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to this rule, that où un with the second person of the future (a) conveyed a prohibition; while with the other persons of the future (β), and with the subjunctive (γ), οὐ μή enounced a categorical negation; thus,

(α) οὐ μὴ δυσμενὴς ἔσει φίλοις (Eurip. Med. 1120),

"wilt thou not be not unkind to thy friends?" i. e. "be not unkind to thy friends."


οὐ μὴ προσοίσεις χεῖρα, βακχεύσεις δ ̓ ἴων (540),
μηδ' ἐξομόρξει μωρίαν τὴν σὴν ἐμοί (541),

(Id. Bacch. 343),

" wilt thou not not put forth thy hand, but go and play the Bacchanalian, and not wipe off thy folly on me?" i. e. "off with thy hand-go, revel, as thou wilt, and make not me a napkin for thy folly."

οὐ μὴ φρενώσεις μ', ἀλλὰ δέσμιος φυγών

σώσει τόδ' (540), ἤ σοι πάλιν ἀναστρέψω δίκην ;
(Id. Ibid. 792),

(516, (a))

“wilt thou not not advise me, but, having escaped from bonds, wilt thou not keep this: or must I again turn punishment upon thee?" i. e. "advise me not; but being free once more, keep this: or must I punish thee again?"



(β) οὔ σοι μὴ μεθέψομαί ποτε (Soph. Εl. 1052),

assuredly I will never follow thee."

οὔ τοι μή ποτέ σ ̓ ἐκ τῶνδ ̓ ἑδράνων,

ὦ γέρον, ἄκοντά τις ἄξει (Id. d. C. 176),

assuredly no one shall ever hale thee from this suppliant seat against thy will.”

(γ) καὶ τῶνδ ̓ ἀκούσας οὔ τι μὴ ληφθῶ δόλῳ

(Esch. Sept. c. Theb. 38), "having heard these tidings, I shall certainly not be caught by stratagem.'

οὔτε γὰρ γίγνεται οὔτε γέγονεν οὐδὲ οὖν μὴ γένηται ἀλλοῖον ἦθος πρὸς ἀρετὴν παρὰ τὴν τούτων παιδείαν πεπαιδευμένον (Plat. Resp. 492 Ε), “ for there is not, nor has been, nor, to say it all, can there

possibly be a different mode of thinking in reference to virtue, if it be formed according to the education given by these men."

545 This last construction was considered so entirely equivalent to the future, that it was used as the apodosis of éáv and the subjunctive (502, II); thus,

ἣν νικήσωμεν, οὐ μήποτε ὑμῖν Πελοποννήσιοι ἐς τὴν χώραν ἄνευ τῆς τῶνδε ἵππου ἐσβάλωσιν (Thucyd. iv. 95), “ if we shall have conquered them, there is no fear lest the Peloponnesians should invade your territory without the cavalry of these Boeotians."



§ I. Recapitulation and Definitions.

546 IN the three preceding chapters we have discussed at length the subject of the proposition, and all that contributes to give it distinctness and emphasis; the different kinds of predicates; and the machinery of the protasis and apodosis. We have shown that the article, as the mark of definiteness, distinguishes the subject and epithet from the predicate; and that the relative with a definite antecedent is tantamount to an adjective or epithet. We have then explained that nouns and participles, connected with the subject by the substantive verb, and all finite tenses of verbs, are primary predicates; that cases of nouns and participles connected with the subject through a primary predicate are adverbial or secondary predicates; and that there are tertiary predicates, or anticipations of distinct propositions, in the latter case. And we have seen that the relative or relative particle, with an indefinite antecedent, marks the protasis of a conditional proposition, and that the negatives ou and un contribute to the greater distinctness of these rules. It only remains that we should now recognize these principles in their application to connected, but separate, sentences; for the previous investigation has not presumed that there has been more than one main proposition.

547 Connected sentences are either co-ordinate, or one of them is subordinate to the other. The relative, with a definite antecedent, forms an adjectival sentence dependent upon the antecedent: the relative, with an indefinite antecedent, forms an adjectival sentence subordinate to the antecedent or apodosis. If these two sentences are, as has been hitherto supposed, completed in the antecedent or apodotic clause, they are considered to make one categorical or one hypothetical proposition, as the case may be. But if, as is

the case with the disjunctive hypothetical, there are distinct alternatives, which require a conditional proposition to carry them on to an apodosis, or if, as is the case with copulative conjunctions, the two clauses stand on the same footing of categorical predication, we have not one sentence, but two co-ordinate sentences. And if, in any of the cases considered in the preceding chapters, the sentence is adverbial, or dependent upon a predicate already expressed, or if it follows a former predication as a consequence, explains it as a cause, or limits it by a concession, we call the sentence subordinate.

