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In the sense of agency the dative is sometimes accompanied by the preposition úró, as in Eurip. Iph. A. 1285: μndè Bapßápois ὑπὸ, Ἕλληνας ὄντας, λέκτρα συλᾶσθαι βίᾳ; Plat. Lach. p. 184 E: ὑπὸ παιδοτρίβῃ ἀγαθῷ πεπαιδευμένος. This, however, is more common in the instrumental phrases vπò xeρí (Eurip. Suppl. 404), ὑπὸ χερσί (Ιl. XVI. 420), ὑπὸ παλάμησι (Hesiod, Theog. 862).


(ff) From signifying the ačrtov or up' où the dative naturally passes on to the expression of the airía or di' 6, and thus we find it used after all kinds of verbs to indicate that "on account of" which the thing is done. Thus in Plat. Menex. p. 238 D: OйTE ἀσθενείᾳ οὔτε πενίᾳ οὔτ ̓ ἀγνωσίᾳ πατέρων ἀπεληλάται οὐδείς, οὐδὲ τοῖς ἐναντίοις τετίμηται, “ no one is driven away on account of weakness or poverty or the obscurity of his parents, or honoured on the opposite account;" where Thucydides (II. 37) has our ἀπὸ μέρους τὸ πλέον ἢ ἀρετῆς προτιμάται. But in another passage he writes (III. 98), τοῖς πεπραγμένοις φοβούμενος τοὺς ̓Αθηναίους, 'fearing the Athenians on account of what had taken place;" and in v. 104, he writes, τῆς γε ξυγγενείας ἕνεκα καὶ αἰσχύνῃ βοηθεῖν, "to aid us on account of our affinity and for shame's sake."


(c) The Dative of the Recipient.

458 (aa) The very name of the dative implies that it denotes the recipient, or person to whom something is given. This originates, like the other meanings of this case, in its primary sense of proximity. For δίδωμί σοι τὰ χρήματα merely means I am giving the money, and you are at hand as the recipient." In the first class then of the uses of the dative of the recipient we must place its construction with verbs which imply the transference of something with a special limitation to or for some person or thing. Thus the dative follows didóvai, "to give;" omáčew, "to bestow; TорЄiv, "to impart;" Tapéxew, "to furnish;" diavéμew, "to distribute;" TáTTEw, "to appoint," and the like; as (Aristoph. Pax, 771): φέρε τῷ φαλακρῷ, δὸς τῷ φαλακρῷ τῶν τρωγαλίων, " take (the wine) to the bald man, give of the sweetmeats to the bald man.” Pind. Οl. I. 60: ἀθανάτων κλέψας ἁλίκεσσι νέκταρ ἀμε βροσίαν τε δώκεν, “having stolen the nectar and ambrosia from the immortals, he gave them to his earthly peers."


(bb) In precisely the same manner the dative is used with verbs signifying “ to promise or to owe,” as ὑπισχνείσθαι, ὀφείλειν, and the impersonal deî; "to lend," as daveilev; "to pay," as προΐεσθαι; “to benefit or proft,” as λυσιτελεῖν, ὠφελεῖν (which also takes the accusative); "to assist," i. e. "to lend assistance," as ἀμύνειν, βοηθεῖν, ἀρηγεῖν, ἀλεξεῖν, ἐπικουρεῖν, and the like ; thus, πολλὴν ὀφείλω τοῖς θεοῖς χάριν, “I owe much gratitude to the gods;” τοῖς θανοῦσι πλοῦτος οὐδὲν ὠφελεῖ, “ wealth does not at all benefit the dead."

(cc) The dative follows verbs which involve or imply the idea of giving way or conceding; such are mɩστevew, “to give or yield belief" (cf. the Latin cre-do); Teileσbai, "to yield obedience," and its opposite ἀπειθεῖν (but ὑπακούειν and κατακούειν take the accusative also); elkei, úπeikei, &c., "to yield, concede, give way," and the like; thus we find in one passage (Soph. Aj. 669 sqq.): καὶ γὰρ τὰ δεινὰ καὶ τὰ καρτερώτατα τιμαῖς ὑπείκει· τοῦτο μὲν νιφοστιβεῖς χειμῶνες ἐκχωροῦσιν εὐκάρπῳ θέρει, ἐξίσταται δὲ νυκτὸς αἰανὴς κύκλος

τῇ λευκοπώλῳ φέγγος ἡμέρᾳ φλέγειν,

i. e. "even the obstinate things and those which are most stubborn yield to superior powers; for instance, the snowy winters give way to fruitful summer, and the dark circle of night stands aside for the day with its white steeds to blaze forth."

