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than opposition; thus Anab. IV. 6, § 14: ảτàp Tí èyà πepì kλowîs ovμßáλλoμai, “but (to continue) what do I suggest respecting the theft ?"
(6) "ATE, “as," is used with the participle in causal sentences (below, 616, Obs. 3).
(7) Av, "again," "on the other hand," also in the longer form αὖθις, and with emphatic repetitions combined with πάλιν, as in πάλιν αὖ, more rarely αὖ πάλιν, also αὖθις αὖ, αὖθις πάλιν, πάλιν αὖθις, αὖ πάλιν αὖθις, αὖθις αὖ πάλιν, like our “ again and again,” over again." Thus Plat. Protag. 355 B: avois av λéyete, “say it over again."
(8) Avrika, "immediately," "forthwith," is used sometimes, especially by Plato, in the sense "for example's sake," as Resp. p. 340 D: ἐπεὶ αὐτίκα ἰατρὸν καλεῖς σὺ τὸν ἐξαμαρτάνοντα περὶ TOÙS KÁμVOVTAS; "since, for example's sake, do you call him a physician who blunders about the sick?"
(9) Táp (from ye and apa, or perhaps from the older forms yá and pá), “for,” “in point of fact," is regularly used in causal sentences (below, 618).
(10) Te, "yes," "certainly," "at least," is a particle of concession and affirmation. It is often compounded with ovv in the form γοῦν, "at all events," and is used in combination with many other particles, as el ye, “since,” ye μýv, "certainly," &c. With the relative as it is used in causal sentences, like the Latin quippe qui (below, 619).
(11) Aé, "in the second place," "on the other hand," "too," is regularly used in distributive sentences (below, 559 sqq.).
(12) Ań, “now," "up to now," is sometimes a particle of time, like non, and sometimes used to emphasize some other word, especially a superlative, as μéylotos dń, "by far the greatest." Kaì dý means "just at the time specified;" as Soph. Aj. 48: xaì dŋ'πì δισσαῖς ἦν στρατηγίσιν πύλαις, “ he had just got to the gates of the two generals.' Hence it is used in suppositions (below, 621). We have also the combination Snov, "of course;" Snris, "some one or other," &c. And dý is sometimes used in an ironical sense, like our old-fashioned "forsooth ;" as Xen. Hell. v. 4, § 6: TÀS ÉTAιpidas Sn, "the courtesans forsooth, as he called them." In this sense we have also δῆθεν.
(13) Ara, in the sense "by all means," is used with imperatives; in the sense "especially," "for that reason more than any other," with interrogatives; and in the sense "yes, certainly," in answers to questions.
(14) Eira, ETTEIтa, "thereupon," "afterwards." The former especially is used to strengthen a concessive sentence (below, 621). (15) ELTE-ELTE, "whether-or" (below, 552).
(16) 'Eπei, éπeidń, "since," "because," are both temporal and causal particles. In one passage (Plat. Protag. 333 c) èπel—ye seems to be concessive: αἰσχυνοίμην ἂν ἔγωγε τοῦτο ὁμολογεῖν, ἐπεὶ πολλοί γέ φασι τῶν ἀνθρώπων, “I, for my part, should be ashamed to admit this; though there are many who say so."
(17) "EσTE, Ews, "until," a particle of time (below, 582). (18) "H, "truly," "verily," as Esch. Frag. 276: Bapù ĥ φόρημ' ἄνθρωπος εὐτυχῶν ἄφρων, " verily a fool in prosperity is a heavy burden." This particle is often used in close combination with others. Thus we have ǹ μýv with the infinitive after öμvvu, as Asch. Sept. c. Theb. 513: ὄμνυσιν, ἢ μὴν λαπάξειν ἄστυ. Also ή τοι in strong asseverations, as Ibid. 534: ἦ τἂν πανώλεις παγκάκως τ' ὀλοίατο. Also ή γάρ, generally in questions which require and expect an affirmative answer, as Plat. Gorg. 469 B:
yaρ тOÛTо μéуoTov; "this is the greatest, is it not?" Also ή που, “I suppose;” Ibid. 469 B: ἦ που ὅ γε ἀποθνήσκων ἀδίκως ἐλεεινός ἐστιν; “I suppose of course that he who dies unjustly is pitiable." We have πov äpa (in Thucyd. v. 100) in the sense "surely therefore;" and Tov dý (in Thucyd. 1. 142, § 1) or ỷ πoú ye dý (Id. vi. 37, § 3) signifies "not to say," "to say nothing of," "what is more," a fortiori. The same meaning may be expressed by που δή οι ποῦ γε δή without ἦ, when used interrogatively, as in Herod. II. 12, and we ought to read Toû dn in Thucyd. VIII. 27, § 3 (vide Pref. p. xx).
