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Sometimes this apposition refers to a suppressed figura etymologica ; thus Eurip. El. 231: εὐδαιμονοίης, μισθὸν ἥδιστον πόνων, is equivalent to εὐδαιμονοίης εὐδαιμονίαν, μ. ή. π., i. e. “may you enjoy the happiness, which is the sweetest reward of toils." Similarly Hel. 77: ἀπόλαυσιν εἰκοῦς ἔθανες ἂν Διὸς κόρης, is equivalent to elaves àv dávatov, à. el., i. e. “you would have incurred death as the fruit of your resemblance to the daughter of Zeus."
(h) The Accusative as Subject of the Infinitive.
468 If a verb in the infinitive mood is dependent on another verb, and if its subject is not that of the main verb, what would otherwise be the nominative, as the subject of the proposition, is turned into the accusative, as the secondary predication of the main verb. Thus, from exeîvos σтρaτnyei, "that other man is general," we have, in the objective sentence, ëpn ékeîvov otpaτnyeîv, “he said that the other man was general." This is one form of the objective sentence, and will be more fully explained in its proper place.
Contrasted Meanings of the Oblique Cases.
469 From the separate examination of the oblique cases, the student may derive brief rules respecting their distinctive significations:
The genitive denotes motion from a place.
rest in a place.
motion to a place.
The genitive implies separation.
approach with a view to conjunction.
These differences of meaning appear most clearly in the construction of the cases with prepositions.
§ VIII. Secondary Predicates. (b) Supplement to the Cases. (b) Prepositions.
470 The prepositions, usually so called, are pronominal adverbs indicating place with reference to some object, which is regularly expressed in an oblique case-the genitive, dative, or
accusative and in direct apposition to the adverb. Some prepositions admit of only one case in this apposition; some admit two; others may be construed with any one of the three cases. When placed after the noun to which they refer, the prepositions, with the exception of avá, receive an accent, if proclitic (above, 54), or become paroxytone if oxytone.
471 The prepositions which admit the genitive only are avrí, ἀπό, ἐκ οι ἐξ and πρό.
Those which admit the dative only are ev and σύν (ξύν).
And eis admits only the accusative.
472 The following are prefixed to the genitive and accusative: διά, κατά, ὑπέρ.
The dative or accusative may follow ȧvá.
473 The following may be accompanied by any one of the three cases: ἀμφί, ἐπί, μετά, παρά, περί, πρός and ὑπό.
(a) Prepositions with the Genitive. 'Avri and πpó.
474 'AVT and Tpó signify "on behalf of," "in front of," 'Αντί πρό "instead of," "for the sake of;" the only difference between them being this, avτí signifies "in loco quodam, qui ex adverso stat," whereas πpó is more general, and denotes "quodcunque ante oculos est." The genitive obviously expresses relation. The following examples will show the various applications of these nearly synonymous prepositions :
(aa) The primary meaning is "in the place which is opposite." There is no undoubted example of this use; for in the passages, in which it occurs, the last vowel is elided, and it is quite probable that the word intended is not avrí but avra, and this is indicated by the accent in the ordinary editions. See Hom. Il. VIII. 233, XV. 415; Od. Iv. 115; Hesiod, O. et D. 725. The last of these passages, however, has ἀντ ̓ ἠελίοιο τετραμμένος, and if we compare the adjective ȧvrýλos, "opposite to the sun, over against the sun" (Esch. Agam. 530; Soph. Aj. 805), which is admitted
to contain avrí, we may, if we please, read avτí for avra in the other passages.
(bb) The most common meaning of avrí is "instead of;" as in Soph. Αj. 439: οὐκ ἄν τις αὔτ ̓ ἔμαρψεν ἄλλος ἀντ ̓ ἐμοῦ, “ no other person would have taken them instead of me."
(cc) Hence it denotes an equivalent or something which may take the place of an object; as in Hom. Il. IX. 116: dvтì πoλλŵv Xaŵv eorí, "he is worth, is equivalent to, many of the common people." Demosth. Olynth. I. init.: avrì TOλλv Xpημáτwv, "in exchange for much money."
