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dered by "with," cum. Thus, "they fought with their enemies" (cum hostibus), is πρὸς τοὺς ἐναντίους ἐμάχοντο; “they went on the expedition with their allies" (cum sociis), is μetà tŵv žvμμáχων ἐστράτευον; and " they conquered with the aid of the gods (cum diis), is §ùv toîs deoîs évíkwv. As an expression of relation πpós with the accusative is the regular construction. Thus we have (Thucyd. I. 6, § 3) : ἐς τὰ ἄλλα πρὸς τοὺς πολλοὺς ἰσοδίαιτοι KaTÉστησav, "in other respects they became uniform in their mode of living in relation to the common people." In Aristotle πρós T expresses the category of relation. There are many adverbial phrases with πρός and the accusative, such as πρὸς βίαν, πρὸς φιλίαν, πρὸς χάριν, πρὸς ὀργήν, and the like.

Υπό.

487 Tó, from which irré-p is formed, signifies with the genitive, motion from beneath; with the dative, position below; with the accusative, motion or extension underneath; thus,

(a) ἢ καὶ νεοσσὸν τόνδ', ὑπὸ πτερῶν σπάσας;

(Eurip. Androm. 442),

"will you also kill this child, having dragged him from beneath my wings?"

(b)

ἔρδομεν ἑκατόμβας καλῇ ὑπὸ πλατανίστῳ

(Hom. I. 11. 307),

"we offered sacrifices beneath a beautiful plane-tree." (c) εὐθ ̓ ὑπ ̓ Ἴλιον ὠρτο ναυβάτης στρατός

(Esch. Ag. 459), "when the ship-borne armament was making for its post beneath the walls of Troy."

There are many idiomatic usages of Tó. Thus with the genitive and dative it denotes the instrumental accompaniment of dancing or marching, as ὑπὸ φορμίγγων χορεύειν, ὑπ' αὐλοῦ κωμάLew (Hom. Il. XVIII. 492; Hes. Scut. 280); imò AVληTŵV πOXXŵv χωρεῖν (Thucyd. v. 70) ; ὑπὸ βαρβίτῳ χορεύειν, ὑπ ̓ αὐλητῆρι ἰέω vai (Hes. Scut. 283); and also of other influential or controlling accompaniments, as ὑπὸ μαστίγων τοξεύειν, ὑπὸ σάλπιγγος πίνειν, ὑπ ̓ εὐχαῖς λίσσεσθαι Pind. Isth. VI. 64).

One of the most frequent usages of the genitive (or in epic poy the dative with ὑπό is that which expresses the cause, mmer and out of which an act is performed (see above, 430, (dd), 131, αα'. 66). The difference between ὑπό του, ἔκ του, διά του, au). δια τι, is well given in a passage of Philo-Judaeus (I. p. 162): πρὸς την τινος γένεσιν πολλὰ δεῖ συνελθεῖν· τὸ ὑφ' οὗ, τὸ ἐξ οὗ, τὸ δι' οὖ, τὸ δι ̓ ὅ· καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑφ' οὗ, “ τὸ αἴτιον” ἐξ οὗ δέ, “ἡ ὕλη·” δι' οὗ δέ, “ἐργαλεῖον δι' ὃ δέ, “ ἡ αἰτία.” Ἴδε τόνδε τὸν κόσμον· εὑρήσεις γάρ, “ αἴτιον” μὲν αὐτοῦ τὸν Θεὸν ὑφ' οὗ γέγονεν· “ ύλην δέ, τὰ τέσσαρα στοιχεῖα ἐξ ὧν συνεκράθη· “ ὄρο γανον” δέ, Λόγον Θεοῦ, δι ̓ οὗ συνεσκευάσθη τῆς δὲ κατασκευῆς “ αἰτίαν” τὴν ἀγαθότητα τοῦ Δημιουργοῦ.

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Like the Latin sub, úró with the accusative expresses extension of time up to, but not through, a specified period; thus, ὑπὸ τὴν νύκτα, sub noctem, " up to the beginning of night.” Similarly ὑπὸ τὴν ἕω, “ up to the breaking of the day. We have also the Attic phrase ὑπό τι, “ up to a certain extent,” “ in some measure” (Plat. Gorg. p. 495 c; Phædr. p. 242 D; Aristoph. Vesp. 290; also perhaps Thucyd. iv. 28, ought to be read ὑπό τι θορυβησάντων, and Xenarchus ap. Athen. p. 693 c, ὑπό τι νυστάζων; see Cobet, Hyperid. p. 70).

