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1 As the dual is, in itself, a corrupted form of the plural, it is sufficient to give

example of the changes or confusions.

one

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157 The case-endings are differently affected by the different terminations of the crude or uninflected form. These differences are called declensions (κλίσεις), and are three in number: (Ι) the -a declension, when the uninflected form ends in -a, or when the noun is feminine in -σα, -ια, -α: (ΙΙ) the -o declension, when the uninflected form ends in -o: and (III) the consonant declension, when the uninflected form ends in a consonant or in - or -v, which are ultimate states of consonants (above, 20, b).

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159 Sometimes -ta is, through -ea, contracted into η, the uncontracted form being generally obsolete, except in some proper names, as Βορέας, Βορέου, where it remains uncontracted, and Ἑρμέας, Ἑρμῆς, where both forms are retained throughout the singular, thus:

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More commonly, however, the contraction is not indicated by the circumflex.

Thus we have:

κριτής, “ a judge.”

Root, κρι-, “ to separate.”
Uninfected form, κρι-τεα- = κρι-τα.

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Moura, "a recollector" and "deviser," i.e. "Goddess of

memory and poetry.'

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Root, μο- οι μα = μεν (107), “ to recollect,” “ contrive.”
Uninflected form, μοοντ- οι μαοντα

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The nouns, which are declined like Μούσα, are those which end in -ă preceded by any consonant except p. They are nouns, like Μούσα, in -σα, as βύρσα, δόξα, ἄνασσα, γλῶσσα, μέλισσα, δίψα; those in -ζα, as τράπεζα, μᾶζα, ῥίζα; in -λλα, as ἄλλα, ἅμιλλα ; and a number of nouns in -va, as ἄμυνα, ἄχνα, δέσποινα, ἔχιδνα, εὔθυνα, λέαινα, μάραγνα, μέριμνα, μύραινα, πεῖνα, πότνα, πρύμνα, χλαίνα, the proper names Αἴγινα, Πύδνα, and the Latin word Σαβίνα. It seems probable that all of these represent original forms in -σα; for ζ is here &σ or τσ, τράπεζα being [τε]τράπεδ-σα, and μάζα being μάσ-σα from μάσσω = μάγγω, the special term for making barley bread (Plat. Resp. 11. p. 372 в). Then as is an ultimate vocalization of s or h (above, 18, j), we have the same affix implied in ἅμιλλα = ἁμίλια, λέαινα = λεάνια (above, 103, 104), and a comparison of πότνα with πότνια, and of both with δέσποινα by the side of δεσπότης, leads to the conclusion that the nouns in -vă also originally ended in -via. Besides these there are some special cases, which probably involve less explicable corruptions of the same kind; such are ἄκανθα, ἄρδα, δίαιτα, ἐπίβδα, μάμμα, νάφθα, παῦλα, πρέσβα, τόλμα (τόλμη in the Tragedians). See Lobeck, Phryn. pp. 331, 447.

Obs. By the side of the nouns in -vă we have others in -vn, as evvý, θοίνη, οἴνη, αἴνη, ποίνη, πείνη, φωνή, and the nouns in -σύνη; and by the side of nouns in -σα the poetical forms ἄση, ἔρση, ὄζη, and αὔξη.

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161 (β) In -a pure or -pa retaining the a throughout. Thus we have φιλία, “ friendship” (root, φιλ-, " to love, uninfected form, φιλ-γă or φιλε-); πεῖρα, “ an attempt” (root, περ-, uninflected form, περι-). Singular.

Dual,

Plural.

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(1) The name of a pure, which is not a very happy designation (for it often involves an absorbed consonant), is given to a after another vowel or p. The vowel, however, which allows the a to remain, is generally either t or e, as in παιδεία, " education;” αλήθεια, “ truth;” θεά, “a goddess;” βία, “ violence. We have, however, a pure after a in ἐλάα, and in the contracted words μν

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