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μᾶλλον ἢ χρόνων ἐγγεγενημένων ἀγανακτεῖν, “ all men being accustomed to feel resentment immediately after their wrongs, rather than when some time has elapsed." Hence also Tapá is used in the phrases παρ' ἡμέραν οι παρ' ἦμαρ (Soph. d. C. 1455; Αj. 470) or πаρà πλnýν (Arist. Ran. 643), to denote an immediate subsequence of days or blows. The extent of a difference is expressed by παρά in such phrases as παρὰ πολύ, “by a good deal;” παρὰ μικρόν, “by a little;” παρ ̓ ὀλίγον, “ by a few ;” παρ' οὐδέν, “ by no distinction;" паρà тоσоÛтov, "by so much or so little" (Thucyd. III. 49); πаρ' èv máλaιopa, "by one wrestling match' (i. e. it was all that was wanted, Herod. Ix. 33).


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486 Πρός οι προ-τί is only a lengthened form of παρά (above, 78); but, containing in itself a significance of motion onwards, it denotes ad-versus rather than apud. (a) With the genitive pòs μnτpós is a matre versus me cognati, "relations on the mother's side;" (b) with the dative, pòs T Muévi, "close by the harbour," motion thither previously being assumed. (c) With the accusative pòs Tòv ovpavóv is "towards heaven," ad cœlum


Hence Tρòs ToÚTwv, "from" or "in consideration of these things—as a motive;" πpòs TоÚTois, "in addition to these things -as an act;" πpòs таûта, "with a view to these things-as an end." The main distinction between the cognate particles Tаρá and pós consists in this-that while the former always denotes an actual motion or change of place in some object, the latter merely indicates a direction or tendency. This is shown by the fact that Tарά and πрós most nearly concur in their use with the dative or case of rest, and most plainly differ in their use with the genitive and accusative, which denote motion "from" and "to" respectively. It will be observed that πpós with the dative does not perceptibly differ from wapá with the same case. But although Taρά with the genitive is directly opposed to rapá with the accusative, we find πpós with the genitive apparently used as a synonym for πpós with the accusative. Thus, in the same sentence (Herod. II. 121): τὸν μὲν πρὸς βορέω ἑστεῶτα, τὸν δὲ πρὸς νότον. Similarly in Id. VII. 55 : κατὰ μὲν τὴν πρὸς τοῦ Πόντου, κατὰ δὲ

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τὴν πρὸς τὸ Αἰγαῖον. This arises from the tendency or relation implied; for in regard to a direction it matters little whether we consider it as indicated by a line proceeding from or tending to a given point in the compass; and perhaps in both these passages a continued direction is implied from north to south. The same interchange is observed, but very rarely, in the use of πapá with the genitive'. With the genitive πpós may often be rendered "on the side of, from the point of view occupied by, in the sight of," and, by a natural inference, "in favour of, on behalf of." Thus we find phrases like the following: τὰ ὅπλα, τὴν ψῆφον τιθέναι πρὸς Tiós, "to place one's arms, to give one's vote on the side of some one." And in the secondary sense: ὁ θεὸς πρὸς ἡμῶν ἔσται (Thucyd. IV. 92), "the god will be on our side, in our favour; ἡ ἐν στένῳ ναυμαχία πρὸς Λακεδαιμονίων ἐστί (Id. II. 86), “ the fighting in the narrow sea is in favour of the Lacedæmonians;" ἄτοπα λέγεις καὶ οὐδαμῶς πρὸς σοῦ (Xen. Mem. II. 3, § 15), “ you utter absurdities, and sentiments by no means suitable to yourself;" πρὸς μὲν θεῶν ἀσεβές, πρὸς δὲ ἀνθρώπων αἰσχρόν (Id. Anab. II. 5, § 20), "impious in the eyes of the gods, and disgraceful in the eyes of men; ” δρῷμεν δ ̓ ἂν ἄδικον οὐδέν, οὔτε πρὸς θεῶν τῶν ὁρκίων οὔτε πρὸς ἀνθρώπων τῶν αἰσθανομένων (Thucyd. Ι. 71), “ we should do nothing disgraceful, either in the eyes of the gods, by whom we have sworn, or in the eyes of men, who know the facts." The employment of πpós with the genitive in adjurations, as opposed to that of vn and μá with the accusative in affirmations, is to be explained in the same way; for πpòs Oewv means "in the eyes of the gods, as seen by the gods," where the Romans said, per te deos oro. Although dia with the genitive is equivalent to the Latin per in other uses, the student must be careful not to substitute dia for πpós in this usage.

