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176 The following are the main rules for the gender according

to the terminations in this declension :

1 Masculine: (α) Without exception the words with the endings -āv, -as (gen. -avos and -αντος), -ευς and -υν.

(3) Most of the words with the endings -ην, ηρ, της (gen. -ητος), -ειρ, -ους, -υρ, -ων (gen. -ωνος and -οντος), -ωρ and -ως (gen. -ωτος and -wos).

Exceptions (besides those of which the gender is determined by the signification): (1) In -ην, ἡ φρήν, ὁ, ἡ ἀδήν. (2) In -ηρη ἡ γαστήρ, ἡ κήρ, ἀήρ and αιθήρ (in the poets), ἡ ῥαιστήρ; and all those contracted from -εαρ, which are neuter, as τὸ ἦρ, τὸ κῆρ. (3) In -ης, all derived substantives in -οτηs and -υτης, which are feminine, as ἡ νεότης, ἡ ὀξύτης, also ἡ ἐσθής, i.e. στολή. (4) In -ειρ, ἡ χείρ. (5) In -ους, τὸ οὖς. (6) In -υρ, τὸ πῦρ. (7) In -ων, ἡ ἁλών, ἡ βλήχων οι γλήχων, ἡ μήκων, ἡ τρήρων, and ὁ, ἡ αὐλών, κώδων. (8) In -ωρ, τὸ ἔλδωρ, τὸ ἕλωρ, τὸ πέλωρ, τὸ σκώρ, τὸ τέκμωρ, τὸ ὕδωρ. (9) In -ως, τὸ φώς, ἡ δώς.

2 Feminine: (α) Without exception the words with the endings -avs, -w, -ws (gen. -oos).

(3) Most of the words with the endings -as (gen. -αδος), -εις, τις (-ιν), -us and -ων (gen. -ovos).

Exceptions: (1) In -as, the adject. are common, as ὁ, ἡ λογάς, φυγάς, &c. (2) In -εις, ὁ κτείς. (3) In -ις (-ιν), ὁ κίς, ὁ δελφίς οι δελφίν, ὁ, ἡ θίς, ὁ ἰκτίν, ὁ λῖς, ὁ ὄφις, ὁ ὄρχις, ὁ τελμίς, ὁ κύρβις, ὁ γλάνις, ὁ, ἡ ἔχις, ὁ, ἡ κόρις. (4) In -υς, ὁ βότρυς, ὁ θρήνος, ὁ ἰχθύς, ὁ μῦς, ὁ νέκυς, ὁ πέλεκυς, ὁ πῆχυς, ὁ στάχυς. (5) In -ων, ὁ ἄκμων, ὁ κάνων, ὁ, ἡ κίων.

3 The words with the ending - are partly masculine and partly feminine; those in - are all masculine, with the exception of ἡ καλαῦροψ, ἡ λαῖλαψ, ἡ ὄψ, ἡ φλέψ, ἡ χέρνιψ, ἡ κατῆλιψ.

4 Neuter: (α) Without exception those with the endings -a, -ăv, -i, -ev, -es, -ov, -op, -os, and -v.

(6) Those with the endings -ap and -as (gen. -aтos and -aos), with the exception of ὁ ψάρ, ὁ λᾶς.

177 Nouns of the third declension may be arranged according to their characteristics, that is, according to the letters which terminate their crude or uninflected forms.

.

178

a. Labial Nouns.

The characteristic and nominative case-ending are always

included in ψ:

ἡ φλέψ, “the vein.”

Root, φλεξ-, φλεβ-, or φλυ-, “to bubble up,” or "gush forth."

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Το ἡ λαῖλαψ, λαίλαπ-ος, “ the storm ;” ἡ κατῆλιψ, κατήλιφ-ος,

"the staircase."

179

σε

b. Guttural Nouns.

66

These nouns, with the exception of γυνή for γυναίξ = γυνα-κίς, express the characteristic and nominative case-ending together by -ξ: ὁ κόραξ, “ the raven,” for κόρακ-ς; ἡ πτέρυξ, for πτέρυγος, “ the wing;” and ἡ θρίξ, " the hair,” for τρίχες. In ὁ λάρυγξ, λάρυγγος, “the larynx,” and ὁ, ἡ λύγξ, λυγκός, “the lynx,” an euphonic nasal, represented by y (above, 18, a), is inserted before the charac

teristic y or x.

Κ.

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The irregularity in the declension and accentuation (51, c. 6) of γυνή is explained by an hyperthesis of . (104, 110, (6)), as the following comparison will show:

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In these nouns the dental characteristic is always omitted before the nominative -s (above, 92), and when r precedes the characteristic it is combined with the s, as in the guttural declension: ἡ λαμπάς, “ the lamp,” for λαμπάδες; ὁ, ἡ παῖς, “ the child,” for παῖδες; ἡ ἐλπίς, “ the hope,” for ἐλπίδες; ἡ χάρις, " the grace," for χάριτος; ἡ δαίς, “ the feast,” for δαίτες; ἡ κλείς, “ the key," for κλείδας; ἡ χλαμύς, “ the cloak, for χλαμύδας; ὁ, ἡ ὄρνις, “ the bird,” for ὄρνιθος; ἡ κόρυς, “ the helmet,” for κόρυθ-ς; ὁ ἄναξ, “ the king,” for ἄνακτος; ἡ νύξ, " the night,” for νύκτας; ἡ ἕλμινς, “ the worm, for ἕλμινθ-ς; ἡ δάμαρ, “the wife,” for δάμαρτος; ὁ λέων, “ the lion,” for λέοντος; ὁ γίγας, “ the giant," for γίγαντος; ὁ πούς, “ the foot,” for πόδες; ὁ ὁδούς, “ the tooth,” for ὀδόντες ; ὁ πλακόεις, “ the fat cake,” for πλακόεντος, contracted into πλακοῦς for πλακοῦντας (210); ὁ μύκης, “ the mushroom,” for μύκητες; ἡ λευκότης, “ the whiteness,” for λευκότητες; ὁ γέλως, " the laughter,” for γέλωτος; ἡ Πάρνης, “ a mountain in Attica,” for Πάρνηθος; ἡ Τίρυνς, “ the city Tiryns,” for Τίρυνθ-ς.

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