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Biblical Illustrations.

(JAN. « who were watching their flocks, them. Near those ruins they were making a great noise, singing and obliged to pass a considerable part rejoicing about many fires which of the night, not without suffering they had made in the plain, and a greatly from the cold, which was as number of dogs, who, perceiving violent and sharp as the heat of the our being near to them, did not day had been burning. He goes cease from growling, barking, and on, “ I am sure I shook, as in the giving us apprehension of being dis- depth of winter, more than two or covered, and falling into the hands three full hours;" to which he of these robbers."

adds, their being quite wetted with Perhaps it may be thought that a rime extremely thick and cold, These fires, and all this noise, might which fell upon them all night. To be made to intimidate beasts of this he subjoins, that the worst was, prey, which they might be appre- that they were in the hands of four hensive were about, and watching or five fishermen, who did nothing an opportunity of making depreda- but throw their nets into the sea, tions on their flocks; it is possible often with no success, in the meanit might be so. The warmth how. while roasting us in the day-time in ever of these fires must have been the sun, and almost making us to comfortable to themselves, who were perish with cold in the night, withwatching in the open air, since out at all getting forward. From Doubdan complaius of his lodging the same. that night at Rama, where the pro

Gen. xvi. 12. curator of the Holy Land did not And he will be a wild man; his hand will treat them with the greatest tender be against every man, and every man's ness, “ but contented himself with hand against him. putting us into a miserable room,

“ About midnight (the soldiers where there were only the four being in the head of the cara. walls, giving us nothing but a mat van,) the Arabs assailed our rear; to lie upon, a stone for a pillow, the clamour was great, and the pasand no coverlid but the broken ciel- sengers, together with their leaders, ing, which exposed us to the wea- fled from their camels; I and my ther, which was not the most favour- companion imagining the noise to able at that season, as the nights be only an encouragement unto are always extremely cool." Yet one another, were left alone, yet the heat of the preceding day was preserved from violence. They carso great, that it was assigned as one ried away with them divers mules reason why they waited some hours and asses, laden with drugs, and at Joppa, in a poor Greek hovel, abandoned by their owners, not before they set out for Rama. daring to stay too long, nor cumber

But the account he gives of his themselves with too much luggage, situation at Tyre, is much stronger for fear of the soldiers. These are still. On the 16th of May they descended of Ishmael, called also found the heat near Tyre so great, Saracens of Sara, which signifieth a that though they took their repast desert, and saken, to inbabit; and on the grass, under a large tree, by not only of the place, but of the the side of a small river, yet he manner of their lives, for Sarack complains of their being burnt up imports as much as a thief, being alive, and they were obliged to given from the beginning as now, uncontinue in that situation until six to theft and rapine. They dwell in or seven in the afternoon, when they tents, which they remove like walkreturned to their bark; but the ing cities, for opportunity of prey wind failing, and the seamen not to and benefit of pasturage. They be persuaded to row, they could acknowledge no sovereign : not get no further than the rocks and worth the conquering, nor can they ruins of Tyre, when night overtook be conquered, retiring to places im. passable for armies, by reason of even stones and iron. When they the rolling sands and penury of all have laid their eggs (whereof there things: a pation from the begin. are great numbers to be sold in ning unmixed with others, boasting Cairo,) they leave them, and unof their nobility, and at this day mindful where, sit on those they hating all mechanical sciences. next meet with.” The Same. They hang about the skirts of the

Jer. xxxi. 15. habitable countries, and having rob- Thns saith the Lord; A voice was heard bed, retire with a marvellous cele- in Ramah, lamentation and bitter weep. rity. Those that are not detested ing; Rabel weeping for her children, persons, frequent the neighbouring

refused to be comforted for her children,

because they were not. villages for provision, and traffic

St. Matt. ii. 17, 18. without molestation, they not daring to intreat them evilly. They

" The day following we rode toare of mean statures, raw-boned,

wards Bethlehem, which stands tawney, having feminine voices, of

about six miles south from Jerusaa swift and noiseless pace, behind

lem. Going out at the gate of you, ere aware of them. Their re.

Joppa, and turning on the left hand ligion is Mahometanism, glorying in

by the foot of Mount Sion, aloft on

whose uttermost angle stood the that the impostor was their coun.

