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Attic, however, retains the original ʼn in old words, such as cornu, Xphobai, &c. Other such changes are the substitution of ev for ou, o for a, e for n, ai for ei, ei for oi, nv for at and for ev, au for o, Env for Sov and Sa. Compare the Eolic eueû with eμoû, the Boeotic ὀνέθεικε for ἀνέθηκε, the Molic ai for el, the Doric οἴκει for οἴκοι, the Ionic ἐτυπτόμην for ἐτύπτομαι, the Attic μήν for μέν, ὑπαί for ὑπό, and κρύβδα, κρυφηδόν, by the side of κρύβδην. These varieties must be learned by a study of the authors and of inscriptions.
120 The first class of vowel-affections, or the coalescence of vowel-syllables, is called synalophe (ovvaλoup), or "fusion."
121 Of this synalaphe there are three principal varieties: (a) synæresis (ovvalpeois), "contraction," which combines two successive vowel-syllables in the same sound; (b) crasis («pâois), 'mixing," which combines two successive vowel-syllables at the end of a word and at the beginning of a word which follows; (c) ecthlipsis (exis), "elision," which unites two successive words by omitting a short vowel at the end of the former of them. When synæresis or crasis takes place in effect, without an actual expression in writing, it is called synizesis (ovvinois), "subsidence."
122 a. There are two kinds of contraction: the primary, which is merely diphthongal; and the secondary, which substitutes a long vowel, or diphthong, for two vowels which do not admit of diphthongal combination.
123 The former has been already discussed under the head of pronunciation (21-23).
124 The secondary, which melts down two vowels into one vowel or diphthong, is guided by the following rule:
In the dual of the 3rd declension ee seems to be contracted into n; but this arises really from the original form in -ea: thus we have both τείχεα and τείχες by the side of the contraction τείχη. There is reason to believe that the contraction of ae into ʼn is more ancient than that of ae into a: comp. ἵστημι, ζῇς, χρῆσθαι with τιμᾷς and τιμάσθαι.
125 If in the first three columns we add, the contractions in col. 1 are all written ar; in col. 2 a and of appear for a and ου, while et remains unchanged; in col. 3 ῳ, οι, οι appear for ω, ου, ου. In columns 4 and 5 subscript is subscript also in the contraction.
126 If v is added to o in column 3, the contraction remains unaltered: for wv=w (above, 22), and ovv=ov.
127 The following are examples :
(A) Simple contractions.
130 b. There are two kinds of Crasis. In the proper crasis there is a real coalition of two vowels in a long vowel or diphthong, as in τοὖπος for τὸ ἔπος, χὦ for καὶ ὁ, τἀργύριον for τὸ ȧpyúptov. In the improper crasis the long vowel at the end of a ἀργύριον. word appears unchanged, and absorbs the short vowel at the beginning of the word following, as in 'yo, 'un.
131 If the preceding word begins with a consonant, it is usual to place a coronis (56) over the new compound vowel, whether it was originally aspirated or not, the aspirate being indicated by the affection of the consonant in the preceding syllable: thus we write κοὐκ and θάτερα for καὶ οὐκ and τὰ ἕτερα. But if the preceding word is a monosyllable beginning with a vowel, it is sufficient to indicate the breathing of that preceding monosyllable, as in ȧvýp for ὁ ἀνήρ.
132 When the first syllable of the second word has an accent, it is lost altogether in the improper crasis: thus we write un 'vdov, not un "vdov. But in the proper crasis, the second vowel alone retains its accent: thus we write τἄλλα from τὰ ἄλλα, χὦταν from καὶ ὅταν, τἄρα from τοι ἄρα; or if a diphthong is formed, τούπος, τοῦργον, from τὸ ἔπος, τὸ ἔργον; and when the second word is atonic, the crasis does not affect it with an accent: thus we have Kei from kai ei. If the second word is aspirated, the breathing is changed to a lenis when it is represented by the aspiration of a consonant, as in χὤστις for καὶ ὅστις.
133 Prepositions in composition are liable to crasis, because this is not considered as synthetic or true composition, but merely as a parathesis or juxta-position: thus we write πрой0ηkеv for προἔθηκεν, προὔχοντας for προέχοντας. But an aspirate will hinder the crasis in this instance: thus we have πpoékovou by the side of προύχουσι.
134 There are a few cases of double crasis: as κωπόλλων for καὶ ὁ ̓Απόλλων, Hippon. Fr. ΧΧΙΙΙ. (16), and χώδωνις for καὶ ὁ Αδωνις.
Examples of Crasis.
(α) The conjunction καί:
καὶ α: κἀμφί, κἀντί, καπό, κἀφελεῖν, κἀναίσχυντος, κἀγαθός, κἄν, κἄλλος, κἄρτι, χαμα, χαρπάσαι, χαττα, κἀετός, κἀείσω,
but not with ἀεί.
καὶ ε: κάκ, κἀξ, κάν, κἀπί, κἀς (Doric only), κἄνθεν, κἀνιαυτός, κἀκεῖνος, κἀγώ, κἀχθές, κἀστίν, κάτι, χατέροις, and in the comedians καλθοιεν, κἄλεγχον, κἀρεβίνθων.
καὶ ο: χω, χώσιν, χώπου, χώπως, χώστις, but not the simple relative; κωδύνη, κωνειδίζομαι, κωλίγους, κωπώραν.
