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δῆτα χρήζεις; ἢ δόμους στείχειν ἐμούς; Eurip. Μed. 7: Μήδεια πύργους γῆς ἔπλευσ ̓ Ἰωλκίας; Alc. 457: εἴθε δυναίμαν σε πέμψαι φάος; Ibid. 479: χρεία τίς σε Θεσσαλών χθόνα πέμπει; More rarely the person or something personified is represented as the object of the motion in the accusative; as in Hom. Od. 1. 233 : μvησтηρas ȧþíкеTO, "he came to the suitors;" Eurip. Andr. 287: μνηστῆρας ἀφίκετο, Bav IIpiapidav, "I went to the son of Priam;" Hel. 613: Tатép és ovρavòv aжεiμi, "I will go to my father unto heaven;" Pind. Ol. II. 173: aivov eßa kópos, “satiety attacks praise."

(b) The Accusative of Extension.


462 Here the accusative signifies "through the space," "to the extent or distance of." Thus Thucyd. 11. 5: ảπéɣei ý Пλáтαiα τῶν Θηβῶν σταδίους ἑβδομήκοντα, " Plataea is distant from Thebes to the extent of seventy stades;" Hom. Il. XXIII. 529: NETTETO Soupòs Epwýv, “he was left the flight of a spear behind;" Pind. Pyth. IV. 228: opóyviav oxíše vôôtov yâs, "he cut up the surface of the earth for a fathom;" Thucyd. VI. 49: vavoтalμov Méyapa ἔφη χρῆναι ποιεῖσθαι, ἀπέχοντα Συρακουσῶν οὔτε πλοῦν πολύν, OUTE ódóv, "he said they ought to make Megara a naval station, not far distant from Syracuse either by sea or by land.”

(c) The Accusative of Duration.

463 Here the accusative signifies "through the time of." Thus Dem. de Corona, p. 235, 22: καθῆντο ἐν Μακεδονίᾳ τρεῖς ὅλους μnvas, "they remained in Macedonia three whole months;" Xen. Anab. v. 8, § 24: τοὺς κύνας τοὺς χαλεποὺς τὰς μὲν ἡμέρας διδέασι, τὰς δὲ νύκτας ἀφιᾶσι, " they tie up the savage dogs throughout the day, but let them loose throughout the night." And sometimes with ordinals, as Plat. Prot. 309 D: IIрwтaуópas éπidedýμnke τρίτην ἤδη ἡμέραν, " Protagoras has been here now for three days complete," i. e. "throughout the third day."

(d) The Accusative of the Immediate Object.

464 As the case of transition, the accusative is properly used to express the immediate object of transitive verbs, which are so called because their action passes on from the subject to an object. The manner in which this accusative of the immediate object per

forms the functions of a secondary predicate has been illustrated above (435, (c)). In some languages (the Semitic, for example) the case denoting the object of the transitive verb is strengthened or indicated by a preposition signifying "unto." This, as we have just seen, is the full value of the Greek accusative; and when we write λαμβάνω τὴν ἀσπίδα, we mean “there is an act of taking on my part extending unto or as far as the shield." How this view of the secondary predication involved in the accusative is a necessary result, if the verb is regarded as containing in itself a complete primary predication, and how the accusative may express either quantity or quality, has been shown above (430, (aa)). Here it is only necessary to classify the verbs according as the accusative of quantity, with which they are construed, denotes the immediate or the secondary object of the act.

All verbs take an accusative of the immediate object when its expression is necessary to complete the meaning which the verb is intended to convey in the particular instance, whether that meaning be the literal and primary meaning of the verb or not. Thus we have the accusative not only after such verbs as viâv, " to conquer,' which may either dispense with an accusative, as Alofŵôv ó Þíλwvos évíka, "Diophon, the son of Philon, was the victor," i. e. he conquered all competitors in certain games; or take an accusative of the antagonists who were overcome, as οἱ Ἕλληνες ἐνίκησαν τοὺς Пépoas, "the Greeks conquered the Persians:" but also after verbs, which, according to their primary signification, would take some other case, as exσTηvaι, "to stand out of," which should be construed with the genitive of ablation, but which, in its assumed or inferential sense "to avoid," takes the accusative of the immediate object, as exoтnvaι κívdvvov, "to avoid danger" (above, 430, (bb)). Similarly TÚTTEσlai, "to beat oneself, as a mark of mourning," in its secondary sense "I bewail," may have the accusative of the person bewailed (Herod. II. 132). And Sopvpopeîv, “to carry a spear," in the sense "to guard," may have the accusative of the person guarded (Thucyd. 1. 130).