Tower of David (whose ruins are tryman, their language extending as far as that religion extendeth. They

yet extant,) of a wonderful strength ride on swift horses, not mis-shapen,

and admirable beauty, adorned with though lean, and patient of labour :

shields, and the arms of the mighty. they feed them twice a day with the

Below, on the right hand of the way milk of camels; nor are they es

in our passage, is a fountain, north of teemed, if not of sufficient speed to

which the valley is crossed with a ru. overtake an ostrich.” Sandy's Tra

inous aqueduct, which conveyed water rels, 8c.

unto the temple of Solomon. As

cending the opposite mountain, we Job xxxix. 13—18.

passed through a country hilly and Gavest thou wings and feathers unto the stony, yet not utterly forsaken of ostrich?

the viue, though only planted by Which leaveth her eggs in the earth, and Christians, in many places producwarmeth them in dust,

ing corn, here shadowed with the And forgetteth that the foot may crush

fig-tree, and there with the olive. them, or that the wild beast may break

About a mile further west of the them2 She is hardened against her young ones, as

way, and a little off, stands the though they were not ber's: her labour sepulchre of Rachel (by the Scripis in vain without fear;

ture affirmed to have been buried Because God bath deprived her of wisdom, hereabout,) if the entireness thereof

neither hath he imparted to her under do not confute the imputed anti

standing. What time she lifteth up herself on high, she

quity, yet kept perhaps in repair by

her offspring, as a monument of scorneth the horse and his rider.

venerable memory. Below it, on “There are store of ostriches in the the side of a mountain, stands the deserts; they keep in flocks, and oft ruins of that Rama, whereof the affright the stranger passenger with Prophet Jeremiah speaks." The their fearful screeches, appearing Same. afar off like a troop of horsemen.

2 Sam, xxii, 15. Their bodies are too heavy to be And David longed, and said, Oh that one supported with their wings, which,

would give me drink of the water of the useless for flight, do serve them

well of Beth-lehem, which is by the gate, only to run the more speedily. They

“Within half a mile of Bethlehem, are the simplest of fowls, and sym separated from the same by a valley, bols of folly; what they find they and a little on the left hand of the swallow,' though without delight, way, are the cisterns of David, whereof he so much desired to the wife of Kaleb, a city of David, drink ; and when they brought him the long possession of his ancestors, of the waters, he refused it." The and not the least amongst the Same.

Princes of Juda, seated on the ut. Micah v. 2.

most of the ridge of a hill ; stretchBut thou Beth-lehem Ephratab, though

ing east and west in a happy soil,. thou be little among the thousands of

and most delicate prospect. Judah, yet out of thee shall be come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Is. Of cities greater than the great, rael; whose goings forth have been from O Bethlehem, in the happy birth of old, from everlasting.

Of God and man, from heaven's high seat And now we are come to Bethle. Come to incorporate with earth. hem, first called Ephrat, of Ephrata,

The Same.


No. 25.- Edward the Second character of the King. He annulled

the election of an Archbishop of The reign of the second Edward is Canterbury, and appointed another famous for nothing but its calami- in bis stead ; pretending that the ties. The repeated triumphs of the appointment had been specially reScotch, and the repeated rebellions served to himself, before the death of the Barons, form a small part of of Winchelsey. These reservations the misfortunes by which the King constituted. one of the principal and the kingdom were oppressed. grievances of the times. Whenever Year after year we read of famine the Pope thought proper to declare and pestilence. The cattle were that he had reserved any preferment carried away by murrain-bands of to himself, the ordinary right of robbers set the law at defiance ;- patronage went into abeyance. The the resources of the people seem to custom proved so convenient, that have been suddenly exhausted, and prebendal stalls in every diocese a nation which was recently powerwere seized upon this pretence, and ful and prosperous, became as weak the vacancies filled for the most and as wretched as the monarch by part with foreigners dependent on whom it was governed. The favour. The Pope. Occasionally, however, ites of King Edward prepared the as in the case just mentioned, the way for his downfall. A faithless Court of Rome found it necessary wife contributed her share to bis to strengthen their usurpations by ruin and disgrace: and a violent an alliance with the Crown : and and cruel death concluded the reign the successor of Winchelsey, though of one who was no bad general re- deriving his appointment exclusively presentative of his age.

