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verb, in its transitive use, takes two accusatives, one of which denotes the immediate, and the other the remote object of the action, so that when the verb becomes passive, the latter alone is retained; (66) when we have in the active the σχῆμα καθ ̓ ὅλον καὶ μέρος (above, 407, (1)), so that the accusative denoting the part is alone retained in the construction with the passive verb.
(aa) We may place two accusatives after the same transitive verb when we wish to express that a nearer, as well as a more remote object-a person as well as a thing-is affected by the action of the verb; thus, Onßaíovs Xpημaтa τηoav (Thucyd. 1. 27), i. e. rogabant—quos? Theboos-quid? pecuniam: so that either χρήματα-ᾔτησαν οι Θηβαίους-ᾔτησαν, constitute a single transitive verb. Similarly τοὺς πολεμίους τὴν ναῦν ἀπεστερήκαμεν i. e. "we have deprived-whom?—the enemies-of what?—the ship."
To this class we may refer verbs of naming, choosing, appointing, teaching, asking, clothing, depriving, speaking and acting well or ill, &c. The second accusative often appears as a tertiary predicate, or an apposition, or a representative in the oblique case of the primary predication with some of these verbs; compare Пepiλns ᾑρέθη στρατηγός (418) with ὁ Κῦρος τὸν Γωβρύαν ἀπέδειξε στρατηγόν.
If such sentences are expressed by a passive verb, the accusative of the person becomes the nominative; but the thing is still expressed by the accusative; as οἱ πολέμιοι τὴν ναῦν ἀφηρέθησαν, "the enemy were deprived of their ship."
(bb) We have already seen (407, (1)) that a word denoting the part may be placed in apposition to the word denoting the totality. And this appears in a particular application when a verb of distribution (as διαιρεῖν, τέμνειν, νέμειν, διανέμειν, δάσασθαι) is followed by two accusatives, one denoting the totality, and the other the number of parts into which it is divided, as Herod. VI. 121: Tрeîs μοίρας δασάμενος πάντα τὸν πέζον στρατόν, “ having divided all his land forces into three parts." The former usage is very often expressed in the passive, and then the accusative of the part alone remains to denote the more remote object; as Demosth. de Corona, p. 247, 11: ἑώρων τὸν Φίλιππον τὸν ὀφθαλμὸν ἐκκεκομμένον, τὴν
κλεῖν κατεαγότα, τὴν χεῖρα, τὸ σκέλος πεπηρωμένον, “they saw Philip with his eye knocked out, with his collar-bone broken, with his hand and leg mutilated."
(f) The Accusative of Cognate Signification.
466 Verbs, whether active, neuter, or passive, may have after them an accusative of a cognate signification: this is called the figura etymologica; as ἀρὰς ἀρᾶται παισὶν ἀνοσιωτάτας (Eurip. Phoen. 65), i. e. "he utters imprecations against his children to the extent of the most impious imprecations." The examples of this construction are innumerable (see Lobeck, Paralip. pp. 498-538). The following are a few specimens : κινδυνεύσω τοῦτον τὸν κίνδυνον, "I shall be endangered in (incur) this danger;" λnyηv tétλnyμai καρτέραν, "I am smitten to the extent of (I have received) a severe blow;" Blov Biovaι or ŷv, “to live (to pass) a life;" Oávaтov ȧπоDaveîv, "to die (to undergo) the death;' opkov oμvival, "to swear (take) an oath ;” αἰσχροὺς φόβους φοβοῦνται καὶ αἰσχρὰ θάῤῥη θαῤῥοῦσι, "they fear (are subject to) disgraceful fears, and are confident to the extent of (are inspired with) disgraceful confidences;" èμoû dénoív Tiva iσxvpàv