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(dd) Closely connected with this is the use of the dative to indicate the definitive or qualifying circumstance, where we say “by, in, in respect to;" as γένει Ελλην, “ a Greek by birth;" φύσει κακός, “ bad by nature or naturally bad;” ἡλικίᾳ νέος, “young in age;” προέχειν, ὑπερβάλλειν, διαφέρειν ἀρετῇ, φρονήσει, τιμαῖς, χρήμασι, πλήθει, μεγέθει, “ to excel in virtue, pru"to dence, honours, money, number, magnitude,” and the like. Hence the dative is used with comparatives and superlatives, as πολλῷ, μακρῷ, ὀλίγῳ, βραχεῖ, μικρῷ μείζων, ὀλίγῳ τινὶ ἐλάττων, τῷ παντὶ κρείττων, μακρῷ ἄριστος, τέτταρσι μναῖς ἔλαττον, πολλαῖς γενεαῖς ὕστερα, &c. In these cases we sometimes have the accusative,

as πολὺ μείζων, οὐδέν τι μᾶλλον. πάντα τρόπον.

Compare παντὶ τρόπῳ with

(ee) The dative is similarly used to express the specific part in which any thing is affected, for this is another way of introducing a secondary predication of manner; thus, μεγέθει πόλεων, σώμασιν ἰσχύειν, " to be strong in regard to the magnitude of their cities, to their men;” ναυσὶ καὶ πέζῳ νικᾶσθαι, “ to be conquered both in ships and land-forces;” βλάπτεσθαι τῷ βελτίστῳ τοῦ ὁπλιτικῷ, “ to sustain a loss in the elite of their regular infantry."



(f) External accompaniments are regularly expressed by the dative even without a preposition. Thus we have as military terms ἀφικνεῖσθαι εἴκοσι ναυσί, πολλῷ στρατῷ, χειρὶ πολλῇ, “ to arrive with twenty ships, with a great army, a considerable force;" δισχιλίοις ὁπλίταις ἑαυτῶν καὶ διακοσίοις ἱππεῦσι ἐστράτευσαν ἐπὶ Χαλκιδέας, " they marched against the Chalcidians with 2000 regular infantry from their own citizens and 200 horsemen;" κατεστρατοπεδεύσατο τῷ πέζῳ ἐπὶ λόφῳ, “ he encamped with the land-forces on a hill." In these collocations we sometimes find σύν with the dative, as in Xen. Anab. I. 8, § 1: βασιλεὺς σὺν στρατεύματι πολλῷ προσέρχεται. But the preposition is rarely used with αὐτός, when it appears in the dative with some plural noun to indicate a collective accompaniment, which might have been wanting; as Thucyd. iv. 14: οἱ ̓Αθηναῖοι πέντε ναῦς ἔλαβον καὶ μίαν τούτων αὐτοῖς ἀνδράσιν, “the Athenians took fve ships, and one of these together with its whole crew," i.e. "men and all," for the crews very often escaped by swimming. And this is the only possible interpretation of the old and probably true

reading in Eurip. Hippol. 1189: avтaîow ȧpßúraιow ápμóoas Tóda, "having stept into the chariot all booted as he was, i.e. boots and all." For it is expressly said that the departure of Hippolytus was hurried, and as a huntsman he would be regularly equipped with apßiλai. The preposition σúv is sometimes, but rarely, added in this construction, as in Herod. II. 111: σùv avtŷ τῇ πόλει. Eurip. Ion, 32: αὐτῷ σὺν ἄγγει σπαργάνοισί θ ̓ οἷς ἔχει.

(gg) This use of the dative to signify accompaniment explains its construction with verbs denoting companionship and contact. Thus we have the dative after such verbs as ὁμιλεῖν, διαλέγεσθαι, λαλεῖν, μίγνυσθαι, καταλλάττεσθαι, all signifying familiar intercourse or its restoration. Also after such verbs as éyyíčew, teλáζειν, πλησιάζειν, ἀντᾶν, ἐντυγχάνειν, συντυγχάνειν, signifying "to approach, to meet, to fall in with.” Also after such verbs as ἕπεσθαι, ἀκολουθεῖν, ἀπηδεῖν, signifying " to follow in the same track, to go the same journey as another." And by an intelligible analogy also after verbs signifying "to join battle," "to meet in conflict on the same spot," "to fight with another;" as dià Toλéδιὰ πολέμου ἰέναι, ὁμόσε χωρεῖν, μάρνασθαι, μάχεσθαι, πειρηθῆναι, προκινδυνεύειν, διαμάχεσθαι, διαγωνίζεσθαι, παλαίειν, διαπυκτεύειν, πολε · μεῖν, στασιάζειν, ἁμιλλᾶσθαι, ἐρίζειν, δικάζεσθαι, and the like. Thus ouéw takes the dative either of the person or of the thing, Esch. Pers. 753: TOIS KAKOîs óμiλŵv avdρáoi. Plat. Resp. p. 496 Α: πλησιάζοντες φιλοσοφίᾳ ὁμιλεῖν αὐτῇ μὴ κατ ̓ ἀξίαν. In the former case we have πapá with the dative plural in Homer, to signify "among a number of persons." Of the verbs signifying "to approach," many take also the genitive of relation. This is the more usual construction with eyyitew. It is more rarely found with πελάζειν and πλησιάζειν (see however Xen. Cyr. III. 2, § 1; Soph. Aj. 709; Phil. 1327). With eπeola and ȧkoλoveîv the dative is sometimes strengthened by apa or oúv, or we have instead the genitive with μετά. With πολεμεῖν we have not only the dative, as in Plat. Resp. p. 440 A: ô Ovμòs évíote todeμeî taîs émiovμlais, "the will is sometimes at war with the passions;" but also, and very commonly, πpós or eπ with the accusative (Thucyd. 1. 1; Xen. Anab. III. 1, § 5). And the noun μάχη or Tóλeμos regularly takes the dative of the one party and πpós with the accusative of the other, as Thucyd. 1. 105: 'Aonvaíos πρòs Κορινθίους μάχη ἐγένετο.

