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They are sometimes used with other prepositions: thus we
τηλόθεν ἐξ ̓Απίης γαίας (Ιl. Ι. 270).
ȧμpì σoû ěveka (Soph. Phil. 554).
ἀπὸ βοῆς ἕνεκα (Thucyd. VIII. 92).
πЄρì τŵν аρ§áνtwv ěvekev (Lys. de Evandr. Prob. p. 176). ἕνεκα τοῦ τοιούτου χάριν (Plat. Polit. p. 302 B).
§ X. C. Tertiary Predicates.
489 The tertiary predicate, as has been already suggested, implies some sort of póλnis, or anticipation of a primary or secondary predication in the nominative case. Thus, in the example given above (400, (γ)), ὁ μάντις τοὺς λόγους ψευδεῖς λέγει, we imply either the primary predicate οἱ λόγοι ψευδεῖς εἰσίν, οι the secondary predicate οἱ λόγοι ψευδεῖς λέγονται, for the meaning is "the prophet speaks, and his words are false"="he speaks, and the words which he speaks are false"=" he speaks, and his words are falsely spoken." That there is a difference in the tertiary predication and that of an adverb may be shown by an example. For when Theseus says to the herald (Eurip. Suppl. 403), πрштоν μèv ἤρξω τοῦ λόγου ψευδώς, ξένε, ζητῶν τύραννον ἐνθάδε, he merely means that he began his speech falsely, or that the beginning of his speech was false; whereas, if he had said npw Toû Xóyov yeudoûs, he must have meant "the speech which you have begun is false," for the predication of the oblique case of the adjective must have been dependent on that of the substantive, and could not have been immediately connected with the verb.
490 The most convenient rule for translating this idiom is to take the tertiary predicate as the primary one, and to make the verb which contains the primary predicate dependent on a relative; as if the phrase, ὁ ῥινοκέρως τὴν δορὰν ἰσχυροτάτην ἔχει, which means "the rhinoceros has its hide very strong" (as in the French idiom, il a le front large), were to be rendered by its equivalent, ἡ δορά, ἣν ὁ ῥινοκέρως ἔχει, ἰσχυροτάτη ἐστίν, “ the hide, which the rhinoceros has, is very strong. But the other plan may also be adopted, and the primary predication added, as if we were to say, ὁ ῥινοκέρως δορὰν ἔχει καὶ ἡ δορὰ αὐτοῦ ἰσχυροτάτη ἐστίν,
"the rhinoceros has a hide, and it is a very hard one." The only difference in the two cases being, that the hide is assumed to exist in the former mode of rendering.
As professed scholars, especially on the continent, are sometimes found to neglect or overlook the full force of this construction, and as even the most advanced students experience some difficulty in applying the principle to particular cases, it seems desirable that we should give a number of examples with the proper translation of each.
Plat. Resp. I. p. 344 D: Θρασύμαχος ἐν νῷ εἶχεν ἀπιέναι κατ αντλήσας κατὰ τῶν ὤτων ἀθρόον καὶ πολὺν τὸν λόγον, “ Thrasymachus was thinking of going away, after having poured his discourse down our ears in a full stream and all at once." Pind. Ol. II. 35: Μοῖρ ̓ ἅ τε πατρώιον τῶνδ ̓ ἔχει τὸν εὔφρονα πότμον, “ fate which keeps up the prosperous fortune of this clan in accordance with its ancestral condition" (i. e. as a sort of heir-loom or inherited attribute); and similarly Soph. Antig. 594: apxaîa тà ▲aßδακιδᾶν οἴκων ὁρῶμαι πήματα φθιμένων ἐπὶ πήμασι πίπτοντα, "of old date are the calamities of the house of the Labdacidæ, which I see in the act of being added to the calamities of those who are dead and gone." Esch. Agam. 520: Siπλâ & eτiσav ПIρiaμídaι Oaμápria, "the penalty of their crime, which the Priamidæ have paid, has been two-fold" (i. e. they have lost Helen and their city has been destroyed). Lycurgus, c. Leocr. p. 153, § 40: τῶν ἀνδρῶν τοὺς τὰς ἡλικίας πρεσβυτέρους ἰδεῖν ἦν καθ' ὅλην τὴν πόλιν περιφθειρομένους διπλᾶ τὰ ἱμάτια ἐμπεπορπημένους, one might see the elderly men wandering miserably about the city, with their outer-garments doubled round their shoulders and fastened with a buckle" (see Suidas, s. v. πеπорπημévos). Plat. Resp. VII. p. 514 Α: ἰδὲ γὰρ ἀνθρώπους οἷον ἐν καταγείῳ οἰκήσει σπηλαιώδει ἀναπεπταμένην πρὸς τὸ φῶς τὴν εἴσοδον ἐχούσῃ μακρὰν παρ ̓ ἅπαν τὸ σπήλαιον, “ consider men as though in a subterraneous cavern-like abode, having its entrance extended to a great length along the whole front of the cavern," where μakpáv is a sort of quaternary predicate depending on the tertiary predicate ἀναπεπταμένην, and involving the secondary predication, ἡ εἴσοδος ȧvажÉπтатαι μакpá (above, 442, (cc)). Arist. Eth. Nic. 1. 13, § 5: τὸ ἀγαθὸν ἀνθρώπινον ἐζητοῦμεν καὶ τὴν εὐδαιμονίαν ἀνθρωπίνην, "the good which we were seeking was one proper to man, and
