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More commonly, however, the contraction is not indicated by the circumflex.
Thus we have:
κριτής, “ a judge.”
Root, κρι-, “ to separate.”
Moura, "a recollector" and "deviser," i.e. "Goddess of
memory and poetry.'
Root, μο- οι μα = μεν (107), “ to recollect,” “ contrive.”
The nouns, which are declined like Μούσα, are those which end in -ă preceded by any consonant except p. They are nouns, like Μούσα, in -σα, as βύρσα, δόξα, ἄνασσα, γλῶσσα, μέλισσα, δίψα; those in -ζα, as τράπεζα, μᾶζα, ῥίζα; in -λλα, as ἄλλα, ἅμιλλα ; and a number of nouns in -va, as ἄμυνα, ἄχνα, δέσποινα, ἔχιδνα, εὔθυνα, λέαινα, μάραγνα, μέριμνα, μύραινα, πεῖνα, πότνα, πρύμνα, χλαίνα, the proper names Αἴγινα, Πύδνα, and the Latin word Σαβίνα. It seems probable that all of these represent original forms in -σα; for ζ is here &σ or τσ, τράπεζα being [τε]τράπεδ-σα, and μάζα being μάσ-σα from μάσσω = μάγγω, the special term for making barley bread (Plat. Resp. 11. p. 372 в). Then as is an ultimate vocalization of s or h (above, 18, j), we have the same affix implied in ἅμιλλα = ἁμίλια, λέαινα = λεάνια (above, 103, 104), and a comparison of πότνα with πότνια, and of both with δέσποινα by the side of δεσπότης, leads to the conclusion that the nouns in -vă also originally ended in -via. Besides these there are some special cases, which probably involve less explicable corruptions of the same kind; such are ἄκανθα, ἄρδα, δίαιτα, ἐπίβδα, μάμμα, νάφθα, παῦλα, πρέσβα, τόλμα (τόλμη in the Tragedians). See Lobeck, Phryn. pp. 331, 447.
Obs. By the side of the nouns in -vă we have others in -vn, as evvý, θοίνη, οἴνη, αἴνη, ποίνη, πείνη, φωνή, and the nouns in -σύνη; and by the side of nouns in -σα the poetical forms ἄση, ἔρση, ὄζη, and αὔξη.
161 (β) In -a pure or -pa retaining the a throughout. Thus we have φιλία, “ friendship” (root, φιλ-, " to love, uninfected form, φιλ-γă or φιλε-); πεῖρα, “ an attempt” (root, περ-, uninflected form, περι-). Singular.
(1) The name of a pure, which is not a very happy designation (for it often involves an absorbed consonant), is given to a after another vowel or p. The vowel, however, which allows the a to remain, is generally either t or e, as in παιδεία, " education;” αλήθεια, “ truth;” θεά, “a goddess;” βία, “ violence. We have, however, a pure after a in ἐλάα, and in the contracted words μν
for μνάα, Αθηνᾶ for Αθηνάα'; after o in πόα, στόα, χρόα (which often, however, end in -a); after w in aλwá only; after u in yúa, καρύα, οἰσύα, ὀστρύα, σικύα. The only exceptions to a pure after p are ἀθάρη, αἴθρη, δείρη, κόρη, κόῤῥη, and the compounds in -μέτρης, as γεωμέτρης.
(2) The a is retained in some cases where it is not preceded by a vowel or p: such are the words ἀλαλά, σκανδαλά, and the proper names ̓Ανδρομέδα, Γέλα, Διοτίμα, Κισσαίθα, Κυναίθα, Λήδα, Μίκκα, Νέδα, Φιλομήλα, probably all Doric forms.
162 The a, in those cases in which it is retained as pure, varies in quantity according to its origin. If it is the Doric representative of an Attic ŋ, or if it can be resolved etymologically into -lă=-căσă or -pa=-păσă (and this is always the case when there is a corresponding masculine in -tos or -pos), it is necessarily long. But when the termination itself is -tă or -pă for -σa or -piă, it is necessarily short. The following details will show the application of these distinctions.
(a) -ā long.
(1) -ā is always long in the terminations -aa, -ea, -oa, -va, -wa, because here we have an absorbed or σ; for example, is for ἐλά-ya, and θεά for θενά.