édenen, “he implored me with a most urgent supplication," and so forth. In English we generally substitute some other verb, and retain the specific value of the secondary predicate only, as in the second translation given in the above instances. It will generally be observed that the accusative in the figura etymologica has either an epithet, or is used in a special meaning. The examples already given illustrate the former case, and the adjective alone is often used with an implication of the cognate accusative; thus we have θύειν τὰ Ἡράκλεια, διαβατήρια, σωτήρια, εὐαγγέλια, γενέθλια, and the like, when the accusative approximates to a predication of manner (above, 430, (aa)). Similarly, we have not only νικᾶν ναυμαχίαν, “ to conquer in a sea-fight;” νικᾶν πυγ μὴν καὶ πάλην, " to conquer in boxing and wrestling;” but νικᾶν Ολύμπια, Πύθια, τὰ Παναθήναια, " to conquer at the Olympian, Pythian, Isthmian games, at the Panathenaic festival," and the like. In Pind. Ol. vII. 81, we have ev 'Iσ0μ TETρáKIS EVTVXÉWv, Νεμέα τ ̓ ἄλλαν ἐπ ̓ ἄλλᾳ, scil. νίκαν οι εὐτυχίαν εὐτυχέων. On the other hand, in such phrases as φόρον φέρειν, πομπὴν πέμπειν, φυλακὰς φυλάττειν, ἀρχὴν ἄρχειν, &c. the words φόρον, πομπήν, φυλακάς, ἀρχήν are not used in the primary sense of the verbs from
which they are derived, but signify respectively "tribute,"
Obs. The use of the accusative as a secondary predicate is of very wide extent. Thus we have not only the figura etymologica péyav ὅρκον ὄμνυμι, “I swear a great oath,” but ὄμνυμί τινα or τι, “I swear by somebody or something;" whence we have the formulæ of adjuration: Où TOν "ÕλνμжOν, "no (I appeal on oath to) Olympus," and especially τὸν Ὄλυμπον, with the particles uá, in negative, and vý or vaì uá, in positive oaths; as μὰ Δία, οὐ μὰ Δία, νὴ Δία, ναὶ μὰ Δία. There are also a great many cases in which the use of the accusative is merely adverbial, as in the following phrases: Taλa, "for the rest;" To úμπаν, тò öλov, "in general;” τοὐναντίον, τἀναντία, πᾶν τουναντίον, “on the contrary, quite the reverse;” τὸ ἐπί τινα, τὸ ἐπὶ σφᾶς εἶναι, “ as far as regards a certain person, as far as they themselves are concerned;" Oéis y elvai, "in accordance with justice at least," Soph. Ed. Col. 1191 (where Oéus is indeclinable); TO KαTά Tiva, "in what concerns a certain person;" rò λoltóv, “for the future;” and similarly ὕστερον, τὸ ὕστερον, πρότερον, πρῶτον, δεύτερον, τρίτον, &c. ; πολλά, “ often ;” τὰ πολλά, “ for the most part;" TÒ TEλEUTAĴOV, "at last," similarly To Téλos; άpxýv (Plato, Gorg. 478°c) and τὴν ἀρχήν (Ibid.), “ at all;” τὸ τοῦ Δημοσθένους, “as Demosthenes says;" Tv @pav, "at the time;" Kapóv, "at the right time;" xápu, "for the sake of," with possessives, unv xápu, "for my sake," &c.; pópaoir, "in pretence;" dwрeάv, πроîкα, “"in vain," Tí, "why?" and rрónov in various combinations, as ὃν τρόπον, τίνα τρόπον; πάντα τρόπον, τοῦτον Tоν TρÓTTоν; TáνTa Taura, "in all these respects" (Plato, Theatet. p. 202 c); Tâσаν Téxνav, "in every art" (Pind. Ol. vII. 51); nâσav õpуav, “with all his best efforts" (Id. Isthm. 1. 41); άμþóтepa, “in both ways," sometimes followed by -τε καί ; δίκην, “ after the exact equivalent;” τὴν εὐθεῖαν, τὴν ταχίστην, μακράν, ἄλλην καὶ ἄλλην, and other combinations with reference to odov implied; άkμýv, “in a moment, directly, even now, still;" and a number of other similar usages.
(g) The Accusative in Apposition to the whole Sentence.