(e) The Accusative of the more Remote Object.

465 The construction of a verb with an accusative of the more remote object is resolvable into two distinct usages (aa) when the

verb, in its transitive use, takes two accusatives, one of which denotes the immediate, and the other the remote object of the action, so that when the verb becomes passive, the latter alone is retained; (66) when we have in the active the σχῆμα καθ ̓ ὅλον καὶ μέρος (above, 407, (1)), so that the accusative denoting the part is alone retained in the construction with the passive verb.

(aa) We may place two accusatives after the same transitive verb when we wish to express that a nearer, as well as a more remote object-a person as well as a thing-is affected by the action of the verb; thus, Onßaíovs Xpημaтa τηoav (Thucyd. 1. 27), i. e. rogabant—quos? Theboos-quid? pecuniam: so that either χρήματα-ᾔτησαν οι Θηβαίους-ᾔτησαν, constitute a single transitive verb. Similarly τοὺς πολεμίους τὴν ναῦν ἀπεστερήκαμεν i. e. "we have deprived-whom?—the enemies-of what?—the ship."

To this class we may refer verbs of naming, choosing, appointing, teaching, asking, clothing, depriving, speaking and acting well or ill, &c. The second accusative often appears as a tertiary predicate, or an apposition, or a representative in the oblique case of the primary predication with some of these verbs; compare Пepiλns ᾑρέθη στρατηγός (418) with ὁ Κῦρος τὸν Γωβρύαν ἀπέδειξε στρατηγόν.

If such sentences are expressed by a passive verb, the accusative of the person becomes the nominative; but the thing is still expressed by the accusative; as οἱ πολέμιοι τὴν ναῦν ἀφηρέθησαν, "the enemy were deprived of their ship."

(bb) We have already seen (407, (1)) that a word denoting the part may be placed in apposition to the word denoting the totality. And this appears in a particular application when a verb of distribution (as διαιρεῖν, τέμνειν, νέμειν, διανέμειν, δάσασθαι) is followed by two accusatives, one denoting the totality, and the other the number of parts into which it is divided, as Herod. VI. 121: Tрeîs μοίρας δασάμενος πάντα τὸν πέζον στρατόν, “ having divided all his land forces into three parts." The former usage is very often expressed in the passive, and then the accusative of the part alone remains to denote the more remote object; as Demosth. de Corona, p. 247, 11: ἑώρων τὸν Φίλιππον τὸν ὀφθαλμὸν ἐκκεκομμένον, τὴν

κλεῖν κατεαγότα, τὴν χεῖρα, τὸ σκέλος πεπηρωμένον, “they saw Philip with his eye knocked out, with his collar-bone broken, with his hand and leg mutilated."

(f) The Accusative of Cognate Signification.

466 Verbs, whether active, neuter, or passive, may have after them an accusative of a cognate signification: this is called the figura etymologica; as ἀρὰς ἀρᾶται παισὶν ἀνοσιωτάτας (Eurip. Phoen. 65), i. e. "he utters imprecations against his children to the extent of the most impious imprecations." The examples of this construction are innumerable (see Lobeck, Paralip. pp. 498-538). The following are a few specimens : κινδυνεύσω τοῦτον τὸν κίνδυνον, "I shall be endangered in (incur) this danger;" λnyηv tétλnyμai καρτέραν, "I am smitten to the extent of (I have received) a severe blow;" Blov Biovaι or ŷv, “to live (to pass) a life;" Oávaтov ȧπоDaveîv, "to die (to undergo) the death;' opkov oμvival, "to swear (take) an oath ;” αἰσχροὺς φόβους φοβοῦνται καὶ αἰσχρὰ θάῤῥη θαῤῥοῦσι, "they fear (are subject to) disgraceful fears, and are confident to the extent of (are inspired with) disgraceful confidences;" èμoû dénoív Tiva iσxvpàv édenen, “he implored me with a most urgent supplication," and so forth. In English we generally substitute some other verb, and retain the specific value of the secondary predicate only, as in the second translation given in the above instances. It will generally be observed that the accusative in the figura etymologica has either an epithet, or is used in a special meaning. The examples already given illustrate the former case, and the adjective alone is often used with an implication of the cognate accusative; thus we have θύειν τὰ Ἡράκλεια, διαβατήρια, σωτήρια, εὐαγγέλια, γενέθλια, and the like, when the accusative approximates to a predication of manner (above, 430, (aa)). Similarly, we have not only νικᾶν ναυμαχίαν, “ to conquer in a sea-fight;” νικᾶν πυγ μὴν καὶ πάλην, " to conquer in boxing and wrestling;” but νικᾶν Ολύμπια, Πύθια, τὰ Παναθήναια, " to conquer at the Olympian, Pythian, Isthmian games, at the Panathenaic festival," and the like. In Pind. Ol. vII. 81, we have ev 'Iσ0μ TETρáKIS EVTVXÉWv, Νεμέα τ ̓ ἄλλαν ἐπ ̓ ἄλλᾳ, scil. νίκαν οι εὐτυχίαν εὐτυχέων. On the other hand, in such phrases as φόρον φέρειν, πομπὴν πέμπειν, φυλακὰς φυλάττειν, ἀρχὴν ἄρχειν, &c. the words φόρον, πομπήν, φυλακάς, ἀρχήν are not used in the primary sense of the verbs from