(dd) The dative of the recipient is used with the substantive verb to signify possession, so that eσTi poí, &c. is exactly equivalent to "I have, &c." Thus Eurip. Heracl. 298: OvK čσTI TOûde παισὶ κάλλιον γέρας, " children have no nobler privilege than this." In Hebrew there is no other means of expressing the verb "to have" than by this use of the dative.

(ee) By an immediate transition, the dative of the recipient denotes the person immediately interested in the action. Thus we have (Soph. Αj. 1045): Μενέλαος ᾧ δὴ τόνδε πλοῦν ἐστείλαμεν, Menelaus, for whose interest, to oblige whom, we engaged in this expedition.' Eurip. Suppl. 15: μέρος κατασχεῖν φυγάδι Πολυνείκει θέλων, " wishing to get a share for the exile Polyneices."

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(ff) In a similar application the dative of the personal pronouns is used in intreaties, to strengthen the prayer by a reference to the earnest wish of the speaker; as in Hom. Il. xiv. 501: εἰπέμεναί μοι, Τρῶες, ἀγανοῦ Ἰλιονῆος πατρὶ φιλῳ καὶ μητρί, "tell for me, tell to oblige me, tell I desire, to the father and mother of Ilioneus." Herod. VIII. 68: eiπeîv μоi πρòs Baσiλéa, Mapdóvie, "say to the king, I desire you, Mardonius." And elliptically, as in Arist. Vesp. 1172: μǹ μoí ye μúlovs, “no fables, pray !” Dem. Phil. I. § 19 : μή μοι μυρίους μηδὲ δισμυρίους ξένους, "don't talk of 10,000 or 20,000 foreigners, I beseech you." Similarly in a condition, Plat. Gorg. 461 D: ẻáv poɩ ềv póvov þvλátTys, "if you will only take care of one point at my request, to oblige me."


(gg) Hence also we have the dative of the participles of verbs of wishing, &c. used after substantive verbs and those signifying motion, and the like; thus Hom. Od. 111. 228: ovк av eμovyε EXπTOμένῳ τὰ γένοιτο, “those things would not happen to me hoping for them." Herod. IX. 46: ἡδομένοισι ἡμῖν οἱ λόγοι γεγόνασι, "the words have been said to us pleased (to our satisfaction)." Aristoph. Pax, 582: χαῖρε, χαῖρ ̓, ὡς ἦλθες ἡμῖν ἀσμένοις, ὦ φιλTárη, "how glad we are to see you, our dearest goddess." Soph. Cd. Τ. 1356: θέλοντι κἀμοὶ τοῦτ ̓ ἂν ἦν, “I too should wish for this." Plat. Gorg. 448 D: ei avtŵ yé ooi Bovλoμévợ ẻσtìv ảπoκρíveσlaι, "if you would like to answer on your own account."

(hh) The dative of the recipient is used as an equivalent for the possessive genitive; thus Herod. vI. 103: ó πрeσßúteρos tŵv παίδων τῷ Κίμωνι Στησαγόρης ἦν, " Stesagoras was the elder of Cimon's sons."

(d) The Dative of Special Limitation.

459 (aa) The dative is used by the best writers to denote the special and subjective limitation of an act to some particular person; in other words, it expresses that the act appeared under a Thus special aspect as regarded from a certain point of view. (Thucyd. II. 101): ἡ στρατιὰ σῖτον οὐκ εἶχεν αὐτῷ, “ the army had no provisions for him," "he found that the army had no provisions, it presented itself to his mind under that aspect." Id. 1. 6:

