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ω ε: ὦ ταῖρε, ὦ 'ταν (or perhaps ὦ τάν), τὠπιγράμματε (Plat. Hipparch. 228, ad fin.), μέλλω πί, τρέχω π ̓ ἀφύας.
φε: τώμῷ (Etym. Μ. 757, 24).
ω ο: τὠφθαλμώ, but ὀκτὼ 'βολοί.
ῳ ο: ου α:
μου 'φέλης (Dindorf writes μὠφέλης, Soph. Phil. 903), μακροῦ ̓ποπαύσω, but τἀνδρός, τἀγαθοῦ, τἀγαμέμνονος, τἀπόλλωνος, with the Doric variety τὠγαθοῦ, τὠργείου. ου ε: ποῦ 'στι, ἐμοῦ ̓πάκουσον, αὐτοῦ 'στιν, μου 'κνύεν, γενοῦ 'γώ, but τούνεκα, τοὐκείνου, τοὐκεῖθεν, το πιόντος, τουμοῦ. ου ο: σοῦ ̓πισθεν, τοῦ ̓λυμπίου οι τοὐλυμπίου, τοὐῤῥοπυγίου, τούβολοῦ.
(e) Two long vowels:
η η: θημέρα.
η οι: τωκία, which some regard as a synizesis.
η ευ: ηυλάβεια, or rather ευλάβεια (above, 22). η αυ: αυτή.
η αυ: ταὐτῇ.
ω οι: ἐγᾦμαι, ὤζυρε, ἐγῷδα, ἐγῳχόμην.
ῳ αυ: ταὐτῷ, Herod, ταυτῷ.
135 Synizesis may be considered as the incipient stage of synaresis or crasis. It is in reality a synalophe, but does not exhibit itself in the written forms.
136 As a substitute for synaresis within the word, it appears most frequently in those cases where e before a, o, w is pronounced like our y: thus ἑάλωκεν is a trisyllable, θεός a monosyllable, πόλεως a dissyllable. Sometimes we find the same value assigned to, after a guttural or dental, as when kapdía becomes a dissyllable' (see above, 17, 18). Sometimes o or v has the force of our w, as in ὄγδοος and δυοῖν, which are dissyllables and monosyllables respectively in Homer and Sophocles. There are some who would
1 Dindorf would write κάρα in three passages of Eschylus (vid. Steph. Thcs. II. p. 1106 D).
express the synizesis of e by elision within the word: thus Dindorf writes νoλαία in Eurip. Alc. 103.
137 As a substitute for improper crasis, we find synizesis of n, ει, ω, before vowels, whether long or short, and even diphthongs: thus we have synizesis in μὴ οὐ, ἐπεὶ οὐ, δὴ οἴκτιστον, ἴττω Ἡρακλῆς, Ἐνυαλίῳ ἀνδρειφόντῃ, and so forth.
Examples of Synizesis.
(α) In the same word:
ed and eā: πόλεας, πελέκεας, Αἰνέας, Θησέα, χρυσέας, &c. εο: Πηλέος, χρυσέοις, Νεοπτόλεμος, θεοί, &c.
εω: Μενέλεω, πόλεως, Θησέως, βασιλέως, ἡμέων, ὅτεω, προπρεῶνα, &c.
ια: πόλιας, Αἰγυπτίας, Ιστιαίαν, οὐρανία, &c.
o and v: ὄγδοόν μοι Hom. Il. χιν. 287), δακρύοισι (XVIII. 173), δυοῖν, Ερινύων, &c.
(6) Between two words: η α: μὴ ἀλλά, δὴ ἀντίβιον. η η: μὴ ἡμεῖς, εἰλαπίνη ἠέ. η ε: μὴ ἔλθοι, δὴ ἕβδομον.
η ει: μὴ εἰδέναι, ἢ εἰδότος, ἢ εἰσόκεν. η ο: ἢ ὅτ', ἡ ὀρνίθων.
η ου: μὴ οὐ, ἢ οὐκ.
η οι: δὴ οἴκτιστον.
η ευ: ἡ εὐγένειαν.
η αυ: δὴ αὐτόθεν. ει ου: ἐπεὶ οὐ.
