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upon another body by only a part of itself. Thus we have of a turban which projects all round the head (Aristoph. Aves, 487): ἔχων ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς τὴν κυρβασίαν; similarly of a bird perched on the top of a sceptre (Ibid. 510): ἐπὶ τῶν σκήπτρων ἐκάθητ ̓ öpvs. With a slight transition éri with the genitive denotes that the surface extends on all sides beyond the superincumbent object, as in Herod. VII. 44: προεπεποίητο ἐπὶ κολωνου προεξέδρη, and ἵζετο ἐπὶ τῆς ἠϊόνος. Thucyd. Ι. 13, § 3 : οἰκοῦντες τὴν πόλιν ἐπὶ TOû 'Iσ0μoû. And we find this construction used to describe the revolution of a sphere on the end of its axis, the surface below and the circumference above being detached. Plat. Polit. 270 A: Tì σμικροτάτου βαῖνον ποδὸς ἰέναι. We have also the military phrase Éπì τettáρwv tetάxlaι, “to be drawn up four deep," because each soldier is considered as separate and moveable; and this explains the rare construction èπ' èxкλnσías (Thucyd. vIII. 81, § 1; Memnon, Heracl. 59; Polyænus, Strat. v. 63).
(b) With the dative èπí signifies absolute superposition, i. e. rest upon or close to; as oikéovтes éπì Σtpuμóvɩ (Herod. vII. 75), "dwelling close upon the Strymon;" Keiμevos éπì Tỷ πuρâ (Plat. Resp. p. 614), "lying on the funeral pile;" aλwTekidas Éπì Taîs Kepaλaîs popεiv (Xen. Anab. VII. 4, § 4), "to wear fox-skins (closely fitted) on their heads" (contrast the case of the Kupẞacía in Aristoph. Aves, 487); and ep' & means a point" (Arist. Eth. Nic. v. 5, § 8), as distinguished from ep' wv, "a line" (Ibid. 4, § 12). From this sense of immediate superposition all the other usages of éπí with the dative naturally flow. Thus it signifies
(aa) Addition, as in the common phrase éπì TOÚTOIS (Xen. Cyr. IV. 5, § 38), "besides," præterea.
(bb) Subsequence or succession, as in Xen. Cyr. II. 3, § 7: ávéστη èπ' avtô Pepaúλas, “Pheraulas rose up after him;" Hom. Οd. VIII. 120 : ὄγχνη ἐπ ̓ ὄγχνῃ γηράσκει, “ pear ripens after pear ;' Herod. II. 22: èπì xióvi meσovoy, "after snow has fallen;" Æsch. Pers. 531: ἐπίσταμαι μὲν ὡς ἐπ ̓ ἐξειργασμένοις, " I know that I do this after all has been effected, when it is too late to mend the mischief."
(cc) That which is close by us as a suggesting cause, accompaniment, motive, or condition. Thus we have lavμášeσbai èπì ζωγραφία, “ to be admired for painting;” ἐπὶ τοῖς τῶν φίλων ἀγα
θοῖς φαιδροὶ γιγνόμεθα, “we are cheerful on account of the prosperity of our friends;" èπì μol, “for hire;” èπì πóσ; "for how much?" oíew ẻπì TÔ σíт¶ öfov, "to eat kitchen (i. e. any savoury accompaniment) with bread;” παλλακὴν ἔχειν ἐπ ̓ ἐλευθέ pois maιolv, "to have a concubine as an accompaniment to free-born children ;” γαμεῖν ἄλλην γυναῖκα ἐπὶ θυγατρὶ ἀμήτορι, “ to marry another wife as an addition (i. e. a step-mother) to his motherless daughter" (cf. Herod. Iv. 154, with Eurip. Alcest. 305); ovoμážεiv TI Éπí Tivi, "to give anything a name suggested by the presence of τι ἐπί τινι, something else," as in Plat. Resp. 493 c: óvoμášoi dè távтa taûta ἐπὶ ταῖς δόξαις τοῦ μεγάλου ζώου, “ but were to give all these things names from (in accordance with) the opinions of the great monster.'
The use of eri with the dative to signify a condition is very common; hence, besides such phrases as (Esch. in Ctes. p. 499), χώραν ἀναθεῖναι ̓Απόλλωνι ἐπὶ πάσῃ ἀεργίᾳ, “ to consecrate a district to Apollo on condition that it should remain entirely uncultivated;" we have the relative sentence ep' or ep're for eπì τοῖσδε ὥστε (below, 612).
