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όπτέων. ΙΙΙ. 113, ανατριβομενέων των ουρέων. VΙΙ. 188, τοσουτέων μυριαδέων.

(e) The dative plural in Ionic ends in -you; the termination -ys is rarely found in Homer, and there are only three examples of the termination -αις (II. XII. 284; Οd. ν. 119, ΧΧΙΙ. 471). The Dorians, Eolians, and Attic dramatists have both -αις and -αισι, and the latter is found even in Plato.

(8) The Dorians sometimes shortened the -as of the accusative plural (above, 39, iv. 1), and the Æolians wrote -acs for -av-s without a circumflex, as they did also in the nom. of the 1 aor. participle. In Doric also the gen. in -ao is represented by -ā, and this form is retained by some words in common Greek, as proper names like Νουμάς, gen. Νουμά, and the compounds πατραλοίας, μητραλοίας, ορνιθοθήρας, gen. πατραλοία, &c.


166 The second declension departs very little from the primi

tive type.


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(a) In the singular, masculine and feminine nominatives retain the -s, and there is no distinction in form between the masculine and feminine. The following nouns in -os are feminine :

(1) Names of countries, islands, cities, and plants, according to the general rule (Art. 150 (2)); hence also ή ράφανος, η ράβδος, η δοκός, η βίβλος, ή δέλτος.

(2) Appellatives in -os, which imply a feminine substantive, as ήπειρος, χέρσος, νέος, περίχωρος, έρημος, νήσος (from νέω), with which we understand γή. Also names of particular kinds of earth, as άμαθος, άργιλος, άσφαλτος, μίλτος, γύψος, σποδός, τίτανος, ψάμμος, ύαλος. Also other words in which there is an obvious ellipsis of a feminine substantive, as ή κέρκος, i.e. ουρά, whence κερκούρος; η γνάθος, referring to γένυς; η διάμετρος, η κάθετος, i.e. γραμμής ή διάλεκτος, i.e. φωνή και η σύγκλητος, i.e. βουλή; ή ξύλοχος, i.e. ύλη; η αμάξιτος, άτραπος, ατράπιτος, κέλευθος, λεωφόρος, τρίβος, i.e. οδός; η τήβεννος, i.e. στολής ή βάρβιτος, i.e. κιθάρα ; also και βάρβιτος, το βάρβιτον.

(3) Names of precious stones, as ή σμάραγδος, η σάπφειρος, η κρύσταλλος, η ψήφος, and generally ή λίθος, "a precious stone,


as distinguished from ó Nidos, any stone (though Homer twice uses ń 2. for ó 1. Il. XII. 287, XIX. 494).

(4) Many names of receptacles and other concave or hollowed things are feminine; thus η κιβωτός, κάμινος, χηλός, ασάμινθος, πύελος, σορός, φωριαμός, κάρδοπος, άρριχος, ληνός, λήκυθος, πρόyoos, and o, η λάγηνος; hence also κάπετος, τάφρος, and perhaps οδός.

(5) The feminine denotes a collection of things; thus ý ÜTTTTOS is “a body of cavalry;" ý káundos, “a troop of camels;" &c. Hence η κόπρος, “the heap of dung:” cf. χίλιοι from χιλός.

The following cannot easily be referred to any one of these classes : ń Spócos, “the dew (the collection of drops ?);" ý vócos,

: δρόσος, " the disease (the flux or running ?);” ŕ uńpivoos, “ the string;” Tibos, " the brick."

(6) The genitive in -Dev often occurs: the original - 10-v appears in derivative adjectives, as in onuó-olo-s from dñuos: in epic poetry this appears as 0-10, and in common prose we have the contraction -ov for o-lorowo or 00.

(c) In the dative the characteristic -- is absorbed in the improper diphthong -Q (above, 125).

(d) The accusative retains its primitive -v.

(e) The vocative substitutes -€ for the final -0 of the uninflected form.

In the plural -o-oes becomes 0-1=0l. The genitive-ending, as in the other declensions, is contracted into -wv.

The dative is color or ous. The accusative substitutes -ous for ov-s.

The dual is always -W, -olv.

167 The neuter preserves the accusative -v in the singular, and, as usual, substitutes -ă for the plural -vt. Of course, the nominative and vocative do not differ from the accusative. In the other cases, the neuter corresponds to the masculine and feminine. 168 The three nouns, ó Móryos!, masc. “ the discourse” (root,

ó leys, " to pick or to speak ;" uninflected form, Loyo-), ý vóoos, fem. " the disease” (originally voûgos, root, vef-, “ to flow;" uninflected

* The declension of the article, which is commonly used by grammarians to indicate the genders of nouns, is given in its proper place among the pronouns (below, 238).



form, νόσο-), and το ξύλον, « the hewn timber” (root, ξέF- or ξύ-, "to cut smooth;” uninflected form, &úro-), furnish regular examples of this declension.


