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mother's side;" ἐκ τοῦ προφανοῦς, “openly;” ἐκ τῶν παρόντων, "as far as the circumstances allow," and so forth.
(3) Prepositions with the Dative. 'Ev and ovv.
476 'Ev and civ (iv) agree in origin and signification with the Latin in and cum, with this proviso, that instead of in with the accusative, the Greeks employ the longer form eis = év-s; for which see the next section. 'Ev signifies inclusion; ovv conjunction; as the following passage shows:
Καδμείων ἀγοὶ χαλκέοις ἀθρόοι σὺν ὅπλοις ἔδραμον,
ἐν χερὶ δ ̓ ̓Αμφιτρύων κολεοῦ γυμνὸν τινάσσων φάσγανον KETO (Pind. Nem. 1. 51, 52),
i.e. the oλa, properly the shields, were by their sides, but Amphitryon had his naked sword included or grasped in his hand. It might be necessary, however, to oppose the oλov or shield to another piece of defensive armour, which was still more closely combined with the wearer, and thus Sophocles says (Antig. 115): πολλῶν μεθ ̓ ὅπλων, ξύν θ ̓ ἱπποκόμοις κορύθεσσιν, “with many shields by their sides, as an accompaniment, and with many helmets, as a part of them, on their heads." As the double-flute was fastened round the head with a mouth-piece, we find in Pindar, Ol. v. 19: ἔρχομαι Λυδίοις ἀπύων ἐν αὐλοῖς, “I come calling thee with Lydian pipes."
The following are the chief idiomatic usages of ev and §úv:
(a) 'Ev denotes continuance or fixity in time (aa) or space (bb); when used with persons it signifies presence in the same locality (like the Latin coram) (cc), and when applied to things, it indicates the instrumental adjunct (dd).
Thus we have (aa) Plat. Phæd. 58 B: ἐν τρίσιν ἡμέραις. Esch. Agam. 537: év πoλλ xpóvo. Thucyd. II. 5, III. 13: èv εἰρήνῃ, ἐν σπονδαῖς, “ during the continuance of the peace or the truce;" and such phrases as év TOUTO, "meanwhile;" èv, TOÚTW, "whilst;" év T avτ@, "at the same time," &c.
(bb) Esch. Choëph. 643: Tís evdov ev dóμois; Eum. 18: ei μάντιν ἐν θρόνοις. Soph. Trach. 800: ἐν μέσῳ σκάφει θέντες. And very frequently with the genitive of the person whose house or
other locality is intended; as Plat. Protag. 320 ▲: èv 'Apippovos
éraideve, "he taught in the house of Ariphron," and especially ev ἐπαίδευε, "Audov, "in the mansions of Hades." The applications of this local use are innumerable.
(cc) Demosth. XL. 3: ἐν ὑμῖν πειράσομαι τῶν δικαίων τυχεῖν, "I will endeavour to obtain justice in your court, before you." Thucyd. II. 36: μακρηγορεῖν ἐν εἰδόσιν οὐ βουλόμενος, “ not wishing to make a long speech before you, when you know all about the subject."
(dd) Xen. Cyrop. I. 6, § 2 : ὅτι οἱ θεοί σε εὐμενῶς πέμπουσι, καὶ ἐν ἱεροῖς δῆλον καὶ ἐν οὐρανίοις σημείοις. Hence such phrases as ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ὁρᾶν, &c.
(b) Σúv denotes close connexion (aa) in time and (bb) in cir
(αα) Xen. Cyrop. VIII. 7, § 6: σὺν τῷ χρόνῳ προϊόντι ἀεὶ συναυξανομένην ἐπιγιγνώσκειν ἐδόκουν καὶ ἐμὴν δύναμιν.
(66) Id. Ibid. § 13: ἡ τῶν φίλων κτῆσις ἔστιν οὐδαμῶς σὺν τῇ βίᾳ, ἀλλοὶ μᾶλλον σὺν τῇ εὐεργεσίᾳ. Hence such phrases as σὺν Θεῷ, "with the help of God;" σùv rộ vóμw, “in accordance with the law;" σuv Tivi páxeodai, “to fight on one's side," &c.
There are many adverbial phrases with ev and σύν, as ἐν μέρει, "in turn" (vicissim); év táxeɩ or oùv ráɣe, "quickly," &c.