(19) "H is both "either-or" (and that too either in the disjunctive sentence like vel, or the interrogative like an) and also the particle of comparison "than" (like the Latin quam). In the former use it is sometimes coupled with To, as in Thucyd. 11. 40, § 2: αὐτοὶ ἤτοι κρίνομέν γε ἢ ἐνθυμούμεθα ὀρθῶς τὰ πράγματα. In the latter use it follows words of contrast, like ἀντίος, τούμπαλιν, Siapopos, as well as comparatives.
(20) "Hồn, "now," "already," a temporal particle.
(21) "Iva, "where," "in order that," a final particle.
(22) Kai, "both—and," a copulative conjunction; also used as a particle of emphasis, like our "even," "also," "especially," or when we lay a stress on the auxiliary verb. It is used as a particle of comparison in expressions of similarity and identity, as in Thucyd. 11. 60, §4: ó yvoùs xaì μǹ oapŵs didáķas év low kaì ei μǹ èveOvμýOŋ, "he who knows and does not give clear information, is in the same position as if he had not even conceived the thought." It may signify "therefore" in a regular syllogism, as in Thucyd. vI. 89, § 3, where it is followed by ȧπ' èkeívov (below, 604). With the participle, and generally strengthened by πep, it is concessive; so also with Tot and Taûra. It may signify "so that,' as in Plat. Symp. 220 D: ἤδη ἦν μεσημβρία καὶ ἄνθρωποι ᾐσθάνοντο. In a question kaì πŵя; generally introduces an objection (see Porson, ad Phan. 1373). For kaì dý, see under dŋ.
(23) Má, a particle of adjuration, when the oath is negative, though we sometimes find vaì μá— in an affirmative oath.
(24) Mév, "in the first place, on the one hand," a distributive. particle, see 559 sqq. In the combinations μév Toi, μèv dń, &c., and in the longer form μýv, it is emphatic and affirmative, and μèv our is corrective.
(25) Naí, "yes," is used in affirmations and affirmative answers, and appears in affirmative oaths.
(26) Nûv (vôv dý, vvví, &c.), “now," is a particle of time. In the enclitic form it is a particle of inference.
(27) "Oμws, "nevertheless," "likewise still," is used to strengthen the concessive sentence; and oues, "equally," "in like manner,' is a synonym of ὁμοίως.
(28) "Oπws, the correlative of Tŵs (above, 263), is used as follows, (a) as a particle of comparison, with ourws or ade presumed as its antecedent, "how," "in what way," "in what manner," either with a sentence, Soph. El. 1288: ὧδ ̓, ὅπως καὶ σοὶ φίλον, καὶ τοὐμὸν ἔσται τῇδε, “I will act in such a manner as is pleasing also to you;" or with a single word, like as, Soph. Fr. 153: ove' oπws φυγάς, οὔθ ̓ ὡς ὁ Τυδεύς. In this use it is commonly found with ó superlatives, as oπws Táxiσтα, "as quickly as possible" (Esch. ὅπως τάχιστα, Prom. 228). (b) As the correlative of was in the oblique interrogation, as in Id. Ibid. 374: οὐκ οἶδ' ὅπως ὑμῖν ἀπιστῆσαί με χρή,
(On the use of
(c) As a final ὅπως εἰδῶ τις
"I do not know how I ought to disobey you." ou and un with this sense of oπws, see above, 532.) particle, Soph. Phil. 238: γέγωνε πᾶν μοι τοῦθ ̓, el," tell me aloud all this, in order that (to the end that) I may know who you are." For oux oπws, "not only not," see below, 571. (d) As a particle of time, Arist. Nub. 61: μeтà TaûľoπWS νῶν ἐγένεθ' υἱὸς ουτοσί, “ after these things, when this son was born to us."
(29) Ὅτε, ὅταν, ὁπότε, ὁπόταν, ὁπηνίκα, “when,” are the most common particles of time.