(dd) It signifies "on account of," especially with the relative, as in Soph. Αnt. 237: τί δ ̓ ἔστιν ἀνθ ̓ οὗ τήνδ ̓ ἔχεις ἀθυμίαν; "what is it, on account of which you feel this despondency?" And ἀνθ' ὧν very often stands for ἀντὶ τούτων ὅτι (402, Obs. 1), as in Lys. in Agorat. § 76: ave' av eπоínσev, "because he did it," cf. Xen. Hell. 11. 4, § 17, Iv. 8, § 6; Isocr. Hel. Enc. p. 212.
(aa) The primary meaning is "in some place which is opposite;” as in Thucyd. v. 11: τὸν Βρασίδαν δημοσίᾳ ἔθαψαν ἐν τῇ πόλει πρὸ τῆς νῦν ἀγορᾶς οὔσης, " they buried Brasidas in the city before the forum as it now is." Similarly πρὸ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν (Æsch. Fals. Leg. p. 47, 41), just as we have avт' op¤aλμŵv (Hom. Od. iv. 115).
(bb) From this meaning of priority in place, πpó passes on to denote anteriority in time, which is the meaning of the Latin ante, as in Plat. Leg. p. 643 D: πρὸ τῶν Περσικών δέκα ἔτεσι, “ ten years before the Persian war."
(cc) It conveys the idea of preference, as in Pind. Pyth. iv. 140: κέρδος αἰνῆσαι πρὸ δίκας δόλιον, “ to praise deceitful gain in preference to justice." And with a comparative, as in Herod. 1. 62: οἶσι ἡ τυραννὶς πρὸ ἐλευθερίης ἀσπαστότερον, “ to whom tyranny is more welcome than freedom." Hence the phrase πρὸ πολλοῦ Tolîolai, "to estimate a thing more than much, to set a very high value on it."
(dd) It sometimes signifies "on behalf of," i.e. taking the person of, as in another use of avrí; thus in Herod. VIII. 74: πpо χώρας δοριαλώτου μάχεσθαι, “ to fight on behalf of a country captured by the spear.' ΙΧ. 72: πρὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀποθνήσκει, "he dies for (on behalf of) Hellas."
̓Από and ἐξ.
475 'Aπó, in epic Greek anal, and ex (e) are followed by genitive of ablation. The latter answers to the Latin ex, the former to the Latin ab, as well in origin as in signification. Thus,
ἑτοίμης ἤδη τῆς στρατιᾶς οὔσης ἔκ τε τῆς Κερκύρας καὶ ἀπὸ Tŷs nπeĺpov (Thucyd. vII. 33),
i. e. "an army being now ready out of Corcyra and from the mainlaid."
Obs. Although ảπó, ab, signify motion from the surface of an object (extrinsecus), and è, ex, motion from within an object (intrinsecus), it may be a matter of indifference which of the two we use: compare Thucyd. IV. 38: διαπλεύσας αὐτοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ἐκ τῆς ἠπείρου Λακεδαιμονίων ἀνὴρ ἀπήγγειλεν, with #sch. Pers. 355: ἀνὴρ γὰρ Ελλην ἐξ ̓Αθηναίων στρατοῦ
wv čλege. And we have them both together in Thucyd. 1. 124, § 3: Ek πολέμου μέν—ἀφ ̓ ἡσυχίας δέ, where the difference in meaning is scarcely perceptible; and as denoting the grounds of an inference in Thucyd. IV. 126, § 3: μαθεῖν χρὴ ἐξ ὧν προηγώνισθε τοῖς Μακεδόσιν αὐτῶν, καὶ ἀφ ̓ ὧν ἐγὼ εἰκάζω κ.τ.λ., where ἐξ denotes the experience, and από the testimonies, which are more external.
