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mark is the apostrophe (56): thus we have τάχ ̓ ἄν for τάχα ἄν, οἷός τ ̓ ἦν for οἷός τε ἦν, ἀφ ̓ οὗ for ἀπὸ οὔ, ἐφ ̓ ᾧ for ἐπὶ ᾧ, and so forth. Besides the apostrophe, a change of accentuation sometimes marks the elision, according to the following rule: If the elided vowel had an accent, it loses this in the case of particles; but nouns and verbs substitute an acute on the preceding syllable: thus we have ἀπ ̓ ἄλλων for ἀπὸ ἄλλων, but ἕπτ ̓ ἔσαν for ἑπτὰ ἔσαν, παλαί ἔπη for παλαιὰ ἔπη, αὔτ ̓ ἔδρασε for αὐτὰ ἔδρασε.
139 The following short vowels are not liable to elision : (a) monosyllabic forms of the article (except in Eurip. Cyclops, 265); (b) ă in μá and ȧvá; (c) e in idé, and generally in the 3rd person, which adds an v; (d) o in the genitives in -olo, -ao; (e)ι in περί, τί, ὅτι, and the dative sing. of the 3rd declension. With regard to the latter, apparent exceptions belong to synizesis. Homer elides the final of the dative plural; not so the Tragedians. The apparent elisions of -a belong to synizesis.
140 There is sometimes an apocope of a vowel at the end of a word, as in ecthlipsis, without any contact with a vowel at the beginning of another word: thus we have παῦ for πανε (Aristoph. Eq. 821), δίαιν, δίαινε πῆμα (Asch. Pers. 1083), ἅμ for ἅμα (Aristoph. Vesp. 570), νὴ Δί for νὴ Δία (Anecd. Bekk. 1231, 1862), δεῖν for δεῖνα in the Syracusan dialect Apollon. pronom. 75 €), τρέφοιν for τρέφοιμι (Etym. Μ. 764, 52). There are also apocopated nouns ; as κρἳ for κριθή, δῶ for δώμα, λίπα for λίπαϊ, and probably ἕνεκα for ἐν ἕκαϊ. The most common apocope is that of the prepositions; ἀνά, παρά, and κατά being most liable to it in Homeric Greek, περί in Molic, and ποτί for πρός in Doric. Thus we have:
(α) Without assimilation: ἂν δ' ἄρα, ἂν νάπος, ἄνδιχα, ἀννείμῃ, ἀντρέπων, &c., πὰρ Διός, πὰρ λίμναν, παρβαίνων, κατ τόν, κατθανών, πὸτ τῶ Διός, πὸτ τὰν νύκτα.
(β) With assimilation: ἂμ πύργους, ἂμ πέτραις, ἀμβόαμα, ἀμφαδόν, ἀγκρεμάσασα, ἄγκρισις, ἀγξηράνῃ, κακ κεφαλήν, καπ πέδιον, καττάνυσαν, κάππεσε, καγ γόνυ, κάββαλον, κακχεύαι, κάπ φάλαρα, κὰμ μέν, κάμμορος, κὰν νόμον. We find rarer assimilations with ἀπό, as ἀππέμψει, ἄββαλεν, and ὑπό, as ὑββάλλειν, ΰσπληξ.
(c) With the last syllable wholly omitted, as in κákтave, κάσχεθε, καστορνῦσα, καφθίμενος, καβαίνων, κάπετον for κατέπεσον. The important particles av and Kev oг κа are aрocopated forms of dvd and κατά.
141 The second class of vowel-affections is known by the general name of ectasis (ěkтaσis), productio, or "lengthening." It may generally be regarded as a substitute for some lost consonant, and frequently appears as a transposition or hyperthesis. We have already considered this in its connexion with the assimilation of consonants (above, 104). But, for the sake of system, the doctrine must be formally stated here, in its relation to the pathology of vowels.
142 Primary ectasis appears as a direct insertion of or v without transposition. Thus we have deious by the side of déovs, τιούχαν for τύχην, δεξιάσθω for δεξάσθω, and so forth. So also we have μοῦνος by the side of μόνος, νοῦσος by the side of νόσος, οὐλόμενος by the side of ὀλόμενος, and the like. But there are
etymological reasons for these insertions of and v.
143 The insertion of (if it can be called an insertion, for strictly speaking it indicates the primitive form), very commonly represents itself under the form.e, with that palatal pronunciation which so often yields to synizesis. In Boeotian inscriptions we have the forms ἀγωνοθετίοντος, χοραγίοντος, &c., for which the Ionians wrote, probably with synizesis, ἀγωνοθετέοντος, χοραγέοντος, &c., and the Attics the contractions ἀγωνοθετοῦντος, χοραγοῦντος, &c. Compare also ἠερέθομαι with ἀείρω = ἀέργω, ήΰτε with εὖτε, ἀληθηίη (pronounced ἀληθήγη) with ἀλήθεια, &c.