(30) "ОT, "that," is used in objective senses, as an equivalent for the accusative with the infinitive. It is also a particle of explanation, signifying "because;" Plat. Resp. IV. 426 D: åpa Tò ὅσιον, ὅτι ὅσιόν ἐστι, φιλεῖται ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν, ἡ ὅτι φιλεῖται ὅσιόν OT; "is holiness loved by the gods because it is holy, or is it holy because it is loved by the gods?" In Plato ovx or is concessive, and signifies "not but that," "although," as in the Gorgias, p. 450 Ε: οὐχ ὅτι τῷ ῥήματι οὕτως εἶπες, “ although you said so in words; " Protag. p. 336 D: ovx öтi πaiçeɩ kai pnoiv étiλńoμwv eiva, "although he jokes and pretends to have a bad memory."
(31) Ovv (Ionic v), "accordingly," "in accordance with what has been said," is a particle of retrospective reference. It does not imply a logical inference, like äpa, but merely recals attention to something, which has been already said, in the way of confirmation or correction. Thus in Herodotus v is very often inserted in a tmesis, as in II. 39 : οἱ δέ, φέροντες εἰς τὴν ἀγοράν, ἀπ ̓ ὧν ἔδοντο, "they taking it to the market, in accordance with that procedure (i.e. as a matter of course, for why else did they go to the market?) sell it." Similarly in such phrases as Herod. III. 80: Kaì èλéxθησαν λόγοι ἄπιστοι μὲν ἐνίοισι τῶν Ἑλλήνων, ἐλέχθησαν δ ̓ ὦν, "stories were told, incredible indeed to some of the Greeks, but still (as I say) they were told." Soph. Ed. C. 980: váμovs olovs épô τάχ ̓, οὐ γὰρ οὖν σιγήσομαι, “ nuptials such as I will describe at once, for indeed (as I say) I will not hold my peace." For its corrective use with μév, see below, 567. In composition with relatives and relative particles, ovv is equivalent almost to the Latin -cunque. Thus we have aλλos bσтis ovv, "another, whoever he may be;" Öπшs ovν, “in any way whatever" (Plat. Symp. 219 D); ôσovæv, "in any quantity whatever" (Herod. II. 22); èπel ovv, ws ovv, “as
soon as ever
see above, 535.
(Hom. 17. III. 4, 30), &c. For ovкoûν and oйкovv, οὐκοῦν οὔκουν,
(32) Пep, "quite so," "very much so," is an enclitic (from the preposition περί, as rev is from κατά), generally appended to relatives and relative particles, as oσTEр, "the very person who;" WOTEр, "just as;" or to kai, in concessive sentences with the participle, as κaíπep ảσlevŵv, “although he was sick,” i.e. “being very much indisposed."
(33) Inv, "besides," "except," is not only a quasi-preposition (above, 488), but also a conjunction, as a substitute for dé in distributive sentences (562), and in its proper sense as introducing an exception, generally with ei or some other particle, more rarely with the finite verb (Soph. Trach. 41; Xen. Anab. III. 31, § 26).
(34) Ipív, "before, until," a temporal particle (below, 583). (35) Te, “and," the enclitic form of the copulative conjunction (549 sqq.).
(36) Téws, Tημos, "so long," the correlative or antecedent of ews, uos in temporal sentences (579). Téws also means "for a time," "in the first instance," &c., when we have the opposition οἱ τέως μέν—ἀλλ ̓ ὅτε δή, τέως μέν—μετὰ δέ, τέως μέν—δέ, τέως μέν—ἐπεὶ δέ, τέως μέν—τέλος δέ.
(37) Tol, "assuredly," is often an enclitic affixed to other particles, as To, &c.; but it is also prefixed in certain cases, as τοίνυν, “ therefore,” τοίγαρ, τοιγαροῦν, τοιγάρτοι, and the like, signifying an inference.
(38) 's means "as" in comparative sentences, "that" in objective sentences, "in order to" in final sentences, "for, on the ground that " in causal sentences. In the first sense it is strengthened by Teρ, and woTep means "just as." In the old combination wore it is the regular concomitant of the illative clause, signifying "so as to," in which sense, however, it is sometimes superseded by the simple ws.
§ III. Copulative and Disjunctive Sentences.
549 Copulative and disjunctive sentences stand upon very nearly the same footing; for every copulative sentence is, to a certain extent, disjunctive, and vice versa. Indeed, in some cases, where we use a disjunctive formula, the Greeks employ the closest copulative connexion, тe—κaí.