ω η, α: Ἴττω Ἡρακλῆς, Ενυαλίῳ ἀνδρειφόντῃ.
ω ει: ἐγώ εἰμι.
ω ου: ἐγὼ ὄν, ̓Απόλλω οὐκ, ἀσβέστῳ οὐδ ̓.
ω ω: ἐμῷ ὠκυμόρῳ, ὦ Εὐριπίδη.
138 c. Ecthlipsis, or elision, properly speaking, applies only to a short vowel at the end of a word, before a vowel, whether long or short, at the beginning of the word following, and its proper
mark is the apostrophe (56): thus we have τάχ ̓ ἄν for τάχα ἄν, οἷός τ ̓ ἦν for οἷός τε ἦν, ἀφ ̓ οὗ for ἀπὸ οὔ, ἐφ ̓ ᾧ for ἐπὶ ᾧ, and so forth. Besides the apostrophe, a change of accentuation sometimes marks the elision, according to the following rule: If the elided vowel had an accent, it loses this in the case of particles; but nouns and verbs substitute an acute on the preceding syllable: thus we have ἀπ ̓ ἄλλων for ἀπὸ ἄλλων, but ἕπτ ̓ ἔσαν for ἑπτὰ ἔσαν, παλαί ἔπη for παλαιὰ ἔπη, αὔτ ̓ ἔδρασε for αὐτὰ ἔδρασε.
139 The following short vowels are not liable to elision : (a) monosyllabic forms of the article (except in Eurip. Cyclops, 265); (b) ă in μá and ȧvá; (c) e in idé, and generally in the 3rd person, which adds an v; (d) o in the genitives in -olo, -ao; (e)ι in περί, τί, ὅτι, and the dative sing. of the 3rd declension. With regard to the latter, apparent exceptions belong to synizesis. Homer elides the final of the dative plural; not so the Tragedians. The apparent elisions of -a belong to synizesis.
140 There is sometimes an apocope of a vowel at the end of a word, as in ecthlipsis, without any contact with a vowel at the beginning of another word: thus we have παῦ for πανε (Aristoph. Eq. 821), δίαιν, δίαινε πῆμα (Asch. Pers. 1083), ἅμ for ἅμα (Aristoph. Vesp. 570), νὴ Δί for νὴ Δία (Anecd. Bekk. 1231, 1862), δεῖν for δεῖνα in the Syracusan dialect Apollon. pronom. 75 €), τρέφοιν for τρέφοιμι (Etym. Μ. 764, 52). There are also apocopated nouns ; as κρἳ for κριθή, δῶ for δώμα, λίπα for λίπαϊ, and probably ἕνεκα for ἐν ἕκαϊ. The most common apocope is that of the prepositions; ἀνά, παρά, and κατά being most liable to it in Homeric Greek, περί in Molic, and ποτί for πρός in Doric. Thus we have:
(α) Without assimilation: ἂν δ' ἄρα, ἂν νάπος, ἄνδιχα, ἀννείμῃ, ἀντρέπων, &c., πὰρ Διός, πὰρ λίμναν, παρβαίνων, κατ τόν, κατθανών, πὸτ τῶ Διός, πὸτ τὰν νύκτα.
(β) With assimilation: ἂμ πύργους, ἂμ πέτραις, ἀμβόαμα, ἀμφαδόν, ἀγκρεμάσασα, ἄγκρισις, ἀγξηράνῃ, κακ κεφαλήν, καπ πέδιον, καττάνυσαν, κάππεσε, καγ γόνυ, κάββαλον, κακχεύαι, κάπ φάλαρα, κὰμ μέν, κάμμορος, κὰν νόμον. We find rarer assimilations with ἀπό, as ἀππέμψει, ἄββαλεν, and ὑπό, as ὑββάλλειν, ΰσπληξ.
(c) With the last syllable wholly omitted, as in κákтave, κάσχεθε, καστορνῦσα, καφθίμενος, καβαίνων, κάπετον for κατέπεσον. The important particles av and Kev oг κа are aрocopated forms of dvd and κατά.