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§ IX. Secondary Predicates. (b) Supplement to the Cases.

(bg) Quasi-Prepositions.

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488 Many adverbs and fixed forms of nouns are used as prepositions with the genitive; such are ἀμφίς, “side-ways” or “to the side of;” ἄνευ (poetically ἄνευθε), “ without, removed from, independent of;” ἄτερ (= ἄντερ) and ἄτερθε (both poetic only), without, apart from;” ἄχρι or ἄχρις (poetic only); μέχρι οι μέχρις (Ionic and poetic), “ until;” πρόσω, later Attic πόρρω, “ far into ;” τῆλε, τηλοῦ, τηλόθι and τηλόθεν (poetic only), far from;” ἄγχι and εγγύς, “ near ;” χωρίς, “apart from;” πλήν, except;” δίκην oι τρόπον, “like” (instar); ἕνεκα εἵνεκα, 110, (β)) or ἕκατι, “ on account of” (ergo); χάριν, " for the sake of” (gratia), &c. These are only quasi-prepositions, and differ from those which have been just discussed, in the important circumstances, that they are not proclitics, that their accent is not drawn back when they are placed after the noun, and that they cannot form parathetic compounds with verbs. The following are examples of their signification:

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(a) Adverbs.

(α) ἵπποι ἀμφὶς ὁδοῦ δραμέτην (Hom. Il. XXIII. 393), “ the horses ran to the side of the road."

(b) ovк аvev deŵv Tivós (Esch. Pers. 160), "not without the help of some one of the gods," and so årep, Pind. Pyth.

v. 76.

(c) ἄχρι μάλα κνέφαος (Hom. Od. XVIII. 370),

late at night."

"until very

(d) péxpi Oaráoons (Il. xIII. 143), "as far as the sea;" μéxpi nuv (Thucyd. 1. 74, § 2), " as far as us."

(e) πρóσw TоÛ Tотаμοû (Xen. Anab. IV. 3, 28), “far into the river."

(f) τῆλε φίλων καὶ πατρίδος αἴας (Ιl. XI. 817), “ far from his friends and native land."

(g) ǎyxi èxoàv áλós (Pind. Ol. 1. 71), "having come near the

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(h) ẻyyúTata Toû vûν тρóπον (Thucyd. I. 13), “very like the present fashion."

(i) oμirpoì peɣáλwv xwpis (Soph. Aj. 158), "great without

small."

(*) ἐλεύθερος οὐδείς ἐστι πλὴν Διός (Asch. Prom. 50), “there is no one free except Jove."

The adverbs ayxɩ and eyyús are sometimes found with the dative, and äxpis has the accusative in epic Greek.

(B) Cases of Nouns.

(a) kvvòs díkŋv, “just like a watch-dog" (Esch. Ag. 3).

(b) τρÓπоν aiуνríwv, "like vultures" (Id. Ibid. 48).

(c) àéðλwv y eveкa, "for the matter of prizes at least," i.e. "as far as they are concerned" (Pind. Ol. 1. 99).

(d) Tλneous exaтi, "for the matter of numbers," i.e. "as far as numbers go" or "if it had depended on that" (Asch. Pers. 337).

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(ε) τόλμας χάριν, " thanks to his boldness (Soph. Antig.

368).

have

They are sometimes used with other prepositions: thus we

τηλόθεν ἐξ ̓Απίης γαίας (Ιl. Ι. 270).

ȧμpì σoû ěveka (Soph. Phil. 554).

ἀπὸ βοῆς ἕνεκα (Thucyd. VIII. 92).

πЄρì τŵν аρ§áνtwv ěvekev (Lys. de Evandr. Prob. p. 176). ἕνεκα τοῦ τοιούτου χάριν (Plat. Polit. p. 302 B).

§ X. C. Tertiary Predicates.

