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to reach his child;” but xvi. 322: ἔφθη ὀρεξάμενος (οὐδ ̓ ἀφάμαρτεν pov apap, "he was at once the first to hit his shoulder, nor did he miss it.” Soph. Αj. 154: μεγάλων ψυχῶν ἱεὶς οὐκ ἂν ἁμάρ TO, "if he were to aim at great souls he could not miss." Il. iv. 100: otoтevσov Meveλáov, “aim an arrow at Menelaus." Thucyd. I. 61: πειράσαντες τοῦ χωρίου καὶ οὐχ ἑλόντες, “ having made an attempt on the place, without taking it." Od. XXI. 149: TóĘOU TELρηTIČEV, "he made a trial of the bow." Ibid. 159: èπηv тóžOV πειρήσεται, "after he shall have made trial of the bow." At first sight it may seem most natural to connect this usage with that of the genitive after verbs denoting fulness or want (451, (ff)), and certainly there is much resemblance between deîolaí Tivos, "to be in want of something,” and ὀρέγεσθαι, ἐπιθυμεῖν, ἐπιβάλλεσθαι, opoveш, éπatoσew Twos, "to set one's mind after the attainment of an object." In point of fact, however, this analogy does not seem to furnish the true explanation of the idiomatic usage of the tentative verb. It seems that opéyoua, originally synonymous with epxopal, "I make a straight line for myself," indicates motion in a presumed direction, and that until the object is reached, that is, as long as there is only motion in that direction, the genitive as the case of separation is in its proper place; but that the accusative would appear with the same verb, if the motion were supposed to be completed. We have seen that this is the fact with regard to the usage of opéyoμat, and the same analogy applies to the other verbs. This view is farther supported, as we shall see below, by the use of emi with the genitive, and it is exactly paralleled by the construction of the genitive with the adverb eveÚ (epic i0us), when we wish to signify "straight in a certain direction;" as Plat. Lys. p. 203: evoù Avkelov, “straight in the direction of the Lyceum" (èπ' ev0eías eis Aúkelov, Timæus, p. 127 Ruhnken), for which we have the accusative with eis, or the affix -de, when the motion is completed, as Hom. Hymn. in Merc. 342: εὐθὺ Πύλονδ ̓ ἐλάων; Ibid. 355: εἰς Πύλον ἰθὺς ἐλῶντα.
(dd) The Genitive Absolute.
The absolute secondary predications with the participle (above, 445, 6) occur more frequently in the genitive than in any other The genitive is here causal, i. e. ablative (above, 448), and the Latin ablative is used in precisely the same manner; thus,
éμoû KalεúdovтOS = me dormiente, i. e. quum dormirem = "while, whereas, or because I was sleeping at the time." It is a mistake to confuse this with the genitive as expressing the relation of time, for the secondary predication is contained in the participle itself.
(7) The Dative.
455 The dative signifies that the object referred to is considered as the point of juxtaposition or immediate proximity—that it is receptive of accession or gain-that something is being added to it.
The Greek dative is therefore diametrically opposed to the genitive (see for example Plat. Theœt. p. 160 A, B, above, 450, (gg)). (a) The latter signifies separation, the former proximity; (b) the latter denotes subtraction, the former addition; (c) the latter expresses comparison of different things, the former equality or sameness. Thus compare
(a) ПoλUKρaтeî wμinoe, "he kept company with Polycrates," Πολυκρατεῖ ὡμίλησε, with πάλιν τράπεθ' υἱος ἑοῖο, “ he turned back from his son.”
(b) Aidwμí σo тà Xpημатa, “I give the money to you," with Séoμaι Xpημáтwv, "I am in want of money."
(c) Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ αὐτὸς ἐκείνῳ, “ this man is the same as that,” with ἐπιστήμη ἐπιστήμης διάφορος, “ one science different from another."
Hence the dative is capable of expressing whatever is close at hand; (a) coincidence or contingency in time, place or definition; (b) instruments or proximate causes of the action; (c) recipients or persons immediately interested in the action; (d) special limitations. In general, where we use the English prepositions "at," "in, " "with," "by," "to," or "for," to express any of these notions, we may employ the Greek dative; as the following examples will show:
(a) The Dative of Coincidence or Contingency.