so was the happiness about which we were inquiring." Soph. - 1120: Μεν. ὁ τοξότης ἔοικεν οὐ σμικρὸν φρονεῖν. Τευκ. οὐ γὰρ βάναυσον τὴν τέχνην ἐκτησάμην, “ Men. Our archer seems to have no little pride. Teuc. Yes, for the art which I have acquired is not a handicraft" (i. e. it is truly military; cf. Herod. II. 165: καὶ τούτων βαναυσίης οὐδεὶς δεδάηκε οὐδέν, ἀλλ ̓ ἀνέονται ἐς τὸ μάχιμον). Asch. Αgam. 603: Κηρ. οὐκ ἔσθ' ὅπως λέξαιμι τὰ ψευδῆ καλὰ ἐς τὸν πολὺν φίλοισι καρποῦσθαι χρόνον. Χορ. πῶς δῆτ ̓ ἂν εἰπὼν κεδνὰ τἀληθῆ τύχοις; σχισθέντα δ ̓ οὐκ εὔκρυπτα γίγνεται τάδε, “ Herald. It is not possible that I should give my false words a favourable colouring, so that my friends should enjoy the delusion for a continuity. Chorus. I wish then that you could make your true tale a favourable one, for, if separated, these things are not easily concealed.” Herod. VII. 46: ὁ θεός, γλυκὺν γεύσας τὸν αἰῶνα, φθονερὸς ἐν αὐτῷ εὑρίσκεται ἐών, “ and god is proved to be envious, because the life, of which he has given us a little taste, is so sweet and pleasant. Demosth. in Mid. 524, 7: νόμους ἔθεσθε πρὸ τῶν ἀδικημάτων ἐπ ̓ ἀδήλοις μὲν τοῖς ἀδικήσουσιν, ἀδήλοις δὲ τοῖς ἀδικησομένοις, “ you have enacted laws before the offences, on the principle that those who were to do or suffer wrong were both unknown.” Id. Ibid. 1. 27: τὸν ἄρχοντα ἐὰν ἐστεφανωμένον κατάξῃς ἡ κακῶς εἴπῃς, ἄτιμος, ἐὰν δὲ ἰδιώτην, ἰδίᾳ ὑπόδικος, “ if any one strikes or abuses the archon when he has his crown on, he is disfranchised, but if he does so to him in his private capacity, he is liable to a private suit." Thucyd. I. 71, § 2: πpòs πολλὰ ἀναγκαζομένοις ἰέναι, πολλῆς καὶ ἐπιτεχνήσεως δεῖ, “when persons are compelled to engage in many enterprises, many are the modifications which become necessary. Ibid. § 4: τὴν Πελο
πόννησον πειρᾶσθε μὴ ἐλάσσω ἐξηγεῖσθαι ἢ οἱ πατέρες ὑμῖν παρέδοσαν, “ endeavour to be leaders of the Peloponnese to the same extent as your fathers transmitted the leadership to you." Archilochus, Fragm. 58: τοιάνδε δ ̓, ὦ πίθηκε, τὴν πυγὴν ἔχεις, “such, Ο ape, are the posteriors which you have” (this is perhaps the earliest example of a tertiary predicate; see Müller, Hist. of Gr. Lit. I. p. 186). Polybius, III. 63, § 8: ἐπὶ πολὺν χρόνον ἐμάχοντο συστάδην, ἐφάμιλλον ποιούμενοι τὸν κίνδυνον, “ for a long time they fought man to man, making the danger an object of eager rivalry.” Thucyd. VII. 71, § 2 (according to what appears to us the true reading): διὰ τὸ ἀγχώμαλον τῆς ἁμίλλης ἀνώμαλον καὶ τὴν ἐποψιν τῆς ναυμαχίας ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἠναγκάζοντο ἔχειν, “on
account of the equality of the conflict the view also which they got of the sea-fight from the land was necessarily unequal and varied." Id. II. 76, ad fin.: ἀφίεσαν τὴν δοκὸν χαλαραῖς ταῖς ἁλύσεσι καὶ οὐ διὰ χειρὸς ἔχοντες, “ they let fall the beam with the chains loosened, and not holding them up in their hands;" where the secondary predicate of the participle explains the tertiary predicate of the adjective. Id. I. 49, § 4: ἐνέπρησαν τὰς σκήνας ἐρήμους, "they burned the tents, deserted as they were (or, as they found them deserted)," where we have in the tertiary predicate the same idiom as that which we have already noticed in the secondary predicate (above, 442, (b), (bb)). Id. 1. 77, § 4: äμiкTA TÀ KAľ vμÂS αὐτοὺς νόμιμα τοῖς ἄλλοις ἔχετε, “ the domestic institutions which you have repel all intercourse with other Greeks."