467 An accusative is sometimes put in apposition to the object of a sentence, just as the nominative stands in apposition to the general predication (above, 407, (A)); thus we have Eurip. Orest. 1103: Ελένην κτάνωμεν, Μενελέῳ λυπὴν πικράν, “let us kill Helen, to grieve Menelaus," or "which will be an affliction to Menelaus.” Asch. Αgam. 233 : ἔτλη θυτὴρ γενέσθαι θυγατρός, πολέμων apwyáv, "he brought himself to become the sacrificer of his daughter, as a help for the warfare;" Hom. Il. Iv. 196: OV TIS dÏOTEVσas ἔβαλεν...τῷ μὲν κλέος, ἄμμι δὲ πένθος, “ whom some one has shot, a result which will procure him glory, as it is an affliction to us."
Sometimes this apposition refers to a suppressed figura etymologica ; thus Eurip. El. 231: εὐδαιμονοίης, μισθὸν ἥδιστον πόνων, is equivalent to εὐδαιμονοίης εὐδαιμονίαν, μ. ή. π., i. e. “may you enjoy the happiness, which is the sweetest reward of toils." Similarly Hel. 77: ἀπόλαυσιν εἰκοῦς ἔθανες ἂν Διὸς κόρης, is equivalent to elaves àv dávatov, à. el., i. e. “you would have incurred death as the fruit of your resemblance to the daughter of Zeus."
(h) The Accusative as Subject of the Infinitive.
468 If a verb in the infinitive mood is dependent on another verb, and if its subject is not that of the main verb, what would otherwise be the nominative, as the subject of the proposition, is turned into the accusative, as the secondary predication of the main verb. Thus, from exeîvos σтρaτnyei, "that other man is general," we have, in the objective sentence, ëpn ékeîvov otpaτnyeîv, “he said that the other man was general." This is one form of the objective sentence, and will be more fully explained in its proper place.
Contrasted Meanings of the Oblique Cases.
469 From the separate examination of the oblique cases, the student may derive brief rules respecting their distinctive significations:
The genitive denotes motion from a place.
rest in a place.
motion to a place.
The genitive implies separation.
approach with a view to conjunction.
These differences of meaning appear most clearly in the construction of the cases with prepositions.
§ VIII. Secondary Predicates. (b) Supplement to the Cases. (b) Prepositions.
470 The prepositions, usually so called, are pronominal adverbs indicating place with reference to some object, which is regularly expressed in an oblique case-the genitive, dative, or
accusative and in direct apposition to the adverb. Some prepositions admit of only one case in this apposition; some admit two; others may be construed with any one of the three cases. When placed after the noun to which they refer, the prepositions, with the exception of avá, receive an accent, if proclitic (above, 54), or become paroxytone if oxytone.
471 The prepositions which admit the genitive only are avrí, ἀπό, ἐκ οι ἐξ and πρό.
Those which admit the dative only are ev and σύν (ξύν).
And eis admits only the accusative.
472 The following are prefixed to the genitive and accusative: διά, κατά, ὑπέρ.
The dative or accusative may follow ȧvá.
473 The following may be accompanied by any one of the three cases: ἀμφί, ἐπί, μετά, παρά, περί, πρός and ὑπό.
(a) Prepositions with the Genitive. 'Avri and πpó.
474 'AVT and Tpó signify "on behalf of," "in front of," 'Αντί πρό "instead of," "for the sake of;" the only difference between them being this, avτí signifies "in loco quodam, qui ex adverso stat," whereas πpó is more general, and denotes "quodcunque ante oculos est." The genitive obviously expresses relation. The following examples will show the various applications of these nearly synonymous prepositions :
(aa) The primary meaning is "in the place which is opposite." There is no undoubted example of this use; for in the passages, in which it occurs, the last vowel is elided, and it is quite probable that the word intended is not avrí but avra, and this is indicated by the accent in the ordinary editions. See Hom. Il. VIII. 233, XV. 415; Od. Iv. 115; Hesiod, O. et D. 725. The last of these passages, however, has ἀντ ̓ ἠελίοιο τετραμμένος, and if we compare the adjective ȧvrýλos, "opposite to the sun, over against the sun" (Esch. Agam. 530; Soph. Aj. 805), which is admitted