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&c.; also the common words οἴκοι, πεδοῖ, μέσσοι. In consonantal nouns we have Πυθώ, Πυθοί, Μαραθών, Μαραθῶνι, and Δωδώνι from the obsolete Δωδῶν for Δωδώνη.

(6) The form in -p is used by the epic poets, and sometimes also by the lyric poets, to denote a dative, genitive, or even an accusative with or without a preposition: thus we have forms like κεφαλῆφι, κλισιῆφι, θεόφιν, ἰκριόφιν, ἔχεσφιν, στήθεσφιν, ναῦφιν, ἐσχαρόφιν (by a metrical affection for ἐσχαράφιν), κοτυληδονόφι (for κοτυληδόμφι), &c. In νόσφι, λικριφίς, &c. the form is merely adverbial.

(c) The form in -Oev or -0e generally indicates derivation or motion from a place, as Evževida τáтρade Zwуeves (Pind. Nem. VII. 70), but is also used as a common genitive, especially in the pronouns ἐμέθεν, σέθεν, ἔθεν.

(b) Numbers.

149 The dual, though a very old form, is never regarded in Greek syntax as a necessary expression for things considered as pairs, and is constantly interchanged with the plural, of which it is merely a corruption. Homer uses it very frequently to denote things taken in couples (see Il. VIII. 41, 45), and it is common in the Attic dialect; but the plural gradually superseded it; after the time of Alexander it became nearly obsolete; and it is not to be found in the New Testament. It is one of the most remarkable coincidences between the Eolic dialect and the Latin, that neither of them has dual forms (see Anecd. Bekk. 1184, 21). But they are found in Sanscrit.

(c) Genders.

150 The main rules with regard to the genders of nouns are the following:

(1) Masculine: names of male persons and animals; as Σwκράτης, ἀνήρ, προφήτης, ἀλέκτωρ, λέων, and of months, winds, rivers, and hills, as ὁ Γαμηλίων, ὁ Ζέφυρος, ὁ Ιλισσός, ὁ Παρνασός.

(2) Feminine: names of female persons and animals; as Ασπασία, γυνή, θυγάτηρ, κομμωτρία, αλεκτορίς, λέαινα, and even diminutives of proper names; as AeóvTiov; also the proper names

of countries, islands, and cities, and the distinctive names of trees and plants; as Λακωνία, Δῆλος, ̓Αθῆναι, ἐλάτη, ἄχερδος, πίτυς.

(3) Neuter: infinitives used substantively, names of letters of the alphabet, and generally all words or even phrases which are regarded merely as outward forms or material objects; as τὸ ζῆν, τὸ ἄλφα, τὸ τύπτω, τὸ γνῶθι σεαυτόν, τὸ τεῖχος, τὸ Πελασγικόν.

Exceptions.

(a) The form of the word sometimes maintains the gender in spite of the signification: thus (a) nouns in -a and -n of the first declension are always feminine ; as ή λήθη, “the river Lethe," ἡ Όσσα, “ mount Ossa,” ἡ Αἴτνη, “ mount Ætna.”

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(6) Nouns in -ov of the second declension, excepting, as above, diminutives from proper names: thus we have τὸ μειράκιον, “ the boy,” τὸ ἀνθρώπιον, “ the mannikin,” τὸ γύναιον, “ the little wench,” τὸ ἀνδράποδον, “the slave,” τὸ Λύκαιον, “mount Lycæum."

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(c) Nouns in -os (-07-), -ɩ and -eus of the third declension; as τὸ τέκος, “the child,” τὸ ̓́Αργος, “the city Argos,” τὸ πέπερι, “ pepper,” ὁ Φανοτεύς, “ the city Phanoteus.” In Aristoph. Thesm. 432, τῆς γραμματέως is merely a joke.

(α) Nouns used only in the plural; as οἱ Δελφοί, “ the city Delphi,” τὰ Λεύκτρα, “ the town Leuctra,” τὰ παιδικά, “ the pet" (delicia).

(β) Besides these there are certain special exceptions.

(α) The following names of rivers and hills are feminine: ἡ Στύξ, ἡ Παρνής, ἡ Κάραμβις, ἡ Πελωρίας οι Πελωρίς, ἡ Χαλκίς, αἱ "Αλπεις.

(6) The following names of countries and cities are masculine: Πόντος, Αἰγιαλός, Μάσης, Ωρωπός, Ορχόμενος, Ογχηστός, Κάνωβος (-πος), Οἰνεών, and most of those in -ους, -as, and -ων, as Δαφνοῦς, Τάρας, Βραυρών, though some are common, as Μαραθών, ̓Ακράγας, Σελινοῦς, Φλιοῦς, &c.

