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to contain avrí, we may, if we please, read avτí for avra in the other passages.

(bb) The most common meaning of avrí is "instead of;" as in Soph. Αj. 439: οὐκ ἄν τις αὔτ ̓ ἔμαρψεν ἄλλος ἀντ ̓ ἐμοῦ, “ no other person would have taken them instead of me."

(cc) Hence it denotes an equivalent or something which may take the place of an object; as in Hom. Il. IX. 116: dvтì πoλλŵv Xaŵv eorí, "he is worth, is equivalent to, many of the common people." Demosth. Olynth. I. init.: avrì TOλλv Xpημáτwv, "in exchange for much money."

(dd) It signifies "on account of," especially with the relative, as in Soph. Αnt. 237: τί δ ̓ ἔστιν ἀνθ ̓ οὗ τήνδ ̓ ἔχεις ἀθυμίαν; "what is it, on account of which you feel this despondency?" And ἀνθ' ὧν very often stands for ἀντὶ τούτων ὅτι (402, Obs. 1), as in Lys. in Agorat. § 76: ave' av eπоínσev, "because he did it," cf. Xen. Hell. 11. 4, § 17, Iv. 8, § 6; Isocr. Hel. Enc. p. 212.

(6) Πρό.

(aa) The primary meaning is "in some place which is opposite;” as in Thucyd. v. 11: τὸν Βρασίδαν δημοσίᾳ ἔθαψαν ἐν τῇ πόλει πρὸ τῆς νῦν ἀγορᾶς οὔσης, " they buried Brasidas in the city before the forum as it now is." Similarly πρὸ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν (Æsch. Fals. Leg. p. 47, 41), just as we have avт' op¤aλμŵv (Hom. Od. iv. 115).

(bb) From this meaning of priority in place, πpó passes on to denote anteriority in time, which is the meaning of the Latin ante, as in Plat. Leg. p. 643 D: πρὸ τῶν Περσικών δέκα ἔτεσι, “ ten years before the Persian war."

(cc) It conveys the idea of preference, as in Pind. Pyth. iv. 140: κέρδος αἰνῆσαι πρὸ δίκας δόλιον, “ to praise deceitful gain in preference to justice." And with a comparative, as in Herod. 1. 62: οἶσι ἡ τυραννὶς πρὸ ἐλευθερίης ἀσπαστότερον, “ to whom tyranny is more welcome than freedom." Hence the phrase πρὸ πολλοῦ Tolîolai, "to estimate a thing more than much, to set a very high value on it."

(dd) It sometimes signifies "on behalf of," i.e. taking the person of, as in another use of avrí; thus in Herod. VIII. 74: πpо χώρας δοριαλώτου μάχεσθαι, “ to fight on behalf of a country captured by the spear.' ΙΧ. 72: πρὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀποθνήσκει, "he dies for (on behalf of) Hellas."

̓Από and ἐξ.

475 'Aπó, in epic Greek anal, and ex (e) are followed by genitive of ablation. The latter answers to the Latin ex, the former to the Latin ab, as well in origin as in signification. Thus,

ἑτοίμης ἤδη τῆς στρατιᾶς οὔσης ἔκ τε τῆς Κερκύρας καὶ ἀπὸ Tŷs nπeĺpov (Thucyd. vII. 33),

i. e. "an army being now ready out of Corcyra and from the mainlaid."

Obs. Although ảπó, ab, signify motion from the surface of an object (extrinsecus), and è, ex, motion from within an object (intrinsecus), it may be a matter of indifference which of the two we use: compare Thucyd. IV. 38: διαπλεύσας αὐτοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ἐκ τῆς ἠπείρου Λακεδαιμονίων ἀνὴρ ἀπήγγειλεν, with #sch. Pers. 355: ἀνὴρ γὰρ Ελλην ἐξ ̓Αθηναίων στρατοῦ

wv čλege. And we have them both together in Thucyd. 1. 124, § 3: Ek πολέμου μέν—ἀφ ̓ ἡσυχίας δέ, where the difference in meaning is scarcely perceptible; and as denoting the grounds of an inference in Thucyd. IV. 126, § 3: μαθεῖν χρὴ ἐξ ὧν προηγώνισθε τοῖς Μακεδόσιν αὐτῶν, καὶ ἀφ ̓ ὧν ἐγὼ εἰκάζω κ.τ.λ., where ἐξ denotes the experience, and από the testimonies, which are more external.