According to these subdivisions co-ordinate sentences are,

(a) Copulative.

(b) Disjunctive.

(c) Distributive.

And subordinate sentences are,

(a) Temporal, when they are supplementary to the tenses of the verb.

(b) Objective, when they are supplementary to the cases of

the noun.

(c) Illative or consecutive, when they follow a former predication as a consequence.

(d) Final, when they declare the end of what is predicated. (e) Causal, when they explain the cause of what is asserted. (f) Concessive, when they strengthen or limit by an admission.

§ II. Conjunctions.

548 The machinery of these co-ordinate and subordinate sentences depends very much on the proper use of those adverbs or undeclinable particles, which, from their employment in the connexion of sentences, are called conjunctions. Although these particles will be mentioned in their different classes, according to the different kinds of sentences which they contribute to form, it may be convenient to the student to enumerate them beforehand in alphabetical order.

(1) 'Aλλá, “but, but on the contrary, but still," is an adversative conjunction, generally used after negative sentences (below, 559). It is often coupled with other particles, and in this combi

nation has a special idiomatic value; as aλλ' %μws, "but still;" aλλ' ovv, "but at any rate" (followed after an interval by yoûv, Plat. Prot. 327 c, or ye, Isocr. Demon. p. 10 E); ảλλà μýv or ȧrrà μévтo, "but surely" (followed after an interval of a word by ye, Plat. Gorg. 449 E, Resp. 331 E); ảλλá тoi, “but yet;" ảnλà dý, “but now;” ἀλλὰ γάρ, " but in point of fact;” ἀλλ ̓ οὐ μήν or axx' où μévτoι followed by ye, "but at any rate not."

(2) "AXλws, "otherwise," has some special idiomatic usages. Thus the combination aλws Te Kai, "both otherwise and," means "especially," and it is sometimes strengthened by Távτws, as in Æsch. Pers. 685. "AXλws also means "otherwise than rightly," i. e. "uselessly, unprofitably;" as Eurip. Heracl. 704: äλλws éμóXoovv, "I laboured in vain ;" Plat. Theœt. p. 176 D: yês äλλws axon, "nothing but burdens of the earth;" Thucyd. vIII. 78: äλλws övoμa kaì ovк eрyov, “nothing but words, and no reality." Also in the phrase τηv äλλws, i. e. ódóv, Plat. Theœt. 172 E: oi ἀγῶνες οὐδέποτε τὴν ἄλλως, ἀλλ ̓ ἀεὶ τὴν περὶ αὑτοῦ, “ the contests are never at random, but always about oneself."

(3) "Apa, "at the same time." It is used to strengthen the participle in temporal sentences (below, 576), and often indicates emphatically an additional circumstance, as Thucyd. I. 110: TOÛTOV διὰ μέγεθός τε τοῦ ὅλους οὐκ ἐδύναντο ἑλεῖν καὶ ἅμα μαχιμώτατοί εἰσι τῶν Αἰγυπτίων οἱ ἕλειοι, “ they could not get at him on account of the extent of the marshes, and besides that, the men of the marshes are the most warlike of the Egyptians.'

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(4) "Apa (= av-pa), literally "still farther, beyond that,” is generally a particle of inference, signifying "therefore.' It is used idiomatically with past tenses to denote that "after all," "as it now seems," the state of the case is widely different from our antecedent notion of it. Hence it amounts sometimes to an expression of regret or disappointment. Thus Eurip. Troad. 414: ovdév Ti Kрeίσσw TŴν Tо undèv v apa, "it was after all, as it seems, no better than a cipher." Soph. Aj. 1025: vp' où povéws äp' èkéπvevσas, "by which, as your slayer, you have, as it seems (to my sorrow) expired." In somewhat the same sense it is used with the conditional particle, as Plat. Resp. 433 A: äкove eï ti äpa λéyw, "hear if, after all, I really speak to the point."

(5) 'Aráp, "but," like the Homeric avráp, is generally poetic; but it is used by Xenophon as a particle of continuation rather

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