With the accusative πpós signifies either the direction of motion or the relation between two objects. In the former sense we say not only ἀπέβη πρὸς μακρὸν Ὄλυμπον, “ he departed towards, in the direction of, lofty Olympus," but μάχη Περσῶν πρὸς Αθηναίους, "a battle between the Persians and Athenians;" σπоvdàs πоiεîolai TρÒS TOÙS OTPATηyoús, “to make a treaty with the generals." And in this latter sense students will remark the difference between the prepositions πpós, peтá, čúv, which may all be occasionally ren

1 See the note on Soph. Antig. 937, p. 207.

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dered by "with," cum. Thus, "they fought with their enemies" (cum hostibus), is πρὸς τοὺς ἐναντίους ἐμάχοντο; “they went on the expedition with their allies" (cum sociis), is μeтà tôv §vμμáχων ἐστράτευον; and “ they conquered with the aid of the gods (cum diis), is fùv Toîs beoîs évíкwv. As an expression of relation πpós with the accusative is the regular construction. Thus we have (Thucyd. I. 6, § 3) : ἐς τὰ ἄλλα πρὸς τοὺς πολλοὺς ἰσοδίαιτοι KaтÉσTησav, "in other respects they became uniform in their mode of living in relation to the common people." In Aristotle πρós T expresses the category of relation. There are many adverbial phrases with πρός and the accusative, such as πρὸς βίαν, πρὸς φιλίαν, πρὸς χάριν, πρὸς ὀργήν, and the like.



Tó, from which irré-p is formed, signifies with the genitive, motion from beneath; with the dative, position below; with the accusative, motion or extension underneath; thus,

(a) ἢ καὶ νεοσσὸν τόνδ', ὑπὸ πτερῶν σπάσας;

(Eurip. Androm. 442),

"will you also kill this child, having dragged him from beneath my wings?"


ἔρδομεν ἑκατόμβας καλῇ ὑπὸ πλατανίστῳ

(Hom. Il. 11. 307),

"we offered sacrifices beneath a beautiful plane-tree." (c) εὐθ ̓ ὑπ ̓ Ἴλιον ὠρτο ναυβάτης στρατός

(Esch. Ag. 459), "when the ship-borne armament was making for its post beneath the walls of Troy."

There are many idiomatic usages of Tó. Thus with the genitive and dative it denotes the instrumental accompaniment of dancing or marching, as ὑπὸ φορμίγγων χορεύειν, ὑπ ̓ αὐλοῦ κωμάSelv (Hom. Il. XVIII. 492; Hes. Scut. 280); vπò avλYTŵV TOXλŵv χωρεῖν (Thucyd. v. 70); ὑπὸ βαρβίτῳ χορεύειν, ὑπ ̓ αὐλητῆρι ιέvai (Hes. Scut. 283); and also of other influential or controlling accompaniments, as ὑπὸ μαστίγων τοξεύειν, ὑπὸ σάλπιγγος πίνειν, ὑπ ̓ εὐχαῖς λίσσεσθαι (Pind. Isth. VI. 64).

One of the most frequent usages of the genitive (or in epic poetry the dative) with úró is that which expresses the cause, under and out of which an act is performed (see above, 430, (dd), 431, (αα), (13)). The difference between ὑπό του, ἔκ του, διά του, διά τι, is well given in a passage of Philo-Judaeus (I. p. 162): πρὸς τήν τινος γένεσιν πολλὰ δεῖ συνελθεῖν· τὸ ὑφ' οὗ, τὸ ἐξ οὗ, τὸ δι' οὗ, τὸ δι ̓ ὅ· καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑφ' οὗ, “ τὸ αἴτιον·” ἐξ οὗ δέ, “ἡ ὕλη” δι' οὗ δέ, “ἐργαλεῖον δι' ὃ δέ, “ ἡ αἰτία.” Ἴδε τόνδε τὸν κόσμον· εὑρήσεις γάρ, “ αἴτιον” μὲν αὐτοῦ τὸν Θεὸν ὑφ' οὗ γέγονεν· “ ύλην δέ, τὰ τέσσαρα στοιχεῖα ἐξ ὧν συνεκράθη· “ ὄργανον” δέ, Λόγον Θεοῦ, δι ̓ οὗ συνεσκευάσθη τῆς δὲ κατασκευῆς “ αἰτίαν” τὴν ἀγαθότητα τοῦ Δημιουργοῦ.