In detail the following are the usages of dró and e§:

(a) 'Aπó denotes removal or procession from some object or point, (aa) as separation in space; (bb) as subsequence in time; (cc) as the effect of a cause; (dd) as the derivation from some

source.

(αα) Herod. III. 75: ἀπῆκε ἑωυτὸν ἐπὶ κεφαλὴν φέρεσθαι ἀπὸ τοῦ πύργου κάτω, “he let himself go so as to be carried down head-first from the tower." Hom. Il. xv. 386: μáxovтo oi μèv åp ἵππων, οἱ δ ̓ ἀπὸ νηῶν, “they fought some from horses,” i. e. on horseback, "others from ships," i.e. on the decks of the ships. So also of the order of things, Herod. III. 75: ȧpέáμevos àñò 'Axaμéveos, "beginning from (with) Achæmenes."

(bb) Herod. 1. 82: dπò TOUTOU TOû xpóvov, "from (i.e. after) this time." Thucyd. VII. 43: ȧпò тоû прάтоν “πvov, “after the first sleep."

(cc) Thucyd. 1. 17: ἐπράχθη ἀπ ̓ αὐτῶν οὐδὲν ἔργον ἀξιόMoyov, "no considerable achievement was effected by them."

(dd) Aristoph. Plut. 377: ἐγώ σοι τοῦτ ̓ ἀπὸ σμικροῦ πάνυ ¿Õéλw diaπpâğaι, "I am willing to effect this for you at (from the store of) a trifling expence" (cf. Thucyd. VIII. 87: aπ' èλaσσóvwv πράξας. Arist. Eq. 535: ἀπὸ σμικρᾶς δαπάνης). Herod. III. 50: ἀπὸ πατρὸς καὶ μητρὸς τῆς αὐτῆς, “ from (derived from the same father and mother." Whence Herod. I. 173: Kaλéovσi ȧπÒ TÔν μητέρων ἑωυτούς, καὶ οὐχὶ ἀπὸ τῶν πατέρων, “ they call themselves after (as derived from) their mother, and not after their father." Hence we have a number of adverbial phrases, as ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀδοκήτου, “ on a sudden;” ἀπὸ παλαιοῦ, “ of old ;” ἀπὸ παιδός, “from a child" (from childhood); drò yλwoons, "orally; ἀπὸ τῆς ἴσης, “ on fair terms;” οὐκ ἀπὸ τρόπου (where some read ἄπο), "not amiss," and so forth.

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(b) 'Ex (e) denotes removal or procession from out of something; (aa) as separation in space; (bb) as subsequence in time; (cc) as the effect or consequence of a cause or agency; (dd) as part of a whole; (ee) as the derivation from some source.

(aa) Herod. I. 24: ὁρμᾶσθαι ἐκ Τάραντος, “to set out from Tarentum." So also of the order of things, as in the phrase yŷv ẻ yês, “one land after another," from which we find also y πρὸ γῆς.

(66) ἐξ ἐκείνου τοῦ χρόνου, (bỏ) Herod. VII. 59: Ėeivou Tou Xpóvou, “ after that time.” Id. VIII. 12: K Tĥs vavμaxias, "after the sea-fight." Eurip. Hec. 55: èk tupavvikŵv dóμwv, “after having lived in a royal palace."

ἐκ τῆς

(cc) Xen. Hell. III. 1, § 6: Δημαράτῳ ἡ χώρα δῶρον ἐκ βασιλéws ¿dó0ŋ, “the country was given to Demaratus by the king as a present."

(dd) Soph. Trach. 734: Ek тpuôv ev av eixóμnv, "I would have chosen one thing out of (as a part of) three."

(e) Athen. ΧΙ. p. 483 c: πίνουσιν ἐκ κεραμέων ποτηρίων, "they drink out of earthen cups."

Hence we have a number of adverbial phrases, as ex xeɩpós, "in close fight;" è ȧπроσdокýтоv, “unexpectedly;" è πodós, “hard-afoot, i.e. immediately;" èk ẞías, "by force;" èk μпTρós, “by the

mother's side;" ἐκ τοῦ προφανοῦς, “openly;” ἐκ τῶν παρόντων, "as far as the circumstances allow," and so forth.

(3) Prepositions with the Dative. 'Ev and ovv.