(2) -ā is always long when it stands as a distinct termination, even though it has an before it; thus in Bareiă, "a queen," we have merely the derivative in -a from Baoiλeus, analogous to the feminines γλυκεῖα, θήλεια, ὀξεῖα from γλυκύς, θῆλυς, ὀξύς; but in Baoiλeia, "a kingdom," we have a derivative in -aya or -σa from βασιλεύω. For the same reason the -a is long in ἀγορᾶ, γαληναία (from the dative γαλήνῃ), λεία, παιδεία, φιλία, ἁγία, χροία, ἀλλοία, αὔρα, χώρα, αἰσχρά, ἡμέρα.
(b) -ă short.
(1) -a is always short in nouns derived from adjectives in as ἀκριβής (ἀκριβε-ya), ἀκρίβεια; ἀληθής (ἀληθε-ya), ἀλήθεια; for
1 'A@áva is the form preferred by the Attic dramatists (see Porson ad Eurip. Orest. But'Anvaía is the only form found in public documents before the archonship
of Euclides (see Böckh, Staatshaushalt. d. Athen. II. p. 200).
which, however, Homer has the longer forms ἀληθηίη, &c. Similarly it is short in πανάκεια, πέλεια, Κορώνεια, and the adjectives in -εία from us, as ὀξεία, or in via from -ως, as τετυφυία. But μητρυιά for μητρυι-γá has a long -a.
(2) Compounds in -ota have the -a short; as εὔνοια, παλίῤῥοια, Εὔβοια.
(3) Nouns in τρα for -σα or -ρια, and of course in -νια, have the -a short; as σφύρα, πεῖρα, ὀρχήστρια, γενετεῖρα, ἔμπνια, πότνια, Πύῤῥα.
(4) -a is short in διa and μία for δί-ια and μένεια.
163 (γ) Sometimes the -ua is written -ea; as in συκέα, “a fig-tree;" and in this case the termination is contracted into nor -a throughout:
164 (δ) When the uncontracted form is obsolete, the contraction is not indicated by the circumfex: thus from τιμά-εα (root, τι-, or uninfected form, τιμα-) we have τιμή, " honour or “price;” and from δίκη, " equivalent” or “atonement” (root, δικ- οι δεχ-), we have δίκ-εα = δίκη, which are infected thus :
Compare the masculine κριτής with Ἑρμέας (159).
165 General Remarks on the First Declension.
(a) Nouns in -ns generally make the vocative in ă, thus: (1) Nouns in της; as κριτᾶ, ἐργάτα, συκοφάντα, Ὀρέστα,
(2) Nouns in -ης; as παιδοτρίβα, γεωμέτρα.
(3) Ethnic names; as Πέρσα, Σκύθα.
Other names, as the patronymics and proper names in -dns, make -δη, as 'Ατρείδη, "Αιδη; but we have Στρεψίαδες in Aristoph. Nub. 1206.
(4) There are some nouns in -âs (chiefly contracted, as Anμâs for Δημήτριος, Ζηνας for Ζηνόδωρος) and in -ης (chiefly foreign, as Mwʊons), which retain the -a or -n throughout, thus:
-as, -a, -a, -av, -a,
-ης, -η, -η, -ην, -η.
(8) In the epic dialect -a is changed into -7, and in the Doric -η is changed into -a: thus we have in the one εύπλοίη for εὔπλοια, and in the other Tμá for Tμn. The Eolians sometimes wrote short -ă for -η, as in ὦ Δίκα, ὦ νύμφα.
(7) The epic dialect substitutes the vocative for the nominative form in nouns in -ης: thus we have ἱππότα, ἠπύτα, νεφεληγερέτα, αἰχμητά, Θυέστα, &c. Three forms are proparoxytone: ἀκάκητα, εὐρύοπα, and μητίετα.
(8) From this they have a genit. sing. and plur. in -ao, -awv, which may of course be referred, like the vocative, to the original crude form of the noun: and the -ao is often softened into -ew, according to an euphony constantly observed in Greek (above, 145). From Toλ and aurη we have both forms in Homer, but always πασέων and ἁπασέων. In Herodotus -ew and -εων are the regular forms for substantives and pronouns, and they are not unfrequent in adjectives and participles. Thus we have, I. 180, πλívowv πλίνθων