456 (aa) The locative case, which in Greek is identical with the dative, seldom appears in its original and proper sense, namely, as denoting rest in a particular place, without the support of some preposition, like év. We have it, however, in proper names of
places, as Plat. Menex. 245: Μαραθῶνι καὶ Σαλαμῖνι καὶ Πλαταιαῖς. And sometimes with a specialty of form, as in the names of Attic demes and other places, in the singular, e. g. Σφηττοῖ; Ισθμοί, Πυθοί, and in the plural, as ̓Αθήνησι, Πλαταιᾶσι, Ολυμ πίασι, &c. In the poets the dative is found as locative in other words, as Soph. Εl. 313: ἀγροῖς τυγχάνειν. Eurip. Suppl. 874: τιμὰς ἔσχεν Αργεία χθονί. Ηom. Il. Ι. 499 : τόξ' ὤμοισιν ἔχων. Οd. χν. 523 : αιθέρι ναίων. Soph. Αntig. 225: ὁδοῖς κυκλῶν ἐμαυτὸν εἰς ἐπιστροφήν.
(bb) In the secondary application of the locative, to express the point of time, the Greek dative is commonly and regularly used. Thus we have παρῆν τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ, “ he was here on the third day;” τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ τὸ στράτευμα ἀνέπαυσε, “ he rested the army on the following day;” τῷ τρίτῳ ἔτει οἴκαδε ἀπέπλευσα, "I sailed home in the third year." And so of regular feasts or stated occasions, as τοῖς Διονυσίοις, " at the Dionysia;” τῇ νουμη νίᾳ, " on the first day of the month;” ταῖς πόμπαις, " at the time of the processions;” ἐς τὸ πεδίον ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἐσβολῇ οὐ κατέβη, “ he did not descend to the plain in that invasion." The preposition ἐν may be prefixed in such phrases as ἐν τῇδε τῇ ἡμέρᾳ, ἐν τούτῳ τῷ χρόνῳ, ἐν τῷ Θαργηλιῶνι μηνί, ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ καίρῳ, and always appears in the phrase ἐν τῷ παρόντι.
(cc) The dative is constantly used without a preposition to indicate a coincident or contingent circumstance of manner, accompaniment, and the like, so that it is really equivalent to an adverb. Thus we have παντὶ τρόπῳ (or πάντα τρόπον) πειρᾶσθαι, “to make the attempt in every way;” οὐδενὶ κόσμῳ εἰσπίπτειν, “to fall on without any order;” βίᾳ εἰσιέναι, “ to enter forcibly;" πολλῇ κραυγῇ ἐπιέναι, “to attack with loud shouts ;" or with a tertiary predication (Thucyd. VIII. 27), ἀτέλει τῇ νίκῃ ἀνέστησαν, “ they started off with their victory incomplete." Hence we have a number of substantives, or adjectives indicating by their gender the substantives to which they tacitly refer; as βίᾳ, δρόμῳ, κύκλῳ, παρασκευῇ οι ἔργῳ as opposed to λόγῳ οι γνώμῃ, ὀργῇ, θυμῷ, προφάσει as opposed to τῷ ὄντι οι τῇ ἀληθείᾳ, σιγῇ, σπουδῇ, πολλῇ σπουδῇ οι σπουδῇ πανυ, σχολῇ, οι δημοσίᾳ, ἰδίᾳ, κοινῇ, πέζῃ, ταύτῃ, εἰκῇ, ἐκείνῃ, ᾖ, &c. For the substantives thus used we have sometimes a combination with a preposition, as σὺν δίκῃ, μετὰ δίκης, μετὰ πολλῆς ἀκριβείας, and the like.
(dd) Closely connected with this is the use of the dative to indicate the definitive or qualifying circumstance, where we say “by, in, in respect to;" as γένει Ελλην, “ a Greek by birth;" φύσει κακός, “ bad by nature or naturally bad;” ἡλικίᾳ νέος, “young in age;” προέχειν, ὑπερβάλλειν, διαφέρειν ἀρετῇ, φρονήσει, τιμαῖς, χρήμασι, πλήθει, μεγέθει, “ to excel in virtue, pru"to dence, honours, money, number, magnitude,” and the like. Hence the dative is used with comparatives and superlatives, as πολλῷ, μακρῷ, ὀλίγῳ, βραχεῖ, μικρῷ μείζων, ὀλίγῳ τινὶ ἐλάττων, τῷ παντὶ κρείττων, μακρῷ ἄριστος, τέτταρσι μναῖς ἔλαττον, πολλαῖς γενεαῖς ὕστερα, &c. In these cases we sometimes have the accusative,
as πολὺ μείζων, οὐδέν τι μᾶλλον. πάντα τρόπον.
Compare παντὶ τρόπῳ with
(ee) The dative is similarly used to express the specific part in which any thing is affected, for this is another way of introducing a secondary predication of manner; thus, μεγέθει πόλεων, σώμασιν ἰσχύειν, " to be strong in regard to the magnitude of their cities, to their men;” ναυσὶ καὶ πέζῳ νικᾶσθαι, “ to be conquered both in ships and land-forces;” βλάπτεσθαι τῷ βελτίστῳ τοῦ ὁπλιτικῷ, “ to sustain a loss in the elite of their regular infantry."