476 'Ev and civ (iv) agree in origin and signification with the Latin in and cum, with this proviso, that instead of in with the accusative, the Greeks employ the longer form eis = év-s; for which see the next section. 'Ev signifies inclusion; ovv conjunction; as the following passage shows:

Καδμείων ἀγοὶ χαλκέοις ἀθρόοι σὺν ὅπλοις ἔδραμον,

ἐν χερὶ δ ̓ ̓Αμφιτρύων κολεοῦ γυμνὸν τινάσσων φάσγανον KETO (Pind. Nem. 1. 51, 52),

i.e. the oλa, properly the shields, were by their sides, but Amphitryon had his naked sword included or grasped in his hand. It might be necessary, however, to oppose the oλov or shield to another piece of defensive armour, which was still more closely combined with the wearer, and thus Sophocles says (Antig. 115): πολλῶν μεθ ̓ ὅπλων, ξύν θ ̓ ἱπποκόμοις κορύθεσσιν, “with many shields by their sides, as an accompaniment, and with many helmets, as a part of them, on their heads." As the double-flute was fastened round the head with a mouth-piece, we find in Pindar, Ol. v. 19: ἔρχομαι Λυδίοις ἀπύων ἐν αὐλοῖς, “I come calling thee with Lydian pipes."

The following are the chief idiomatic usages of ev and §úv:

(a) 'Ev denotes continuance or fixity in time (aa) or space (bb); when used with persons it signifies presence in the same locality (like the Latin coram) (cc), and when applied to things, it indicates the instrumental adjunct (dd).

Thus we have (aa) Plat. Phæd. 58 B: ἐν τρίσιν ἡμέραις. Esch. Agam. 537: év πoλλ xpóvo. Thucyd. II. 5, III. 13: èv εἰρήνῃ, ἐν σπονδαῖς, “ during the continuance of the peace or the truce;" and such phrases as év TOUTO, "meanwhile;" èv, TOÚTW, "whilst;" év T avτ@, "at the same time," &c.

(bb) Esch. Choëph. 643: Tís evdov ev dóμois; Eum. 18: ei μάντιν ἐν θρόνοις. Soph. Trach. 800: ἐν μέσῳ σκάφει θέντες. And very frequently with the genitive of the person whose house or

other locality is intended; as Plat. Protag. 320 ▲: èv 'Apippovos

éraideve, "he taught in the house of Ariphron," and especially ev ἐπαίδευε, "Audov, "in the mansions of Hades." The applications of this local use are innumerable.

(cc) Demosth. XL. 3: ἐν ὑμῖν πειράσομαι τῶν δικαίων τυχεῖν, "I will endeavour to obtain justice in your court, before you." Thucyd. II. 36: μακρηγορεῖν ἐν εἰδόσιν οὐ βουλόμενος, “ not wishing to make a long speech before you, when you know all about the subject."

(dd) Xen. Cyrop. I. 6, § 2 : ὅτι οἱ θεοί σε εὐμενῶς πέμπουσι, καὶ ἐν ἱεροῖς δῆλον καὶ ἐν οὐρανίοις σημείοις. Hence such phrases as ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ὁρᾶν, &c.

(b) Σúv denotes close connexion (aa) in time and (bb) in cir

cumstances.

(αα) Xen. Cyrop. VIII. 7, § 6: σὺν τῷ χρόνῳ προϊόντι ἀεὶ συναυξανομένην ἐπιγιγνώσκειν ἐδόκουν καὶ ἐμὴν δύναμιν.

(66) Id. Ibid. § 13: ἡ τῶν φίλων κτῆσις ἔστιν οὐδαμῶς σὺν τῇ βίᾳ, ἀλλοὶ μᾶλλον σὺν τῇ εὐεργεσίᾳ. Hence such phrases as σὺν Θεῷ, "with the help of God;" σùv rộ vóμw, “in accordance with the law;" σuv Tivi páxeodai, “to fight on one's side," &c.

There are many adverbial phrases with ev and σύν, as ἐν μέρει, "in turn" (vicissim); év táxeɩ or oùv ráɣe, "quickly," &c.

(7) Preposition with the Accusative. Eis.

477 'Ev and és or eis = év-s1 really do not differ more than ex and ἐξ = ἐκ-ς, πρό and πρός. But this -s affixed conveys a more decided expression of motion. Eis signifies ad or in (cum accus.) i. e. "to" or "into; as

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εἰς Φωκέας ὡς πρὸς συμμάχους ἐπορεύετο

(Demosth. Philip. I. p. 113, § 16).

Here it will be observed that eis Pwréas, strictly speaking, designates the name of the country, whereas as pÒS σνμμáxοvs

1 In the poets és and els are interchanged ad libitum to suit the metre ; but és is more common in epic and lyric, and eis in Attic poetry. These forms appear somewhat arbitrarily in prose also.

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