(c) With the accusative èí signifies motion with a view to superposition; as ȧvaßaívei èp' ππоv, "to mount a horse;" also ἐπιβαίνειν ἵππον οι ἐπὶ ἵππου, and ἐπιβαίνειν ναῦν, νηΐ or ἐπὶ νεώς ; hence éπißárns means "a passenger." That some sort of ascent is primarily implied by emí with a verb of motion appears from Thucyd. I. 72 : οἱ δ ̓ ἐκέλευον ἐπιέναι, καὶ παρελθόντες οἱ ̓Αθηναῖοι ἔλεγον τοιάδε, Xeyov Toláde, "they bid them mount the bema, and the Athenians coming forward (to the front) spoke as follows."
Similarly we have such phrases as πῦρ ἐπὶ πῦρ ὀχετεύειν (Plat. Leges, 666 A), "to heap fire upon fire;" ïÇeσ0αi èπí TI (Herod. 11. 55, VIII. 52), "to go any where for the purpose of sitting there;” èπì τà TEίxη аντIπаρaráσσeobaι (Thucyd. VII. 37), "to go and post oneself against the enemy on the top of the fortifications;" Kaтaþeúyei èπì teîxos (Plat. Leges, 778 E), "to flee to the top of the wall." Hence, as we say, "to go up against an enemy," èπí with the accusative very often denotes adverse or hostile approach, as in Herod. Iv. 118: ἥκει ὁ Πέρσης οὐδέν τι μᾶλλον ἐπ ̓ ἡμέας ἢ οὐ καὶ E' péas, "the Persian is come up against you quite as much as ἐπ ̓ against us;" Plat. Resp. p. 336: Opaσúμaxos кev ép ýμâs ws Siaρπaσóμevos, "Thrasymachus came out against us, as though he
intended to tear us to pieces." But éri with the accusative is used also to signify any extended motion, such as might reach over and cover a point or line, whence we have such phrases as ayew Tivà ἐπὶ τὰ καλὰ κἀγαθά, “ to lead one to what is fair and good;” ἐπὶ τεσσαράκοντα στάδια, “to the extent of forty stades;” τὴν γῆν ἀπεμίσθωσαν ἐπὶ δέκα ἔτη, “they let out the land for ten years;" Téμπоνσш Éπì Anμoodévny, "they send to (fetch) Demosthenes ;" ἔπλει ἐπὶ τὴν παραπομπὴν τοῦ σίτου, “ he sailed for the purpose of convoying the corn;” αἱροῦνται αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὰς μεγίστας ἀρχάς, "they choose him for (to fill) the highest offices;" Tò èπ' èμé, “as far as I am concerned;” τοὐπὶ τήνδε τὴν κόρην, “ as far as this maiden is concerned;" rò èπì σpâs elvai, “as far as depended on them." And we have a number of adverbial phrases, as èπì πoλÚ, "to a considerable extent" in time or space; ènì πλéov, èπì μeîšov, "to a greater extent;" ènì πâv, "altogether;" ènì ioa, "equally," and the like.
484 Merá denotes companionship (above, 78).
(a) With the genitive therefore it signifies "connexion, with relation to," i.e. separable connexion; as
μετὰ δμώων ἐνὶ οἴκῳ πῖνε καὶ ἦσθε (Hom. Od. XVI. 140).
(b) With the dative μerá is found only in poetry; and then it signifies "connexion, close upon, or among," i.e. as a part of the object; thus,
μετὰ δὲ τριτάτοισιν ἄνασσεν (Hom. Il. I. 252).
(c) Merá with the accusative signifies "motion with a view to companionship;" as
βῆ δὲ μετ' Ιδομενήα, μέγα πτολέμοιο μεμηλώς
It is only in its construction with the genitive and accusative that μerá appears in common Greek; and here some idiomatic usages deserve notice. With the genitive perá sometimes denotes that kind of connexion which we express by the phrases "in the midst of," "surrounded by," and even "enhanced or aggravated" by some concomitant. Thus we have in Thucyd. 1. 18: éμrepó¬ ¿μπeipóτεροι ἐγένοντο μετὰ κινδύνων τὰς μελετὰς ποιούμενοι, “ they became
more skilled from practising in the midst of dangers." Id. II. 41: ἐπὶ πλεῖστ ̓ ἂν εἴδη καὶ μετὰ χαρίτων μάλιστ ̓ εὐτραπέλως τὸ σῶμα айтаρкеs πарéxεolar, "he would furnish his body in self-sufficing completeness for the greatest variety of actions, and with the highest amount of ready tact combined with and enhanced by graces of manner.” Id. v. 7: ἀναλογιζομένων τὴν ἐκείνου ἡγεμονίαν πρὸς οἵαν ἐμπειρίαν καὶ τόλμαν μετὰ οἵας ἀνεπιστημοσύνης καὶ μαλακίας γενήσοιτο, “ reckoning up the skill and boldness to which the generalship of Cleon would be exposed, aggravated by such ignorance and dastardly cowardice." It has been mentioned already (above, 476) that μerá, as distinguished from §úv, denotes a more easily separable companionship and conjunction. There are cases, however, in which the two prepositions may be interchanged. Thus in Thucyd. I. 18, § 5, we have oi §vμñoλeμńoavτes for those who fought on the same side, and immediately afterwards, § 6, eπoλέμησαν μετὰ τῶν ξυμμάχων πρὸς ἀλλήλους. With the genitive plural μerá sometimes means the same as with the dative, namely, "in the midst of" or "among;" thus Eurip. Hec. 209: μerà VEкρŵν KEίσоμaι, "I shall lie among the dead;" and in Eurip. Andr. 591, μετὰ ἀνδρῶν and ἐν ἀνδράσιν are used indifferently. This meaning is borne by perá with the accusative plural, when motion into a crowd is implied; as in Il. iv. 70: èdè μeтà Тρŵas Kai Αχαιούς. Hence we have such phrases as μεθ' ἡμέραν, “by day;' μετὰ νύκτας, “ by night;” μετὰ τρίτην ἡμέραν, “ on the third day. And it seems clear that the phrase μετὰ χεῖρας ἔχειν (Herod. VII. 16; Thucyd. 1. 138, § 4), whence the verb μeraxeipleodai, must have meant originally "to have between one's hands," with the sense of previous motion, which is implied in our phrase "to take a thing in hand."