In detail the following are the usages of dró and e§:
(a) 'Aπó denotes removal or procession from some object or point, (aa) as separation in space; (bb) as subsequence in time; (cc) as the effect of a cause; (dd) as the derivation from some
(αα) Herod. III. 75: ἀπῆκε ἑωυτὸν ἐπὶ κεφαλὴν φέρεσθαι ἀπὸ τοῦ πύργου κάτω, “he let himself go so as to be carried down head-first from the tower." Hom. Il. xv. 386: μáxovтo oi μèv åp ἵππων, οἱ δ ̓ ἀπὸ νηῶν, “they fought some from horses,” i. e. on horseback, "others from ships," i.e. on the decks of the ships. So also of the order of things, Herod. III. 75: ȧpέáμevos àñò 'Axaμéveos, "beginning from (with) Achæmenes."
(bb) Herod. 1. 82: dπò TOUTOU TOû xpóvov, "from (i.e. after) this time." Thucyd. VII. 43: ȧпò тоû прάтоν “πvov, “after the first sleep."
(cc) Thucyd. 1. 17: ἐπράχθη ἀπ ̓ αὐτῶν οὐδὲν ἔργον ἀξιόMoyov, "no considerable achievement was effected by them."
(dd) Aristoph. Plut. 377: ἐγώ σοι τοῦτ ̓ ἀπὸ σμικροῦ πάνυ ¿Õéλw diaπpâğaι, "I am willing to effect this for you at (from the store of) a trifling expence" (cf. Thucyd. VIII. 87: aπ' èλaσσóvwv πράξας. Arist. Eq. 535: ἀπὸ σμικρᾶς δαπάνης). Herod. III. 50: ἀπὸ πατρὸς καὶ μητρὸς τῆς αὐτῆς, “ from (derived from the same father and mother." Whence Herod. I. 173: Kaλéovσi ȧπÒ TÔν μητέρων ἑωυτούς, καὶ οὐχὶ ἀπὸ τῶν πατέρων, “ they call themselves after (as derived from) their mother, and not after their father." Hence we have a number of adverbial phrases, as ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀδοκήτου, “ on a sudden;” ἀπὸ παλαιοῦ, “ of old ;” ἀπὸ παιδός, “from a child" (from childhood); drò yλwoons, "orally; ἀπὸ τῆς ἴσης, “ on fair terms;” οὐκ ἀπὸ τρόπου (where some read ἄπο), "not amiss," and so forth.
(b) 'Ex (e) denotes removal or procession from out of something; (aa) as separation in space; (bb) as subsequence in time; (cc) as the effect or consequence of a cause or agency; (dd) as part of a whole; (ee) as the derivation from some source.
(aa) Herod. I. 24: ὁρμᾶσθαι ἐκ Τάραντος, “to set out from Tarentum." So also of the order of things, as in the phrase yŷv ẻ yês, “one land after another," from which we find also y πρὸ γῆς.
(66) ἐξ ἐκείνου τοῦ χρόνου, (bỏ) Herod. VII. 59: Ėeivou Tou Xpóvou, “ after that time.” Id. VIII. 12: K Tĥs vavμaxias, "after the sea-fight." Eurip. Hec. 55: èk tupavvikŵv dóμwv, “after having lived in a royal palace."
(cc) Xen. Hell. III. 1, § 6: Δημαράτῳ ἡ χώρα δῶρον ἐκ βασιλéws ¿dó0ŋ, “the country was given to Demaratus by the king as a present."
(dd) Soph. Trach. 734: Ek тpuôv ev av eixóμnv, "I would have chosen one thing out of (as a part of) three."
(e) Athen. ΧΙ. p. 483 c: πίνουσιν ἐκ κεραμέων ποτηρίων, "they drink out of earthen cups."
Hence we have a number of adverbial phrases, as ex xeɩpós, "in close fight;" è ȧπроσdокýтоv, “unexpectedly;" è πodós, “hard-afoot, i.e. immediately;" èk ẞías, "by force;" èk μпTρós, “by the