141 The second class of vowel-affections is known by the general name of ectasis (ěkтaσis), productio, or "lengthening." It may generally be regarded as a substitute for some lost consonant, and frequently appears as a transposition or hyperthesis. We have already considered this in its connexion with the assimilation of consonants (above, 104). But, for the sake of system, the doctrine must be formally stated here, in its relation to the pathology of vowels.
142 Primary ectasis appears as a direct insertion of or v without transposition. Thus we have deious by the side of déovs, τιούχαν for τύχην, δεξιάσθω for δεξάσθω, and so forth. So also we have μοῦνος by the side of μόνος, νοῦσος by the side of νόσος, οὐλόμενος by the side of ὀλόμενος, and the like. But there are
etymological reasons for these insertions of and v.
143 The insertion of (if it can be called an insertion, for strictly speaking it indicates the primitive form), very commonly represents itself under the form.e, with that palatal pronunciation which so often yields to synizesis. In Boeotian inscriptions we have the forms ἀγωνοθετίοντος, χοραγίοντος, &c., for which the Ionians wrote, probably with synizesis, ἀγωνοθετέοντος, χοραγέοντος, &c., and the Attics the contractions ἀγωνοθετοῦντος, χοραγοῦντος, &c. Compare also ἠερέθομαι with ἀείρω = ἀέργω, ήΰτε with εὖτε, ἀληθηίη (pronounced ἀληθήγη) with ἀλήθεια, &c.
144 As we have already seen, an apparent ectasis with is often nothing more than an hyperthesis of that letter. The same occasionally happens with v. Thus ἐλαύνω (root έλα- is to be explained by a transposition in the formative adjunct vv- (110,
145 This hyperthesis must be carefully distinguished from the strengthening of or v in the root, by the prefix e or o. Thus πείθω and πέποιθα exhibit modifications of the root πιθ-, found in
ἔ-πιθ-ον; σπεύδω and σπουδή, κέλευθος and ἀκόλουθος, point to lost roots in which v alone appeared: whereas μέλαινα and ἐλαύνω exhibit transpositions of the and v. It is possible, indeed probable, that the e, o, prefixed to the root-vowels ι, υ, may have originated in hyperthesis, but, even then, this, as a transference into the root, must be distinguished from the other transferences which are more distinctly consonantal, and more formally terminational. In comparative grammar the strengthening of a root by prefixing e, o is known by the Sanscrit name guna, i. e. "corroboration." The substitution of 7 (involving a vocalized guttural) for a is also a kind of guna, which stands half-way between the prefix e, o, and the hyperthesis of . By a principle of compensation ão or io may always be represented by ew; thus we have λaós by the side of λέως, the old particle Fos by the side of ἕως, the genitives ἱκέταο and ἱκέτεω, ναυτάων and ναύτεων, πόλι-οs and πόλεως, βασιλέος and βασιλέως, &c.
Examples of Ectasis.
(α) At the beginning of a word: αἰετός, αἰεί, ἠγαθέος, ἠλασκάζω, ἠμαθοείς, ἠνεμοείς, ἠΰς, εἰαρινός, εἰλάτινος, εἱλίσσω, εἰνακοσίοι, εἰρωτάω.
(β) Within the word: βασιλήιος; κληίς; ἀληθηίη; πατρῴιος ; εὐρωείς ; Διώνυσος; ἐλαία by the side of ἐλάα; αητός by the side of ἀετός; καίω and κλαίω by the side of κάω and κλάω ; 'Αχαικός, Πλαταιικός, Αθηναικός; ἀγνοιέω; ἀλοιάω; ποίη; ῥοίη; στοιά; εὔνοια, εὔπλοια, πνοίη, εὔροια, διάῤῥοια, χροίη, χλοίη by the side οἱ νόος, πλόος, πνόος, ῥόος, χρόος, χλόος; γούνατα, δούρατα, κοῦρος, μοῦνος, οὐδός, οὖλος, Οὔλυμπος, πουλύς, δουλιχοδείρων by the side οι γόνατα, &c. ; κεινός, στεινός by the side of κενός, στενός, &c.
(c) At the end of a word, chiefly the prepositions: ἀπαί, καταί, ὑπαί, διά, παραί, ὑπείρ.