καὶ ι (rather rare): κἰχθύδια (Cratinus, ap. Meinek. III. 379), κιόλανος (Archil. Fr. 106 ), κινδῶν (Anacr. XIII. 26), χίκετεύετε (Eurip. Hel. 1024).
καὶ ν rather rare): χὐπό, χὐπέρ, χὕδατος, χὐπηρέσια, χὐμνοθέτης. καὶ η: χή, χἠμεῖς, κἦλθον.
καὶ ω: χως, χώσπερ.
καὶ αι: χαί, καἰετός (Archil. Fr. 80 ), καἰσχύνη.
καὶ ει: κεἰ, κείς, κατα, Doric κήπε, κᾔτε.
καὶ ευ: κεὐσταλής, κεὔχομαι, κεὐθύς, κεὐρυπρωκτίαν, but never with ev alone.
καὶ αυ: καὐτός, καὖθις, χαὐτοῦ, χαὐτή. καὶ οι: χοί, χοἶος, but κώνος, κᾠκίαν. καὶ ου: κού(κ), κουτις.
(6) Two short vowels:
α α: τἄλλα, τἀγαθά, τἀληθῆ, τἀρκοῦντα, τἀναγκαῖα, θαμαρτία, ἄν. αε: τάργα, ταν, τἀμά, ταπί, τἀκεῖ, τἀναντία, ταπιτήδεια, ταμπροσθεν, θάτερα, θἀδώλια, τἄπη, ἁγώ, ἀκεῖνος, ἁμέ.
αο: θώπλα, τώρνεα,
ο α: ἁνήρ, ἄνθρωπος, ἁγών, τἀγαθόν, τἀτύχημα (Demosth. CLXXIII. 12), ταργύριον, Doric ὧνήρ, λιροθίου (Pind. Οl. ΧΙ. 73), τώγαλμα (Herod. IV. 181), τὠπόβαινον (ΙΙ. 82), ώριστος (Hom.)
οε: οὔξ, οὑγώ, ουμός, οὖν μέσῳ, τουπί, τοῦργον, τούπος, τοὐκεῖ, τοῦντερον, οὑμοί, οὔνεκα, οὔφοροι, οὑξερω, θάτερον, per
haps by false analogy from θάτερα, Doric ὤλαφος, &c.
ο ο: τοὔνομα, τοὐπίσω, τοὐναρ, οὑδυσσεύς, οὖνος, οὕρνις. οι: θοιμάτιον is the only example.
ου: θύδωρ (Crates, apud Meinek. II. 238), θύδατος (Aristoph. Lys. 370, where some read θοὔδατος).
(c) A short vowel followed by a long vowel or diphthong:
α αι: ταἰσχρά, for which some read τᾆσχρά (Eurip. Troad. 384; Hippol. 505).
α αυ: ταὐτά, ταὐτομάτου.
οη: θήμισυ (Aristoph. Lys. 115, but θώμισυ or τώμισυ, Hesiod. ἔ. κ. ἡ. 557), θηρῷον, θἠμέτερον.
ο αι: ταἴτιον, θαἶμα, Doric ᾤπολος.
ο αυ: ταὐτό, αυτός (Hom. Il. v. 396), τωυτό (Herod.), πρωυδᾶν (Aristoph. Av. 556), for which it is proposed by Mehlhorn to read πραὐδᾶν, eliding the o of the preposition.
ο οι: ώνος, κότριψ, τᾠκίδιον.
(d) A long vowel or diphthong followed by a short vowel: α ε: ἀγορὰ ̓ν, χρεία 'ς, σκιά 'στιν, Ἑρμᾶ 'μπολαῖε.
αια: αἱ 'ρχαί οι αρχαί, περιόψομαι ἐπελθόντα, δήξομαι 'ρα οι δήξομἄρα.
αι ε: γράψομαι 'γώ, χρῆσθαι 'τέρῳ.
εια: κλαύσει 'ρα οι κλαυσἄρα, οἰμώξει 'ρα, ἀγοράσει γένειος. Mehlhorn regards these as instances of synizesis.
ει ε: χώρει'ς, πωλήσεις, εἰ 'κ (Ed. Τ. 1062), εἰ πιταξόμεσθα (Eurip. Suppl. 537).
οι α: άλλοι (Herod.).
η α: ἁρετή, ἁλήθεια, but μὴ 'δικεῖν.
ῃα: τἀγορᾷ, τἀγαθῇ, τἀφροδίτα, τύχῃ 'γαθῇ οι τυχἀγαθῇ. ηε: ἡ 'μή, ἢ γώ, ἢ πί, ἢ 'ξώπιος, ἤδη ἐνδον, δὴ δόξ ̓, μὴ κ, μὴ 'ς, μὴν, ἡ ̓τέρα, μὴ ̓τέρωσε, ἢ 'κεῖνος.
ῃε: ᾗ γώ, τήμῇ (Εtym. Μ. 757. 24).
ω α: ὦ 'νθρωπε, ὦ γαθέ, ὦ νόητε, ὦ 'νδρες, ὦ 'χαρνικοί, ὦ 'ναξ,
φα: τἀνδρί, τἀγαθῷ, τἀγαμέμνονος (Eurip. Iph. Τ. 776).