(c) The following names of trees and plants are masculine: φοίνιξ, έρινεός, φελλός, λωτός, κύτισος, ἄκανθος, ἀμάρακος, ἀσπάραγος, ἀσφόδελος, ἑλλέβορος, λάπαθος, and the following are com

mon: κέρασος, κόμαρος, κότινος, πάπυρος. The general term δρος was masc. in the Lacedæmonian dialect, which was imitated in this respect by the later writers (Schol. Arist. Nub. 401).

151 In many cases the feminine is distinguished from the masculine by a formative affix. The following are the most common examples of this motion of substantives, which, as we shall see, is regular in certain classes of adjectives:

-os into -n or -a ; as υἱωνός, υἱωνή; κόρος, κόρη; ἑκυρός, ἑκυρά. της and -τηρ into -τρια; as ποιητής, ποιητρία; ψαλτήρ, ψαλτρία. -τηρ and -τωρ into -τειρα (in the poets); as σωτήρ, σώτειρα; πανδαμάτωρ, πανδαμάτειρα.

της or της into -τις = τιδος or -ις = ιδ-ς; as προδότης, προδότες; Σπαρτιάτης, Σπαρτιάτις; Σκύθης, Σκύθις ; Πέρσης, Περσίς.

Obs. Some of these endings have more than one form of the feminine; thus λῃστήρ οι λῃστής makes λῄστειρα, συλλῃστρία, λῃστρίς ; ὀρχηστήρ makes ορχηστρία and ὀρχηστρίς; ολετήρ makes ὀλέτειρα and ὀλέτις; and αὐλητήρ or αὐλητής makes αὐλήτρια and αὐλητρίς.

-os into -ις=ιδ-ς; as αἰχμάλωτος, αἰχμαλωτίς; κάπηλος, καπηλίς. -ευς into -us ; as Δωριεύς, Δωρίς.

Consonant noun into -us ; as φύλαξ, φυλακίς ; Ελλην, Ελληνίς. -ων, -ας into -αινα = avya; as λέων, λέαινα; τέκτων, τέκταινα; δράκων, δράκαινα; Λάκων, Λάκαινα; θεράπων, θεράπαινα ; μέλας, μέλαινα; τάλας, τάλαινα.

Obs. We have also certain irregular forms, which seem to indicate other inflexions of the masculine since become obsolete; as θεός, θέαινα; λύκος, λύκαινα; ὖς, ΰαινα; δεσπότης, δέσποινα by the side of πότνια and δεσποτίς.

Various nouns form the feminine in -σσα; as ἄναξ, ἄνασσα (for ἀνάκια); Θρᾷξ, Θρῇσσα; θής, θῆσσα; Κρής, Κρήσσα; Κίλιξ, Κίλισσα; Φοίνιξ, Φοίνισσα; Λίβυς, Λίβυσσα; φάψ, φάσσα. Το this class belongs βασιλεύς, which, however, makes not only βασίλισσα, but βασίλεια, βασιλίς, and even βασίλιννα.

The feminine patronymics sometimes exhibit a shortened form of the masculine: thus we have Βορεάδης, Βορεάς; Τανταλίδης, Τανταλίς. Others are formed independently in -ivn and -ωνη, as Αδραστίνη from "Αδραστος, ἡρωΐνη, ἡρώνη, ἡρωις and ἡρῷσσα from ἥρως ; Ηλεκτρυώνη from Ἠλεκτρύων, Τυνδαρεώνη from Τυνδαρεύς (see Lobeck, Pathol. pp. 32, 509).

§ II. Substantives.

152 The following are the case-endings of the masculine noun in the singular number. Comparative philology teaches us that the nominative case-ending of the noun, denoting the subject, is to be referred to the second pronominal element, which indicates relative proximity. To this the genitive, denoting removal from the subject, adds the third pronominal element under the form -v. The dative, which denotes juxta-position, repeats the second element under the form -. The accusative, denoting the object, is content with the third element alone.

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153 The plural is formed from the singular by the addition of

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154 The dual presents abridged forms of the plural.

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155 The feminine case-endings are generally distinguished from the masculine by the substitution of -oa- for -σ-. Sometimes by a reduplication of this termination, as a for-a-σa, or -d-s for -o-s. Comparative philology shows that this extension is due to the wish to express more strongly the relative and collective nature of things conceived as feminine or maternal.

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156 The neuter has, strictly speaking, no nominative, but uses for that purpose the accusative, originally in - or -v: it has no plural in -s of this case, but substitutes, for the singular or -y, the combination -ντ, which is invariably softened into (107). In other respects, the neuter inflexions do not differ from the masculine.

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