485 Пapá is equivalent to apud, with an implication of motion, i.e. it means "from the side of."
(a) With the genitive Trapà σoû is, "apud me a te;" (b) with the dative mapà ooi is, "apud te-a me vel aliunde;" (c) with the accusative Taρà σé is, "progrediens a me, vel aliunde, ut apud te sit."
(α) αγγελίη ἥκει παρὰ βασιλῆος (Herod. VIII. 140).
ἐπικρατεῖν παρὰ τῷ βασιλέϊ (Herod. IV. 65).
(c) ἤγαγον αὐτὸν παρὰ Κῦρον (Herod. 1. 86).
It is to be remarked that Tapá with the dative may be applied to the subject of the sentence, as in Dem. Phil. IV. 13: yiyvóokeiv παρ' ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς; ef. Pind. Pyth. III. 28: άϊεν κοινᾶνι παρ ̓ εὐθυ τάτῳ, γνώμα πιθών.
The usage of Tapá with the genitive and dative is tolerably uniform; but there are certain idiomatic usages of this preposition with the accusative, which require a few words of explanation to connect them with the general definition. Thus Tapá signifies præter, "besides," i.e. "in addition to," as our eσTI Tаρà Tаûт' äλλa (Arist. Nub. 698), i.e. taking them and placing them by the side of these things, quo fiet ut adjiciantur. It signifies præter when it is almost synonymous with contra, "against," as maρà dóžav, præter opinionem, as if two contrary things were compared; by a similar transition we have in English, "beside the question" for "out of" or "inconsistent with." To this class belong the phrases παρὰ γνώμην, “ contrary to expectation;” παρὰ δύναμιν (nearly equal to ὑπὲρ δύναμιν), “ beyond one's power;” παρὰ τὴν φύσιν, "contrary to nature;" Tapà Toùs aλλovs, "beyond (exceeding) the others;" Tарà тоùs vóμονs, "in contravention of the laws (whence παράνομος, &c., and here we may compare ὑπερβαίνειν τοὺς vóμovs, vπeрẞaσía, and the like). In Thucydides and Demosthenes, Tapá with the accusative means propter, "on account of," as in our vulgar idiom, "all along of." Thus we have Thucyd. I. 141: παρὰ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀμέλειαν, “ in consequence of his own neglect; Dem. Phil. III. p. 110, 15; οὐ παρ' ἓν οὐδὲ δύο εἰς τοῦτο τὰ πράγματ ̓ ἀφίκται, “ it is not from one or two causes that our affairs have come to this condition." (Cf. Dem. Phil. I. p. 43, 14; Isocrat. Archid. c. 52, p. 126 E). Here it is a less usual construction than Siá cum accusativo. While κατὰ πόδα signifies κατ ̓ ἴχνος, “ at the heels, in the traces of some one preceding," Tapà móda means step by step," pari passu, and is equivalent to ev¤éws; compare Plato, Sophist. 242 Α: παρὰ πόδα μεταβαλὼν ἐμαυτὸν ἄνω καὶ κάτω ; Soph. Phil. 825: πολὺ παρὰ πόδα κράτος ἄρνυται, with Plat. Sophist. 243 D: Kатà TÓƐа ye væéλaßes, and see above, 479. In accordance with the meaning of παρὰ πόδα we have παρά used to denote immediate subsequence; thus in Demosth. in Pantan. p. 966, 20: ἁπάντων ἀνθρώπων εἰωθότων παρ ̓ αὐτὰ τἀδικήματα