Obs. Some verbs signifying "to scold, to find fault with a person," take the dative on the same principle as διαλέγεσθαί τινι on the one hand and μάχεσθαί τινι on the other. Thus μέμφεσθαι, μεμπτὸς εἶναι, διαμέμφεσθαι and καταμέμφεσθαι take the dative in the signification “to be dissatisfied with a person, find fault with him, to cast something in his teeth," but the accusative in the sense "to blame or upbraid," and this is always the construction of ψέγειν and αἰτιᾶσθαι. Similarly λοιδορεῖν, “ to revile,” has the accusative, but λοιδορεῖσθαι, “ to scold one another," has the dative.

(hh) Verbs and nouns denoting juxtaposition, similarity, peculiar appropriation, identity, and the reverse, take the dative of proximity or accompaniment. Thus we have the dative after ἐοικέναι, ἰσοῦν, πρέπειν, ἁρμόττειν, ἴσος, ὅμοιος, ἴδιος, οἰκεῖος, ὅμοι ρος, ἰσόῤῥοπος, ἀντίστροφος, ἐναντίος, ἀλλότριος, ὁ αὐτός, εἷς; as δούλῳ ἔοικας, “ you resemble a slave;” ὁ σίδηρος ἰσοῖ τοὺς ἀσθε νεῖς τοῖς ἰσχυροῖς, “steel makes the weak equal to the strong; ἡ δέσποινα ὁμοίαν ταῖς δούλαις εἶχε τὴν ἐσθῆτα, “ the mistress had her dress similar to that of the hand-maids;” ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ κιν δύνῳ τοῖς φαυλοτάτοις αἰωροῦμαι, “I am exposed to the same danger as the meanest soldiers;” ποῦ δ ̓ ὃς ἐμοὶ μιᾶς ἐγένετ ̓ ἐκ μητέρος ; "where is he who was born from one and the same mother with me?"

Obs. The adjectives ὅμοιος, προσφερής, and the participle πρέπον sometimes take the genitive of relation. Vide Herod. III. 37; Eurip. Herc. F. 130; Soph. 4j. 534.

(6) The Dative of the Instrument or Proximate Cause.

457 (αα) All instruments, and the members of the body considered as instruments, may be expressed by the dative. Thus we say πατάσσειν τινὰ ῥάβδῳ, κτείνειν τινὰ ξίφει, βάλλειν τινὰ λίθοις, φαρμάκοις ἑλεῖν τινά, ὠθεῖν τινα ταῖς χερσίν, and the like. If it is necessary to exclude from the instrument any idea of causation, the Greeks substitute the genitive with Stá for the dative only. Thus Plato says (Theaetet. 184 c): σκόπει γάρ, απόκρισις ποτέρα ὀρθοτέρα, ᾧ ὁρῶμεν τοῦτ ̓ εἶναι ὀφθαλμούς, ἢ δι ̓ οὗ ὁρῶμεν, καὶ ᾧ ἀκούομεν, ὦτα, ἢ δι ̓ οὗ ἀκούομεν; and when it is answered δι' ὧν μᾶλλον ἢ οἶs, the explanation is subjoined that there is one central αἴσθησις or power of perception in every man, ᾗ διὰ τούτων οἷον ὀργάνων αἰσθανόμεθα ὅσα αἰσθητά, “ by which (as the proximate cause or primary instrument) through these as tools (as

the secondary instrument) we perceive all that is perceptible." But in a passage of some theological importance we have δικαιοσύνη διὰ πίστεως by the side of δικαιοῦσθαι πίστει (Paul, ad Rom. III. 22, 28), whereas the Anglican article (XI.) writes both per fidem justi reputamur and sola fide nos justificari as synony


(bb) By an immediate application of this instrumental sense we find the dative in such phrases as κάμνειν νόσῳ, ἀνηκέστῳ πονηρίᾳ νοσεῖν, συνέχεσθαι διψῇ, ἐκπεπλῆχθαι ξυμφοραῖς, ζημιοῦν τινὰ θανάτῳ, φυγῇ, χρήμασιν, πολέμῳ χώραν προσκτᾶσθαι, &c., where we speak of the immediate cause, instrument or consequence.