144 As we have already seen, an apparent ectasis with is often nothing more than an hyperthesis of that letter. The same occasionally happens with v. Thus ἐλαύνω (root έλα- is to be explained by a transposition in the formative adjunct vv- (110,
145 This hyperthesis must be carefully distinguished from the strengthening of or v in the root, by the prefix e or o. Thus πείθω and πέποιθα exhibit modifications of the root πιθ-, found in
ἔ-πιθ-ον; σπεύδω and σπουδή, κέλευθος and ἀκόλουθος, point to lost roots in which v alone appeared: whereas μέλαινα and ἐλαύνω exhibit transpositions of the and v. It is possible, indeed probable, that the e, o, prefixed to the root-vowels ι, υ, may have originated in hyperthesis, but, even then, this, as a transference into the root, must be distinguished from the other transferences which are more distinctly consonantal, and more formally terminational. In comparative grammar the strengthening of a root by prefixing e, o is known by the Sanscrit name guna, i. e. "corroboration." The substitution of 7 (involving a vocalized guttural) for a is also a kind of guna, which stands half-way between the prefix e, o, and the hyperthesis of . By a principle of compensation ão or io may always be represented by ew; thus we have λaós by the side of λέως, the old particle Fos by the side of ἕως, the genitives ἱκέταο and ἱκέτεω, ναυτάων and ναύτεων, πόλι-οs and πόλεως, βασιλέος and βασιλέως, &c.
Examples of Ectasis.
(α) At the beginning of a word: αἰετός, αἰεί, ἠγαθέος, ἠλασκάζω, ἠμαθοείς, ἠνεμοείς, ἠΰς, εἰαρινός, εἰλάτινος, εἱλίσσω, εἰνακοσίοι, εἰρωτάω.
(β) Within the word: βασιλήιος; κληίς; ἀληθηίη; πατρῴιος ; εὐρωείς ; Διώνυσος; ἐλαία by the side of ἐλάα; αητός by the side of ἀετός; καίω and κλαίω by the side of κάω and κλάω ; 'Αχαικός, Πλαταιικός, Αθηναικός; ἀγνοιέω; ἀλοιάω; ποίη; ῥοίη; στοιά; εὔνοια, εὔπλοια, πνοίη, εὔροια, διάῤῥοια, χροίη, χλοίη by the side οἱ νόος, πλόος, πνόος, ῥόος, χρόος, χλόος; γούνατα, δούρατα, κοῦρος, μοῦνος, οὐδός, οὖλος, Οὔλυμπος, πουλύς, δουλιχοδείρων by the side οι γόνατα, &c. ; κεινός, στεινός by the side of κενός, στενός, &c.
(c) At the end of a word, chiefly the prepositions: ἀπαί, καταί, ὑπαί, διά, παραί, ὑπείρ.
DECLENSION OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS.
§ I. General Remarks.
146 IT has been already shown that every noun and verb in the Greek language may be reduced, by stripping off an affix, prefix, or both, to some single syllable, which constitutes its meaning, and which is found also in other words of cognate signification. This ultimate element we call the root, stem, or basis of the word. The prefix may generally be stript off at once, but the removal of the affix is often a double operation. To confine ourselves for the present to the noun, we find that almost every word of this kind ends with a short termination, often a single letter, which marks its immediate relation to the other objects in connexion with it, and which we call the case-ending. But in the majority of nouns, we find, between this and the root, an affix, consisting of one or more pronominal stems, which marks the definite class and quality of the noun, and points out the restriction with which the general force of the root is applied in the particular instance. When the case-ending alone is removed, the remaining part of the word is called its crude or uninflected form, whether it has another pronominal affix or not. The affections of the uninflected form, as such, belong to a different subject-that of the formation of words by derivation or otherwise (Part IV.). At present we are concerned only with the crude forms and cases of the noun.
147 The Greek noun (ovopa, nomen) is either substantive (ὄνομα προσηγορικόν) or adjective (ὄνομα ἐπίθετον οι ἐπιθετικόν):
the former expresses a person or thing; the latter expresses the quality of a person or thing; or, to speak more strictly, the former expresses an appropriated, the latter an unappropriated quality.
The Greek noun has five cases (πTwσЄis, casus): three numbers (ἀριθμοί, numeri), singular, dual, and plural (ἑνικός, πληθυντικός, Svïkós): and three genders (yévn, genera),—masculine, feminine, and neuter (αρσενικόν, θηλυκόν, οὐδέτερον).
148 The five cases are the nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and vocative. Properly speaking, the vocative (KληTIKŃ) is not a separate inflexion, but is either the crude form, or the same. as the nominative. And the nominative (eveîa or open, casus rectus) stands opposed to the genitive (γενική, κτητική, πατρική), dative (δοτική, ἐπισταλτική), and accusative αιτιατική), which are called άуiai Táσes, casus obliqui. The Stoics and Peripatetics differed as to the reason for calling these inflexions TTσes, casus, "fallings."
The genitive may be translated by "of, from, out of, by:" the dative by "to, with, at, for:" the accusative corresponds to our simple objective case, or implies "motion towards a place or object." The use of the cases must be learned from the syntax. When a noun is used immutably in an oblique case it is called an adverb (érippnua, adverbium).
Besides these five cases, which alone appear in the ordinary declensions of nouns, there are remains of other inflexions, which are partly absorbed in the existing cases, or still represented by distinct forms of certain words.
(a) The locative or case of rest, which is generally absorbed in the dative, appears as a distinct form in some a and o nouns, chiefly proper names of places: thus we have in a nouns, 'A¤ñvai, ̓Αθήνησι; ̓Αλωπεκή, ̓Αλωπεκῆσι; Θεσπιαί, Θεσπιᾶσι; Πλαταιαί, Πλαταιᾶσι; Δεκέλεια, Δεκελείασι; Ὀλυμπία, Ολυμπίασι; Ερχία, Ἐρχίασι; also θύρασιν, foras, and ὥρασιν, opportune, and in one Attic inscription (Böckh, C. I. no. 140) we have Toîs Tauíaoi for τοῖς ταμίαις. In o nouns we have Ἰσθμός, Ἰσθμοί, τὰ Μέγαρα, Μεγαροι, Πειραιός, Πειραιοί, and the Attic demes Σφηττοῖ, Σουνιο,