N. λόγος


ξύλον G. λόγου



Α. λόγον


ξύλον V. λόγε


Ν. V. λόγοι


ξύλα G. λόγων





Ν.Α.V. λόγω




169 When the uninflected form ends in -o0 or -eo, the last two syllables are contracted throughout the declension, thus:


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Ν. νόος, νούς

Ν.Α.V. οστέον, -ούν
G. νόου, νου

G. οστέου, -ου
D. νόω, να

D. οστέω,
Α. νόον, νούν
νόε, νου

Ν. V. νόοι, νοι

Ν.Α.V. οστέα,
G. νόων, νων

G. οστέων, -ών
D. νόοις, νούς

D. οστέοις, -οις
Α. νόους, νους

Ν.Α.Υ. νόω, νώ

Ν.Α.V. οστέω, -ώ
G.D. νόουν, νούν

G.D. οστέουν, -ούν Obs. There are some anomalies in the accentuation of these contracted nouns. It will be observed that in the dual -éw, -ów make u and not ω; adjectives like χρύσεος are contracted into χρυσούς, contrary to 52, Obe.; and the same applies to κάνεον, κανουν. Compounds of νούς, πλούς, &c. retain the accent on the penultima in the contracted forms; thus we have άνους, άνου, άνω; εύνους, εύνου, ευνοι και κακόνους, κακόνου και είσπλους, διέκπλους, είσπλοι, διέκπλοι.

170 As the genitive in -ão becomes -ew in Ionic, so the AtticIonic dialect substitutes -ew for -ão, when the a is long (see above, 145), and the termination exhibits w throughout the cases. In these nouns it will generally be found that the uninflected form ends in the digamma F, represented by either 1 or v,—the ultimate conditions of its guttural and labial elements respectively (see 95). For example, λεώς, masc. “ the people” (root, λεf-, unintected form, λέFo-, also λαο-), έως, fem. « the morning” (root, αυ- or έF-, uninflected form, éfa-), sváryewv, neut. “an upper chamber” (compound from άνω, « above,” and γαία, « the earth,” root, γαι- Or γεf-) are thus declined:






Ν. V. λεώς

Ν.Α. V. ανώγεων
G. λεώ

G. ανώγεω
D. λεω

D. ανώγεω
Α. λεών

N.V. λεω

Ν.Α.V. ανώγεω
G. λεων

G. ανώγεων
D. λεως

D. ανώγεως
Α. λεώς

Ν.Α.V. λεω

Ν.Α.V. ανώγεω
G.D. λεων

G.D. ανώγεων : Similarly ή έως, “ the morning,” η άλως, “ the threshing-foor, except that the accus. sing. is éw, anw: and the final -v is omitted with some other nouns of this form, as ó áryws, “the hare," and the proper names, "Αθως, Kέως, Κως, Τέως and Μίνως; and αγήρως makes αγήρω as well as αγήρων.

It will be observed, that as this contracted declension, strictly speaking, includes forms which end with -1 or -v, it belongs to the following or consonantal declension, according to which these nouns are also very frequently declined. Conversely, it will be


observed that nouns of the third declension from forms in - or -v usually retain the -v of the accusative singular (below, 186). In general, there are very few nouns in -ws belonging strictly to the second declension. Besides those already mentioned, we have ο κάλως, “ the rope,” which makes κάλωες, κάλωας, κάλωσι in the Ionic poets ; véws, “a temple,” which has the by-form vaós; the adjectives News, “ gracious,” Téws, “full," and certain compounds in -γεως, χρεως, -κέρως, -γελως, -γηρως, and -ερως; as λεπτόγεως,

, , ; “having light soil,” áfróxpews, “reliable,” Baduyńows, "very ,μονοκέρως, -φιλογέλως, old,” uovoképws, “one-horned,” piloyé.ws, “ fond of laughing," dvoépws, “unfortunate in love." The last three are also inflected

-ωτος, and the neuter plurals of ίλεως and πλέως are ίλεα and πλέα.


Obs. 1 It will be observed that oxytones in -ws retain the acute accent even in the genitive singular, and the proparoxytones maintain their accent unchanged throughout all the cases. There is no good authority for the accentuation of υπέργηρων, ταχύγηρως, and βαθύγηρως, as they are written in some MSS. (Æsch. Agam. 79; Aristot. Rhet. I. 5; Anth. Pal. vi. 247).

Obs. 2 There are some nouns in -ws (as Néxws) or -ovs (as 'Ingoûs), chiefly foreign, and not belonging to this class, which retain the w or ov throughout, thus :

-W, -, -ων, -W,
-OV, -ov, -ουν,




General Remarks on the Second Declension. 171 Dialects: (a) The gen. sing. in Æolic, Doric, and bucolic Greek ends in -w; in the Thessalian dialect in -ou for -010; in the epic and lyric both in -ov and in colo, and in -wo from nouns in -ws; in new Ionic in


and in proper names sometimes in -EW, as in Βάττεω, Κροίσεω.

(B) The dat. sing. in Æolic ends in -w without iota subscript.

(w) The gen. and dat. dual in epic Greek end in -oliv.

(8) The gen. pl. sometimes ends in -ew or -aw, as from a by-form of the first declension.

(e) The dat. pl. is -ous or color in all dialects, and even Plato uses the longer form.

(5) The accus. pl. in Doric and Bæotic ends in -ws or -os, the latter omitting the v of ovs, as in és for eis = évs.

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