(7) Preposition with the Accusative. Eis.
477 'Ev and és or eis = év-s1 really do not differ more than ex and ἐξ = ἐκ-ς, πρό and πρός. But this -s affixed conveys a more decided expression of motion. Eis signifies ad or in (cum accus.) i. e. "to" or "into; as
εἰς Φωκέας ὡς πρὸς συμμάχους ἐπορεύετο
(Demosth. Philip. I. p. 113, § 16).
Here it will be observed that eis Pwréas, strictly speaking, designates the name of the country, whereas as pÒS σνμμáxοvs
1 In the poets és and els are interchanged ad libitum to suit the metre ; but és is more common in epic and lyric, and eis in Attic poetry. These forms appear somewhat arbitrarily in prose also.
is a personal reference: from which mode of speaking arose the use of as alone with names of persons, in nearly the same sense as εἰς with names of things; e.g. πρέσβεις πέπομφεν ὡς βασιλέα for w's πρòs Baoiλéa (Demosth. Philip. 1. p. 54, § 55).
Idiomatically eis is used to express any extension or direction. Thus it means (aa) "with respect to," as Eurip. Electr. 29: és μèv γὰρ ἄνδρα σκηψιν εἶχ ̓ ὀλωλότα, " with respect to the death of her husband she had a pretext; (bb) "with a view to," as Soph. Phil. 111: ès répdos τí Spâv, “to do something with a view to advantage;" (cc) "to the amount of," as Evveẞonenσav eis elkoσi μάλιστα, páλiora, "they came to their aid to the amount of about twenty." And similarly of time, as eis évíavrov, "to the amount of a year,' "for a year;" eis Tηv тρíτηv άpav, "up to the third hour;" Keтe εἰς τὴν τριακοστὴν ἡμέραν, “ ye have come by the thirtieth day.” There are many adverbial phrases with eis, as eis kaiρóv or εἰς καλόν, “ opportunely;” εἰς ὑπερβολήν, “ to excess;” ἐς τέλος, "at last," &c.
Pindar sometimes uses for eis the shorter form ev; as
ἄμειψεν ἐν κοιλόπεδον νάπος θεοῦ (Pyth. v. 37).
(8) Prepositions with the Genitive and Accusative. Aiá.
478 Alá denotes separation or disjunction. With the genitive of ablation, therefore, diá signifies that something is done "through and out of;" with the accusative of motion and reference, that it is done "through, and towards, or with reference to," i.e. "along of" on account of." Thus,
(a) With the genitive dá signifies "through," as in Herod. VIII. 3: πάσης διεξελθὼν τῆς Εὐρώπης.
(b) With the accusative Stá signifies "on account of," as in Soph. Cd. Col. 1129: ἔχω γὰρ ἄχω διὰ σὲ κοὐκ ἄλλον βροτῶν.
The student will find it easiest to recollect that dia with the genitive corresponds to per, with the accusative to propter, as in the following example, where they both occur together, Arist. Eth. Nic. Iv. 13, § 16: αἱ γὰρ δυναστείαι καὶ ὁ πλοῦτος διὰ τὴν τιμήν (propter honorem) ἐστιν αἱρετά· οἱ γοῦν ἔχοντες αὐτὰ τιμᾶσθαι Si avrov (per ea) Bouλovтal. But in Homer, Pindar, and other δι' αὐτῶν βούλονται.
poets, Sá with the accusative sometimes signifies per, with this proviso, that it answers to the question quo? "whither?" and not, as with the genitive, to the question unde? "whence?" so that the meaning is rather "along" than "through;" e. g. dià TÓνTIOV κῦμα ἐπόρευσας ἐμὰν ἄνασσαν (Eurip. Hippol. 762).
The special idiomatic usages of diá are generally confined to its construction with the genitive. Thus it signifies
(aa) An interval in space or time; as in Thucyd. 11. 29, § 3: Sià TOσOÚTOV, "at such a distance;" Isocr. Archidamus, p. 121 B: ταύτην διὰ τετρακοσίων ἐτῶν μέλλουσι κατοικίζειν, “ they are going to colonise it after a lapse of 400 years. Thucyd. III. 21, § 3: διὰ δέκα ἐπάλξεων πύργοι, “ there were towers at intervals of ten embrasures each."