which they are derived, but signify respectively "tribute,"
cession," "a watch,"
a watch," "a magistracy or office."

a pro

Obs. The use of the accusative as a secondary predicate is of very wide extent. Thus we have not only the figura etymologica péyav ὅρκον ὄμνυμι, “I swear a great oath,” but ὄμνυμί τινα or τι, “I swear by somebody or something;" whence we have the formulæ of adjuration: Où TOν "ÕλνμжOν, "no (I appeal on oath to) Olympus," and especially τὸν Ὄλυμπον, with the particles uá, in negative, and vý or vaì uá, in positive oaths; as μὰ Δία, οὐ μὰ Δία, νὴ Δία, ναὶ μὰ Δία. There are also a great many cases in which the use of the accusative is merely adverbial, as in the following phrases: Taλa, "for the rest;" To úμπаν, тò öλov, "in general;” τοὐναντίον, τἀναντία, πᾶν τουναντίον, “on the contrary, quite the reverse;” τὸ ἐπί τινα, τὸ ἐπὶ σφᾶς εἶναι, “ as far as regards a certain person, as far as they themselves are concerned;" Oéis y elvai, "in accordance with justice at least," Soph. Ed. Col. 1191 (where Oéus is indeclinable); TO KαTά Tiva, "in what concerns a certain person;" rò λoltóv, “for the future;” and similarly ὕστερον, τὸ ὕστερον, πρότερον, πρῶτον, δεύτερον, τρίτον, &c. ; πολλά, “ often ;” τὰ πολλά, “ for the most part;" TÒ TEλEUTAĴOV, "at last," similarly To Téλos; άpxýv (Plato, Gorg. 478°c) and τὴν ἀρχήν (Ibid.), “ at all;” τὸ τοῦ Δημοσθένους, “as Demosthenes says;" Tv @pav, "at the time;" Kapóv, "at the right time;" xápu, "for the sake of," with possessives, unv xápu, "for my sake," &c.; pópaoir, "in pretence;" dwрeάv, πроîкα, “"in vain," Tí, "why?" and rрónov in various combinations, as ὃν τρόπον, τίνα τρόπον; πάντα τρόπον, τοῦτον Tоν TρÓTTоν; TáνTa Taura, "in all these respects" (Plato, Theatet. p. 202 c); Tâσаν Téxνav, "in every art" (Pind. Ol. vII. 51); nâσav õpуav, “with all his best efforts" (Id. Isthm. 1. 41); άμþóтepa, “in both ways," sometimes followed by -τε καί ; δίκην, “ after the exact equivalent;” τὴν εὐθεῖαν, τὴν ταχίστην, μακράν, ἄλλην καὶ ἄλλην, and other combinations with reference to odov implied; άkμýv, “in a moment, directly, even now, still;" and a number of other similar usages.

(g) The Accusative in Apposition to the whole Sentence.

467 An accusative is sometimes put in apposition to the object of a sentence, just as the nominative stands in apposition to the general predication (above, 407, (A)); thus we have Eurip. Orest. 1103: Ελένην κτάνωμεν, Μενελέῳ λυπὴν πικράν, “let us kill Helen, to grieve Menelaus," or "which will be an affliction to Menelaus.” Asch. Αgam. 233 : ἔτλη θυτὴρ γενέσθαι θυγατρός, πολέμων apwyáv, "he brought himself to become the sacrificer of his daughter, as a help for the warfare;" Hom. Il. Iv. 196: OV TIS dÏOTEVσas ἔβαλεν...τῷ μὲν κλέος, ἄμμι δὲ πένθος, “ whom some one has shot, a result which will procure him glory, as it is an affliction to us."

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