(cc) Hence the dative is construed with verbs denoting to use or to take enjoyment or pleasure, or the reverse, in an object, which appears as the immediate occasion of these effects; as χρῆσθαί τινι, νομίζειν τινί, θαυμάζειν, ἄγασθαι, χαίρειν, ἥδεσθαι, στέργειν, ἀγαπᾶν, ἀγανακτεῖν, αἰσχύνεσθαι, δυσχεραίνειν, λυπεῖσθαι, ἀνιᾶσθαι, ἄχθεσθαι, βαρέως and χαλεπώς φέρειν. Thus, τοῖς χρήμασι κακῶς χρῶνται οἱ πολλοί, “ most people make a bad use of their money;” ἀγῶσι καὶ θυσίαις διετησίοις ἐνόμιζον οἱ ̓Αθηναῖοι, “the Athenians accustomed themselves to (kept up habitually) yearly contests and sacrifices."

(dd) To the same class we must refer the dative after verbs signifying "to know, to judge, to calculate," when the noun expresses the means or standard by which we estimate. Such verbs are γιγνώσκειν, “ to know;” κρίνειν, " to judge;” τεκμαί ρεσθαι, σταθμᾶσθαι, στοχάζεσθαι, “ to judge or estimate;” εἰκάζειν, μαντεύεσθαι, “to conjecture,” &c. Thus, τῇ φωνῇ γιγνώ σκομεν τὸν συνήθη, “ we know an acquaintance by means of) his voice;” οὐ τῷ ἀριθμῷ τὰ ἱκανὰ κρίνεται, ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὰς χρήσεις, "what is sufficient is determined not by the number of things, but with reference to the uses;” εἴ τι δεῖ τοῖς πρόσθεν ὡμολογη μένοις τεκμαίρεσθαι, “ if it is at all necessary to draw a conclusion from (by means of) what has been admitted," or as a deponent verb: οὐδ ̓ ὁποῖο ἀνὴρ ἔννους τὰ καινὰ τοῖς πάλαι τεκμαίρεται, "not like a sensible man does he infer what is new from what has already happened."

(ee) From the use of the dative to express the instrument, the cause or the means, the Greek language sometimes passes to an employment of the same case to signify an agent, and this too even with passive verbs, where we regularly find the genitive with ὑπό. Thus we find ταῦτα λέλεκται ἡμῖν, “ these things have been said by us;” καὶ μὴν πέλας γε προσπόλοις φυλάσσεται, “ and see he is guarded by his attendants close by;” πολέες δάμεν "Εκτορι Siw, "many were slain by godlike Hector." This mode of expressing the person from whom the action proceeds seems to be quite inconsistent with the proper signification of the dative, and the apparent difficulty is increased when we find the dative used with the verb déxoμai to signify the person from whom something is received; for, as we shall see, the dative is properly used to indicate the person to whom something is given. Yet we have Hom. Il. xv. 87: éμIOTI SÉKто Séπas, "he took the cup at the hand of Themis" (cf. Il. II. 186). Pind. Pyth. IV. 35: dv le décato, "which he received at the hands of a god." It may be seen, however, that in these cases the inconsistency is more apparent than real. For while the dative, as the case of proximity, is equally adapted to express ταῦτα λέλεκται ἡμῖν, “ these things are spoken, and we are at hand as the speakers" or "they are spoken for us, and we have them as said,” which is virtually equivalent to ταῦτα λέλεκται ὑφ ̓ uv, "these things have been said, and the action has proceeded from under and out of us;" and Taûta Xéλektal μo, "these things have been said, and I am at hand as the hearer" or "they are spoken for me, and I am the object to which the speaking is limited, and towards which it is directed;" it is equally capable of expressing TOÛTO Séxoμaí σo, "I receive these things at your hand, for you, and through you;" and тaûтa Sidwμí σo, "I give these things to you, and you are the object to which the giving is limited, and towards which it is directed." We see both applications in the verb TEKμaípoμai, with which the dative, as we have seen, generally expresses the means by which we judge; but there is at least one passage in which the verb appears as passive, and the dative indicates the proximate cause or agent; Soph. Cedal. Fragm. 307 Dindorf:

τοῖς μὲν λόγοις τοῖς σοῖσιν οὐ τεκμαίρομαι

οὐ μᾶλλον ἢ λευκῷ λίθῳ λευκὴ σταθμή,

"I am not marked out by your words any more than a white measuring line by a white stone."

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