489 The tertiary predicate, as has been already suggested, implies some sort of póλnis, or anticipation of a primary or secondary predication in the nominative case. Thus, in the example given above (400, (γ)), ὁ μάντις τοὺς λόγους ψευδεῖς λέγει, we imply either the primary predicate οἱ λόγοι ψευδεῖς εἰσίν, οι the secondary predicate οἱ λόγοι ψευδεῖς λέγονται, for the meaning is "the prophet speaks, and his words are false"="he speaks, and the words which he speaks are false"=" he speaks, and his words are falsely spoken." That there is a difference in the tertiary predication and that of an adverb may be shown by an example. For when Theseus says to the herald (Eurip. Suppl. 403), πрштоν μèv ἤρξω τοῦ λόγου ψευδώς, ξένε, ζητῶν τύραννον ἐνθάδε, he merely means that he began his speech falsely, or that the beginning of his speech was false; whereas, if he had said npw Toû Xóyov yeudoûs, he must have meant "the speech which you have begun is false," for the predication of the oblique case of the adjective must have been dependent on that of the substantive, and could not have been immediately connected with the verb.

490 The most convenient rule for translating this idiom is to take the tertiary predicate as the primary one, and to make the verb which contains the primary predicate dependent on a relative; as if the phrase, ὁ ῥινοκέρως τὴν δορὰν ἰσχυροτάτην ἔχει, which means "the rhinoceros has its hide very strong" (as in the French idiom, il a le front large), were to be rendered by its equivalent, ἡ δορά, ἣν ὁ ῥινοκέρως ἔχει, ἰσχυροτάτη ἐστίν, “ the hide, which the rhinoceros has, is very strong. But the other plan may also be adopted, and the primary predication added, as if we were to say, ὁ ῥινοκέρως δορὰν ἔχει καὶ ἡ δορὰ αὐτοῦ ἰσχυροτάτη ἐστίν,

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"the rhinoceros has a hide, and it is a very hard one." The only difference in the two cases being, that the hide is assumed to exist in the former mode of rendering.

As professed scholars, especially on the continent, are sometimes found to neglect or overlook the full force of this construction, and as even the most advanced students experience some difficulty in applying the principle to particular cases, it seems desirable that we should give a number of examples with the proper translation of each.

ä

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Plat. Resp. I. p. 344 D: Θρασύμαχος ἐν νῷ εἶχεν ἀπιέναι κατ αντλήσας κατὰ τῶν ὤτων ἀθρόον καὶ πολὺν τὸν λόγον, “ Thrasymachus was thinking of going away, after having poured his discourse down our ears in a full stream and all at once." Pind. Ol. II. 35: Μοῖρ ̓ ἅ τε πατρώιον τῶνδ ̓ ἔχει τὸν εὔφρονα πότμον, “ fate which keeps up the prosperous fortune of this clan in accordance with its ancestral condition" (i. e. as a sort of heir-loom or inherited attribute); and similarly Soph. Antig. 594: apxaîa тà ▲aßδακιδᾶν οἴκων ὁρῶμαι πήματα φθιμένων ἐπὶ πήμασι πίπτοντα, "of old date are the calamities of the house of the Labdacidæ, which I see in the act of being added to the calamities of those who are dead and gone." Esch. Agam. 520: Siπλâ & eτiσav ПIρiaμídaι Oaμápria, "the penalty of their crime, which the Priamidæ have paid, has been two-fold" (i. e. they have lost Helen and their city has been destroyed). Lycurgus, c. Leocr. p. 153, § 40: τῶν ἀνδρῶν τοὺς τὰς ἡλικίας πρεσβυτέρους ἰδεῖν ἦν καθ' ὅλην τὴν πόλιν περιφθειρομένους διπλᾶ τὰ ἱμάτια ἐμπεπορπημένους, one might see the elderly men wandering miserably about the city, with their outer-garments doubled round their shoulders and fastened with a buckle" (see Suidas, s. v. πеπорπημévos). Plat. Resp. VII. p. 514 Α: ἰδὲ γὰρ ἀνθρώπους οἷον ἐν καταγείῳ οἰκήσει σπηλαιώδει ἀναπεπταμένην πρὸς τὸ φῶς τὴν εἴσοδον ἐχούσῃ μακρὰν παρ ̓ ἅπαν τὸ σπήλαιον, “ consider men as though in a subterraneous cavern-like abode, having its entrance extended to a great length along the whole front of the cavern," where μakpáv is a sort of quaternary predicate depending on the tertiary predicate ἀναπεπταμένην, and involving the secondary predication, ἡ εἴσοδος ȧvажÉπтатαι μакpá (above, 442, (cc)). Arist. Eth. Nic. 1. 13, § 5: τὸ ἀγαθὸν ἀνθρώπινον ἐζητοῦμεν καὶ τὴν εὐδαιμονίαν ἀνθρωπίνην, "the good which we were seeking was one proper to man, and

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