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form, νόσο-), and τὸ ξύλον, “ the hewn timber” (root, ξέF or ξύ-, " to cut smooth;” uninflected form, ξύλο-), furnish regular examples of this declension.

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169 When the uninflected form ends in -oo or -eo, the last two

syllables are contracted throughout the declension, thus:

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Obs.

tracted nouns.

There are some anomalies in the accentuation of these con-
It will be observed that in the dual -έω, -όω make ώ

and not ; adjectives like xpúoreos are contracted into xovorovs, contrary to 52, Obs.; and the same applies to κáveov, Kavovv. Compounds of vous, alous, &c. retain the accent on the penultima in the contracted forms; thus we have ἄνους, ἄνου, ἄνω ; εὔνους, εὔνου, εἶνοι; κακόνους, κακόνοι; εἴσπλους, διέκπλους, εἶσπλοι, διέκπλοι.

170 As the genitive in -ão becomes -ew in Ionic, so the AtticIonic dialect substitutes -ew for -ão, when the a is long (see above, 145), and the termination exhibits a throughout the cases. In these nouns it will generally be found that the uninflected form ends in the digamma F, represented by either or v,-the ultimate conditions of its guttural and labial elements respectively (see 95). For example, λews, masc. "the people" (root, XeF-, uninflected form, MéFo-, also Xão-), ews, fem. "the morning" (root, av- or eF-, uninflected form, Fa-), aveyewv, neut. "an upper chamber" (compound from ǎvw, “above," and yaía, “the earth,” root, yaı- or yeF-) are thus declined:

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Similarly news, "the morning,"

except that the accus. sing. is ew, aλw: and the final -v is omitted.

with some other nouns of this form, as ó Máyws, "the hare," and the proper names, Αθως, Κέως, Κως, Τέως and Μίνως; and ἀγήρως makes ἀγήρω as well as ἀγήρων.

It will be observed, that as this contracted declension, strictly speaking, includes forms which end with - or -v, it belongs to the following or consonantal declension, according to which these nouns are also very frequently declined. Conversely, it will be

observed that nouns of the third declension from forms in - or -v usually retain the -v of the accusative singular (below, 186). In general, there are very few nouns in -ws belonging strictly to the second declension. Besides those already mentioned, we have ὁ κάλως, “ the rope,” which makes κάλωες, κάλωας, κάλωσι in the Ionic poets; véws, "a temple," which has the by-form vaós; the adjectives News, " gracious," Méws, "full," and certain compounds in -γεως, χρεως, -κέρως, -γελως, -γηρως, and -ερως; as λεπτόγεως, "having light soil," atóxpews, "reliable," Balvyńpws, “very old," μovokéρws, "one-horned," piλoyéλws, “fond of laughing,' Svoépws, "unfortunate in love." The last three are also inflected in -ωτος, and the neuter plurals of ἵλεως and πλέως are ἵλεα and πλέα.

ἵλεως,

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Obs. 1 It will be observed that oxytones in -ws retain the acute accent even in the genitive singular, and the proparoxytones maintain their accent unchanged throughout all the cases. There is no good authority for the accentuation of υπέργηρων, ταχύγηρως, and βαθύγηρως, as they are written in some MSS. (Esch. Agam. 79; Aristot. Rhet. 1. 5; Anth. Pal. VI. 247).

Obs. 2 There are some nouns in -ws (as Néκws) or -ovs (as 'Inσoûs), chiefly foreign, and not belonging to this class, which retain the w or ov throughout, thus:

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General Remarks on the Second Declension.

171 Dialects: (a) The gen. sing. in Æolic, Doric, and bucolic Greek ends in -w; in the Thessalian dialect in -o for -oo; in the epic and lyric both in -ov and in -oo, and in -wo from nouns in -ws; in new Ionic in -ov, and in proper names sometimes in -ew, as in Βάττεω, Κροίσεω.

(6) The dat. sing. in Æolic ends in -w without iota subscript.

(7) The gen. and dat. dual in epic Greek end in -ouv.

(8) The gen. pl. sometimes ends in -ewv or -awv, as from a by-form of the first declension.

(e) The dat. pl. is -os or -otot in all dialects, and even Plato uses the longer form.

(5) The accus. pl. in Doric and Boeotic ends in -ws or -os, the latter omitting the v of ovs, as in ès for eis èvs.

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(n) The contraction of nouns in -oos, -eov does not generally appear in Homer and the Ionic writers, though vóos is contracted in Od. x. 240, and though xeμáppovs is written, probably for Xeíμappos, in Il. XI. 493. The Doric contracts -eo into -ev.

(0) The ending -aos is sometimes written -nos in epic and lyric Greek: thus we have Evvnos in Il. vII. 468, xxiii. 747, and 'Aupiápnos in Pind. Nem. IX. 30.

THIRD OR CONSONANTAL DECLENSION.

172 To this declension belong all those forms which end in a consonant, and in - or -v, considered as residuary states of the guttural and labial elements of the digamma.

173 This declension recedes from the primitive type in the following particulars only. The genitive singular ends in -os. The accusative singular generally substitutes -ă for the original - (according to 85, 107), the exceptions being certain nouns in - and -v (below, 187, 188), and a particular form of the dental nouns (below, 180). The plural accusative is consequently -ăs. The nominative plural of masculine and feminine nouns is -es for

-σες.

174 Neuter nouns generally exhibit the uninflected form in the nominative and accusative; a characteristic dental is omitted or changed into -s.

175 Apparent anomalies in this declension result from the assimilation or absorption of the final consonant of the uninflected form, which may usually be recovered by removing from the genitive singular its termination -os. The exceptions to this rule are confined to the neuter nouns in which the characteristic is a dental, omitted or represented by a sibilant, and those in -v or -. In the former, the uninflected form is either derived from the genitive, or must be inferred from analogy. In the latter it is furnished by the vocative.

The following table gives the nominative, vocative, genitive, and crude form of all types of nouns in the third declension. It will be observed that the nominative is the same as the vocative in every noun which does not include in its termination 7, 8 (in maîd-s only), v, p, or v; and in all neuter nouns and

participles, excepting among the latter ἄρχων and κρείων, which, when used as substantives in the sense of "ruler," make their vocative in -ov, as ἄρχον, κρεῖον.

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