οἱ πρεσβύτεροι αὐτοῖς τῶν εὐδαιμόνων οὐ πολὺς χρόνος ἐπειδη χιτῶνας λινοῦς ἐπαύσαντο φοροῦντες, “ it is not long since they saw the old men of the wealthy class leave off wearing linen tunics." Id. I. 101: οἱ Εἵλωτες αὐτοῖς ἀπέστησαν, " they experienced a revolt of the Helots." Id. III. 98, init.: μéxpi oi тoğóтai eixov Tà βέλη Béλn avтoîs," as long as they found, or saw, that the archers had their arrows.” Id. VII. 19: ἕωσπερ αὐτοῖς οὗτοι οἱ ὁπλῖται ἀπῆραν, "until they had got these men-at-arms started." Id. Ibid. 34: Kai αὐτοῖς τοῦ χωρίου μηνοείδους ὄντος, “ and as they found that the place was semicircular." Plat. Resp. p. 343 A: ős ye avтîj ovdè πρόβατα οὐδὲ ποιμένα γιγνώσκεις, “since she has the disgrace of finding that you cannot distinguish between the sheep and the shepherd.” Soph Antig. 904: καί τοι σ ̓ ἐγὼ τίμησα τοῖς φρονοῦσιν εὖ, "yet I did well to honour thee, as the wise would estimate the case." We have two of these datives in the same sentence in Esch. Agam. 598: εἶπε μανθάνοντί σοι τοροῖσιν ἑρμηνεῦσιν εὐπρεπῶς λόγον, "she has spoken her words, as far as you understand them, in a manner suited to (which requires) clear interpreters;" cf. Pind. Οl. II. 85: φωνᾶντα συνετοῖσιν, ἐς δὲ τοπὴν ἑρμηνέων χατίζει, "with an intelligible utterance for the wise, but to the common herd they need interpreters."

(bb) This dative of special limitation is sometimes accompanied by ὡς. Thus Soph. d. C. 20: μακρὰν γάρ, ὡς γέροντι, προὐστáλns ódóv, “you have travelled onwards a long way for an old man," i. e. considered with special reference to the age of the wayfarer. Αj. 395: ἔρεβος ὦ φαεννότατον ὡς ἐμοί, “ Ο Erebus, most radiant, in regard to me in particular." Antig. 1161: Kpéwv γὰρ ἦν ζηλωτός, ὡς ἐμοί, ποτέ, " Creon was an enviable person formerly, as I judged the case."

(cc) This dative of limitation is regularly used when a definition of place or time is given with reference to the circumstances or experiences of persons whose situation is defined. Thus Herod. II. 29: ἀπὸ Ελεφαντίνης πόλιος ἄνω ἰόντι ἄναντές ἐστι χωρίον, "to or for one going up from the city Elephantine it is a steep place.” Id. IX. 41: ὡς δὲ ἑνδεκάτη ἐγεγόνεε ἀντικατημένοισι ἐν Πλαταίῃσι, IIλaraino, "when to them, encamped opposite to one another at Platea, the eleventh day had passed." And this subjective use of the dative may be extended to cases where the construction would

have admitted of the accusative. Thus in Thucyd. v. 111: Toλλoîs γὰρ προορωμένοις ἔτι ἐς οἷα φέρονται τὸ αἰσχρὸν καλούμενον ἐπεσπάσατο ξυμφοραῖς ἀνηκέστοις περιπεσεῖν, “ in the case of many still foreseeing the tendency of their actions, that which is called dishonour has been an inducement to involve themselves in irremediable disasters."

(8) The Accusative.

460 The accusative signifies that the object referred to is considered as the point towards which something is proceeding-that it is the end of the action or motion described, or the space traversed in such motion or direction.

The accusative, thus defined, has the following applications in Greek syntax. It denotes (a) motion to an object; (b) distance in space; (c) duration in time; (d) the immediate object of a transitive verb; (e) the more remote object of any verb, whether it has another accusative or not; (f) the accusative of cognate signification, i. e. the secondary predication, by way of emphasis, of that which is already predicated by the verb itself; (g) an apposition to the object of the whole sentence; (h) the subject of the objective sentence, when this is expressed in the infinitive mood. These different usages are illustrated by the following examples.

(a) The Accusative of Motion.


461 The use of the simple accusative to denote motion to a place is confined to the poets. An older and fuller form of this case was also employed to express the end or object of motion. This form had the affix -de, as 'Оxúμπоvde, "to Olympus;" otkade= οἴκονδε, “ homewards;” Αθήναζε = Αθήνασδε, “ to Athens. It is worthy of notice that this affix -de, as the numeral dúo Fe, the particle dé, and the index of motion, corresponds to the three English particles, or rather three different modes of spelling the same particle, two, too, to. In ordinary Greek prose the object of motion is expressed by the accusative with some preposition, as eis, πрós, éπí, &c. The following are examples of the simple accusative used as the case of motion to a place. Hom. Od. v. 55: bтe dǹ Tηv νῆσον ἀφίκετο, ἤϊεν ὄφρα μέγα σπέος ἵκετο; Soph. Ed. C. 643: τί

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