When the tertiary predicate appears in the form of an absolute case of the participle, which may be considered logically as a secondary predicate, it may be accompanied by the tertiary predication of an adjective, as in Thucyd. 1. 35, § 4: VAVTIKĤs Kaì OỦK ἠπειρώτιδος τῆς ξυμμαχίας διδομένης οὐχ ὁμοία ἡ ἀλλοτρίωσις, "as the alliance which is offered is naval and not continental, the alienation of it is not the same." Or two participles absolute may be placed side by side in different tenses, as Thucyd. 1. 75, § 2: καί τινων καὶ ἤδη ἀποστάντων κατεστραμμένων, “ and some having revolted (as a single act), and in consequence being reduced to a state of subjection" (442, (a)).
For the case where the tertiary predicate has the article, see above, 394, (B), (b).
491 The article, which distinguishes the subject of this tertiary predicate (above, 400, (y)), is sometimes replaced by the demonstrative, as in ἀπόρῳ γε τῷδε συμπεπλέγμεθα ξένῳ (Eurip. Bacch. 800), which is equivalent to ὁ ξένος οὗτος, ᾧ συμπεπλέγμεθα, ǎπоρós TIS EσTÍV. And, in this case, the predicate is often reἄπορός τις ἐστίν. presented by an interrogative, which is to be explained in the same way; for τίνας ποθ ̓ ἕδρας τάσδε μοι θοάζετε; (Soph. Cd. Τ. 2), conveys the same meaning as τίνες εἰσὶν αἱ ἕδραι αἵδε, ἅς μοι Ooάere; "what are these supplicatory seats, which I see you occupying here?"
492 The words, which occur as secondary predicates in the nominative, are of most frequent use as tertiary predicates in the
oblique cases; especially those which appear as secondary predicates of time and place. We have a remarkable instance of both of these in the same sentence in Pind. Pyth. IV. 9, 10: κaì Tò Μηδείας ἔπος ἀγκομίσαιθ ̓ ἑβδόμᾳ καὶ σὺν δεκάτᾳ γενεᾷ Θήραιον, "and might bring back (recall) Medea's saying when seventeen generations had passed away since it was uttered at Thera." As a general rule the participle has the most extensive employment as a tertiary predicate. For while other words are discriminated from their immediate subject by the article prefixed to the latter, the participle is sufficiently distinguished by the absence of the article in its own case. And the student cannot be too early impressed with the fact, that the participle without the article can never be rightly rendered by the relative sentence with a definite antecedent, which is equivalent to the participle with an article.
493 The following examples show the connexion between the tertiary predicate and the secondary predication in the nominative; Thucyd. III. 57: οὐ γὰρ ἀφανῆ κρινεῖτε τὴν δίκην τήνδε, ἐπαινού μενοι δὲ περὶ οὐδ ̓ ἡμῶν μεμπτῶν, in which ἀφανῆ and μεμπτῶν are tertiary predicates, and èπaivoúμevol a secondary predicate in the nominative; thus, "this judgment, which you will give, will not be unknown; for you, the judges, are praised, and we, the parties, are free from reproach." Xen. Anab. IV. 1, § 13: σxodaíav ẻπoiovv τὴν πορείαν πολλὰ ὄντα τὰ ὑποζύγια, " the beasts of burden being many made the march slow;" Thucyd. 1. 34, fin.: ¿ axioras τὰς μεταμελείας ἐκ τοῦ χαρίζεσθαι τοῖς ἐναντίοις λαμβάνων ἀσφα λέστατος ἂν διατελοίη, “ he, whose regrets from conferring favours on his enemies are fewest, would pass through life most safely;" Id. iv. 85, § 4: τὴν αἰτίαν οὐχ ἕξω πιστὴν ἀποδεικνύναι, ἀλλ ̓ ἢ ἄδικον τὴν ἐλευθερίαν ἐπιφέρειν ἢ ἀσθενὴς καὶ ἀδύνατος 'τιμωρῆσαι τὰ πρὸς ̓Αθηναίους, ἣν ἐπίωσιν, ἀφῖχθαι, “ I shall not be able to establish my reasons so as to produce conviction (below, 497); but it will either appear that the freedom which I am offering is unsupported by justice, or that I am come here weak and unable to give a good account of the Athenians, in case they attack us;" Plat. Gorg. p. 494 B: οὐκοῦν ἀνάγκη γ ̓, ἂν πολὺ ἐπιῤῥέῃ, πολὺ καὶ τὸ ἀπιὸν εἶναι καὶ μεγάλ ̓ ἄττα τὰ τρήματα ταῖς ἐκροαῖς; “ is it not necessary that, if it flows in with a full stream, what runs off should be abundant, and that the orifices for the outfalls should be somewhat large?" And for a number of predicates in the objective