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176 The following are the main rules for the gender according
to the terminations in this declension :
1 Masculine: (α) Without exception the words with the endings -āv, -as (gen. -avos and -αντος), -ευς and -υν.
(3) Most of the words with the endings -ην, ηρ, της (gen. -ητος), -ειρ, -ους, -υρ, -ων (gen. -ωνος and -οντος), -ωρ and -ως (gen. -ωτος and -wos).
Exceptions (besides those of which the gender is determined by the signification): (1) In -ην, ἡ φρήν, ὁ, ἡ ἀδήν. (2) In -ηρη ἡ γαστήρ, ἡ κήρ, ἀήρ and αιθήρ (in the poets), ἡ ῥαιστήρ; and all those contracted from -εαρ, which are neuter, as τὸ ἦρ, τὸ κῆρ. (3) In -ης, all derived substantives in -οτηs and -υτης, which are feminine, as ἡ νεότης, ἡ ὀξύτης, also ἡ ἐσθής, i.e. στολή. (4) In -ειρ, ἡ χείρ. (5) In -ους, τὸ οὖς. (6) In -υρ, τὸ πῦρ. (7) In -ων, ἡ ἁλών, ἡ βλήχων οι γλήχων, ἡ μήκων, ἡ τρήρων, and ὁ, ἡ αὐλών, κώδων. (8) In -ωρ, τὸ ἔλδωρ, τὸ ἕλωρ, τὸ πέλωρ, τὸ σκώρ, τὸ τέκμωρ, τὸ ὕδωρ. (9) In -ως, τὸ φώς, ἡ δώς.
2 Feminine: (α) Without exception the words with the endings -avs, -w, -ws (gen. -oos).
(3) Most of the words with the endings -as (gen. -αδος), -εις, τις (-ιν), -us and -ων (gen. -ovos).
Exceptions: (1) In -as, the adject. are common, as ὁ, ἡ λογάς, φυγάς, &c. (2) In -εις, ὁ κτείς. (3) In -ις (-ιν), ὁ κίς, ὁ δελφίς οι δελφίν, ὁ, ἡ θίς, ὁ ἰκτίν, ὁ λῖς, ὁ ὄφις, ὁ ὄρχις, ὁ τελμίς, ὁ κύρβις, ὁ γλάνις, ὁ, ἡ ἔχις, ὁ, ἡ κόρις. (4) In -υς, ὁ βότρυς, ὁ θρήνος, ὁ ἰχθύς, ὁ μῦς, ὁ νέκυς, ὁ πέλεκυς, ὁ πῆχυς, ὁ στάχυς. (5) In -ων, ὁ ἄκμων, ὁ κάνων, ὁ, ἡ κίων.
3 The words with the ending - are partly masculine and partly feminine; those in - are all masculine, with the exception of ἡ καλαῦροψ, ἡ λαῖλαψ, ἡ ὄψ, ἡ φλέψ, ἡ χέρνιψ, ἡ κατῆλιψ.
4 Neuter: (α) Without exception those with the endings -a, -ăv, -i, -ev, -es, -ov, -op, -os, and -v.
(6) Those with the endings -ap and -as (gen. -aтos and -aos), with the exception of ὁ ψάρ, ὁ λᾶς.
177 Nouns of the third declension may be arranged according to their characteristics, that is, according to the letters which terminate their crude or uninflected forms.
a. Labial Nouns.
The characteristic and nominative case-ending are always
included in ψ:
ἡ φλέψ, “the vein.”
Root, φλεξ-, φλεβ-, or φλυ-, “to bubble up,” or "gush forth."
Το ἡ λαῖλαψ, λαίλαπ-ος, “ the storm ;” ἡ κατῆλιψ, κατήλιφ-ος,
b. Guttural Nouns.
These nouns, with the exception of γυνή for γυναίξ = γυνα-κίς, express the characteristic and nominative case-ending together by -ξ: ὁ κόραξ, “ the raven,” for κόρακ-ς; ἡ πτέρυξ, for πτέρυγος, “ the wing;” and ἡ θρίξ, " the hair,” for τρίχες. In ὁ λάρυγξ, λάρυγγος, “the larynx,” and ὁ, ἡ λύγξ, λυγκός, “the lynx,” an euphonic nasal, represented by y (above, 18, a), is inserted before the charac
teristic y or x.
The irregularity in the declension and accentuation (51, c. 6) of γυνή is explained by an hyperthesis of . (104, 110, (6)), as the following comparison will show:
In these nouns the dental characteristic is always omitted before the nominative -s (above, 92), and when r precedes the characteristic it is combined with the s, as in the guttural declension: ἡ λαμπάς, “ the lamp,” for λαμπάδες; ὁ, ἡ παῖς, “ the child,” for παῖδες; ἡ ἐλπίς, “ the hope,” for ἐλπίδες; ἡ χάρις, " the grace," for χάριτος; ἡ δαίς, “ the feast,” for δαίτες; ἡ κλείς, “ the key," for κλείδας; ἡ χλαμύς, “ the cloak, for χλαμύδας; ὁ, ἡ ὄρνις, “ the bird,” for ὄρνιθος; ἡ κόρυς, “ the helmet,” for κόρυθ-ς; ὁ ἄναξ, “ the king,” for ἄνακτος; ἡ νύξ, " the night,” for νύκτας; ἡ ἕλμινς, “ the worm, for ἕλμινθ-ς; ἡ δάμαρ, “the wife,” for δάμαρτος; ὁ λέων, “ the lion,” for λέοντος; ὁ γίγας, “ the giant," for γίγαντος; ὁ πούς, “ the foot,” for πόδες; ὁ ὁδούς, “ the tooth,” for ὀδόντες ; ὁ πλακόεις, “ the fat cake,” for πλακόεντος, contracted into πλακοῦς for πλακοῦντας (210); ὁ μύκης, “ the mushroom,” for μύκητες; ἡ λευκότης, “ the whiteness,” for λευκότητες; ὁ γέλως, " the laughter,” for γέλωτος; ἡ Πάρνης, “ a mountain in Attica,” for Πάρνηθος; ἡ Τίρυνς, “ the city Tiryns,” for Τίρυνθ-ς.