(f) External accompaniments are regularly expressed by the dative even without a preposition. Thus we have as military terms ἀφικνεῖσθαι εἴκοσι ναυσί, πολλῷ στρατῷ, χειρὶ πολλῇ, “ to arrive with twenty ships, with a great army, a considerable force;" δισχιλίοις ὁπλίταις ἑαυτῶν καὶ διακοσίοις ἱππεῦσι ἐστράτευσαν ἐπὶ Χαλκιδέας, " they marched against the Chalcidians with 2000 regular infantry from their own citizens and 200 horsemen;" κατεστρατοπεδεύσατο τῷ πέζῳ ἐπὶ λόφῳ, “ he encamped with the land-forces on a hill." In these collocations we sometimes find σύν with the dative, as in Xen. Anab. I. 8, § 1: βασιλεὺς σὺν στρατεύματι πολλῷ προσέρχεται. But the preposition is rarely used with αὐτός, when it appears in the dative with some plural noun to indicate a collective accompaniment, which might have been wanting; as Thucyd. iv. 14: οἱ ̓Αθηναῖοι πέντε ναῦς ἔλαβον καὶ μίαν τούτων αὐτοῖς ἀνδράσιν, “the Athenians took fve ships, and one of these together with its whole crew," i.e. "men and all," for the crews very often escaped by swimming. And this is the only possible interpretation of the old and probably true
reading in Eurip. Hippol. 1189: avтaîow ȧpßúraιow ápμóoas Tóda, "having stept into the chariot all booted as he was, i.e. boots and all." For it is expressly said that the departure of Hippolytus was hurried, and as a huntsman he would be regularly equipped with apßiλai. The preposition σúv is sometimes, but rarely, added in this construction, as in Herod. II. 111: σùv avtŷ τῇ πόλει. Eurip. Ion, 32: αὐτῷ σὺν ἄγγει σπαργάνοισί θ ̓ οἷς ἔχει.
(gg) This use of the dative to signify accompaniment explains its construction with verbs denoting companionship and contact. Thus we have the dative after such verbs as ὁμιλεῖν, διαλέγεσθαι, λαλεῖν, μίγνυσθαι, καταλλάττεσθαι, all signifying familiar intercourse or its restoration. Also after such verbs as éyyíčew, teλáζειν, πλησιάζειν, ἀντᾶν, ἐντυγχάνειν, συντυγχάνειν, signifying "to approach, to meet, to fall in with.” Also after such verbs as ἕπεσθαι, ἀκολουθεῖν, ἀπηδεῖν, signifying " to follow in the same track, to go the same journey as another." And by an intelligible analogy also after verbs signifying "to join battle," "to meet in conflict on the same spot," "to fight with another;" as dià Toλéδιὰ πολέμου ἰέναι, ὁμόσε χωρεῖν, μάρνασθαι, μάχεσθαι, πειρηθῆναι, προκινδυνεύειν, διαμάχεσθαι, διαγωνίζεσθαι, παλαίειν, διαπυκτεύειν, πολε · μεῖν, στασιάζειν, ἁμιλλᾶσθαι, ἐρίζειν, δικάζεσθαι, and the like. Thus ouéw takes the dative either of the person or of the thing, Esch. Pers. 753: TOIS KAKOîs óμiλŵv avdρáoi. Plat. Resp. p. 496 Α: πλησιάζοντες φιλοσοφίᾳ ὁμιλεῖν αὐτῇ μὴ κατ ̓ ἀξίαν. In the former case we have πapá with the dative plural in Homer, to signify "among a number of persons." Of the verbs signifying "to approach," many take also the genitive of relation. This is the more usual construction with eyyitew. It is more rarely found with πελάζειν and πλησιάζειν (see however Xen. Cyr. III. 2, § 1; Soph. Aj. 709; Phil. 1327). With eπeola and ȧkoλoveîv the dative is sometimes strengthened by apa or oúv, or we have instead the genitive with μετά. With πολεμεῖν we have not only the dative, as in Plat. Resp. p. 440 A: ô Ovμòs évíote todeμeî taîs émiovμlais, "the will is sometimes at war with the passions;" but also, and very commonly, πpós or eπ with the accusative (Thucyd. 1. 1; Xen. Anab. III. 1, § 5). And the noun μάχη or Tóλeμos regularly takes the dative of the one party and πpós with the accusative of the other, as Thucyd. 1. 105: 'Aonvaíos πρòs Κορινθίους μάχη ἐγένετο.