(bb) An instrument or means, as something intervening; thus in Herod. VII. 203 : οἱ Ἕλληνες ἐπεκαλέσαντο λέγοντες δι' ἀγγέλων, "the Greeks called upon them, speaking by means of messengers." Plat. Phaed. p. 83 Α: ἀπάτης μεστὴ ἡ διὰ τῶν ὀμμάτων σκέψις, “ the inquiring by means of the eyes is full of deceit" (see above, 457, (αα)). To this use we must refer the phrases διὰ χειρῶν ἔχειν, 66 " to have in hand;” διὰ στέρνων οι διὰ φρενῶν ἔχειν, " to have in one's heart;" dia oikтov Xaßeiv or exew, "to hold in compassion;" dià aidoûs oμμ' exew, “to look ashamed," &c.
(cc) The full extent of a procedure, generally with verbs of motion; as did μáxns èxßeîv, “to go to the length of fighting;" διὰ φιλίας ἰέναι, " to go all the length of friendship;” δι' ἔχθρας γίγνεσθαι, “ to get to the extent of animosity;” διὰ φόβου ἔρXeoba, "to go the whole length of fear, to be thoroughly afraid; Sià yλwoons léval, "to go the length of speaking." Whence in the poets we have further applications of this phraseology, as in Pindar, Isthm. III. 17: διέστειχον πλούτου τετραοριᾶν πόνοις, " they went so far in wealth as to keep four-horsed chariots."
There are many adverbial uses of diá, as dià Táxovs, "swiftly;" διὰ τέλους, “ completely;” διὰ παντός, “ entirely;” δι ̓ εὐπετείας, "easily," &c.
479 Karáά with the genitive denotes vertical motion or direction; with the accusative, it signifies horizontal motion or direction.
(α) Hom. 17. Ι. 44: βῆ δὲ κατ' Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων χωόμενος Kηp, "he went down from the summits of Olympus, enraged in his heart."
(6) Thucyd. Iv. 126: κατὰ πόδας τὸ εὔψυχον ἐνδείκνυνται, "they display their courage by following at their heels." (For the difference of κατὰ πόδα and παρὰ πόδα see below, 485.)
Thus of Karà xóva are the living (Eurip. Hippol. 452), but ó Kaтà xoоvós (Soph. Antig. 24) is the dead. In composition with Kaтá a verb governs the genitive if the action comes down upon the object, but the accusative if the action merely follows the object in its own line of motion. Hence xará with the genitive is sometimes rendered "against," and xaтά with the accusative, "in accordance with." In the former signification, kaтá is opposed to ává; in the latter there is but little difference in their use.
The following are the chief idiomatic significations of Kaτá.
(αα) With the genitive we have κατὰ σκοποῦ τοξεύειν, “ το shoot at a mark ;" Kaтà KópρηS TUTTEW, "to smite on the cheek;" κατά τινος εἰπεῖν, “to speak against some one;” ὀμνύναι καθ ̓ ἱερῶν, κατὰ τῆς κεφαλῆς τοῦ παιδός, “ to swear by (down upon) the sacred objects, by the head of the child;" тò κað vμŵv ẻykúμiov, "the eulogium upon you," &c.
(66) With the accusative we have τὰ κατὰ Παυσανίαν καὶ Θεμιστοκλέα, OεμLOTOKλéα, "the circumstances concerning Pausanias and Themistocles;" kaтà тà μéтpа, "in accordance with the measures" (opposed to παρὰ τὰ μέτρα) ; κατὰ τὸν ἀκριβῆ λόγον, " in accordance with the strict argument;" κal eva, "one by one;" KAтà TÓλEIS, κατὰ πόλεις, "city by city;" кal' μéρav, “day by day" (but μeľ ŋμépav, “in the day-time"); кат' aveрwπоv poveîv, "to think like a man;' οὐ κατὰ Μιθραδάτην, “ not according to the standard of Mithradates;” κατὰ στρατόν, " in the army;” κατὰ Φωκαίην πόλιν, “in a line with, near or off, the city Phocæa;" κaтà тòv TóλEμov, “at the time of the war;" kaтà ýκоvта ěтη, "about sixty years;' каľ Éπтà тоÛ 'Boλoû (Aristoph. Av. 1079), "at the rate of seven for the obol;" KATÀ TEVτÝKOVTA Táλavта (Aristoph. Vesp. 681), "by fifty talents at a time."