having seized the serpents by their necks;" yéρovтa xeɩpòs aviorη, "he raised the old man by his hand;" and even with verbal adjectives, as γυναῖκα κρεμαστὴν αὐχένος, “ a woman hanging by the neck." The true explanation of these usages seems to be that which applies to the use of exeσbai and ȧprâσlaι with the genitive and e. In all such adhesions and attachments, the object attached is regarded as really separable, the idea of conjunction is conveyed by the verb, and the genitive, according to its proper ablative meaning, implies that there is at least a partial disjunction.

(cc) The Tentative Use of the Genitive.

The genitive regularly follows a number of verbs denoting the attempt to reach or hit an object. Such are opéyoμaí Tivos, “to reach after, to aim at" (which occasionally also takes the accusative when the object is represented as reached or hit); σтоɣáÇeσðaι, τιτύσκεσθαί τινος, " to propose as a mark or butt;” ὀρούειν, ἐπαΐσèπatoσειν τινός, σew Tiós, "to move eagerly after an object;" iévai Tivós, "to shoot at something;" pirTew Tuós, "to fling at something;" ToĢEÚειν, ὀϊστεύειν, ἀκοντίζειν τινός, " to shoot with a bow and arrow or to dart at a mark;” ἐπιθυμεῖν, ἐπιβάλλεσθαί τινος, " to set one's heart or mind in the direction of an object;" and generally πeipâv, Teiρâσlaí Tivos, "to make an attempt upon something." Thus Hom. I. vI. 466: où πaidòs apétaro, "he stretched out his hands

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