Like the Latin sub, úró with the accusative expresses extension of time up to, but not through, a specified period; thus, ὑπὸ τὴν νύκτα, sub noctem, " up to the beginning of night. Similarly ὑπὸ τὴν ἕω, “ up to the breaking of the day. We have also the Attic phrase υπό τι, “ up to a certain extent,” in some measure (Plat. Gorg. p. 495 c; Phædr. p. 242 D; Aristoph. Vesp. 290; also perhaps Thucyd. iv. 28, ought to be read ὑπό τι θορυβησάντων, and Xenarchus ap. Athen. p. 693 C, ὑπό τι νυστάζων; see Cobet, Hyperid. p. 70).


§ IX. Secondary Predicates. (b) Supplement to the Cases.

(b) Quasi-Prepositions.


488 Many adverbs and fixed forms of nouns are used as prepositions with the genitive; such are ἀμφίς, “side-ways” or “to the side of;” ἄνευ (poetically ἄνευθε), “ without, removed from, independent of;” ἄτερ (= ἄντερ) and ἄτερθε (both poetic only), “ without, apart from;” ἄχρι oι ἄχρις (poetic only); μέχρι or μέχρις (Ionic and poetic), “ until;” πρόσω, later Attic πόῤῥω, “ far into ;” τῆλε, τηλοῦ, τηλόθι and τηλόθεν (poetic only), “ far from;” ἄγχι and ἐγγύς, “ near ;” χωρίς, " apart from;” πλήν, ,, except ;" δίκην or τρόπον, “like” (instar); ἕνεκα εἵνεκα, 110, (β)) or ἕκατι, “ on account of (ergo); χάριν, " for the sake of" (gratia), &c. These are only quasi-prepositions, and differ from those which have been just discussed, in the important circumstances, that they are not proclitics, that their accent is not drawn back when they are placed after the noun, and that they cannot form parathetic compounds with verbs. The following are examples of their signification:


(a) Adverbs.

(α) ἵπποι ἀμφὶς ὁδοῦ δραμέτην (Hom. Il. XXIII. 393), the horses ran to the side of the road."

(b) ovк аvev dev Tivós (Esch. Pers. 160), "not without the help of some one of the gods," and so arep, Pind. Pyth.

v. 76.

(c) аxpi μáλa κvépaos (Hom. Od. XVIII. 370), "until very late at night."


(d) μéxpi Paráoons (Il. XIII. 143), "as far as the sea;" μéxpi μέχρι θαλάσσης nμov (Thucyd. 1. 74, § 2), " as far as us."

(e) πρÓσw тоÛ тотаμοû (Xen. Anab. IV. 3, 28), "far into the


(f) τῆλε φίλων καὶ πατρίδος αἴας (Ιl. XI. 817), “ far from his friends and native land."

(g) arxi èxowv áλós (Pind. Ol. 1. 71), "having come near the


(h) EyуÚTаTа Tоû vûv трóжTоv (Thucyd. 1. 13), "very like the present fashion."

(i) σμixpoi peɣáλwv xwpis (Soph. Aj. 158), "great without small."

(k) éλeúlepos ovdeís éoti tλýv Aiós (Æsch. Prom. 50), "there is no one free except Jove."

The adverbs ayxɩ and eyyús are sometimes found with the dative, and axpis has the accusative in epic Greek.

(B) Cases of Nouns.

(a) Kvvòs díkŋv, “just like a watch-dog" (Esch. Ag. 3).

(b) Tρóπоν aiyνπíwv, “like vultures" (Id. Ibid. 48).

(c) délλwv y eveкa, "for the matter of prizes at least," i.e. 'as far as they are concerned" (Pind. Ol. 1. 99).

as far

(d) Tλýlovs Kaтi, "for the matter of numbers," i.e. " as numbers go or "if it had depended on that"

(Esch. Pers. 337).

(e) Tóxμas Xápiv, "thanks to his boldness" (Soph. Antig.


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