from the Pope, was the confidenUnder-such circumstances it was tial minister and servant of King not to be expected that the Church Edward. should flourish; nor are we sur. The distinguished ecclesiastics prised at finding that there are few in this reign were not numerous, proofs of efficiency, improvement, and the honours that were conferred or good-government, and many in- upon the most deserving of them stances of superstition, neglect, aud exhibit the gross ignorance and ignorance.

superstition of the people. ArchThe power of the Pope was ma- bishop Winchelsey has received a terially increased by the unsettled high character from his biogra-, ' state of the times, and the feeble phers, and he evidently enjoyed it

from his contemporaries. During their own soil. The result was a the life of Edward the First he was civil war; during which Winchelsey exposed to many troubles; banish- adhered faithfully to the Barons, ed by the King, suspended by the who in their turn indignantly rePope, and rescued with great diffi- jected the proffered mediation of culty from the hands of his enemies. the Pope, and told his legates that These persecutions originated in they had honest and learned BiWinchelsey's attachment to the Ba- shops of their own, by whose counrons, who ipsisted upon setting sels alone they would consent to be bounds to the power of the Crown guided. It is certain therefore that and upon the observance of Magna the Archbishop, 'as well as a large Charta. The immediate occasion proportion of his suffragans, es. of the quarrel was the refusal of poused the cause of the malconois Provincial Synod to grant King tents; and it is probable that his Edward a supply. Their conduct popularity did not suffer from this was excused by appealing to the circumstance. Pope's prohibition : but if this had But whatever may have been his been the Archbishop's real motive, merits as a subject or as a patriot, the matter could not have termi- there can be no question respecting nated in his suspension. The mask his conduct as an ecclesiastic. It was subsequently thrown aside both is extolled by every writer who menby the Primate and the King. Ed. tions it, and it is summed up with ward publicly accused Archbishop good taste and eloquence in an Winchelsey of high-treason, and of Epistle from Drokenesford, Bishop plotting with the discontented Ba. of Bath and Wells, to Walter Rayrons. And, when upon the King's nal, the successor of Winchelsey in decease, the Prelate returned to his the Metropolitan See. “He was a Sec, he became a leader in all the man of holy life and honest conopposition which was made to Ga- versation; of high character and vestone, and is praised by the pure morals; just, chaste, and diliearlier writers for his fidelity to the gent; kind to good men; devout cause of freedom. Firmus exactor and constant in the worship of fuerat regni libertatum,' says Wal. God; true himself, and a lover of singbam. In another passage the truth in others; an indefatigable same historian explains the close disseminator of the Word of God; connection between the civil and notorious, far and near, for his adecclesiastical grievances of the age. herence to the Catholic faith, filling The Earl of Lancaster was the great up his benefices and ecclesiastical leader of the Barons, and his merits dignities with deserving and learned were admitted, and his death de theologians, and preferring them plored, by the weak and ill.advised from no temporal motive, but out Prince against whom he so often of a sincere regard for their merits; took up arms. This nobleman re- a munificent alms-giver, feeling for yolted from Edward at the insti. every one that was in want and migation of his father-in-law the Earl sery, and affording abundant assist. of Lincoln, and the arguments used ance to poor and diligent scholars upon the occasion, were that the of Oxford and Cambridge. No Church was enslaved both by the work of piety and charity was negPope and the King, the people im- lected; many and various were the poverished by tributes and talliages, persecutions which he underwent and reduced from the condition of for defending the rights and liberfree-men to that of slaves; and the ties of the Church, and particularly nobility, who had been formerly re- of his own province of Canterbury. spected throughout Christendom, Constantly withstanding the spoiler insulted by foreigners even on and persecutor, fighting the fight



of a good and unwearied soldier of and lay, and being declared public, Christ, he has been rendered illus. notorious and manifest, the Chapter trious by many plain proofs of his affix their seal to a cony of the provirtues; and it is reported that mira- ceedings. The third letter from the cles, wrought by the Almighty for Prior and Chapter to the Earl of his sake, have been and are a Lancaster informs him, that a combright attestation to his worth.” mission has issued to the Bishops

The miracles thus reported, form of London, Chichester, and Roa curious chapter in Archbishop chester, requiring them to make Winchelsey's history. They were farther inquiry into the miracles gravely examined a short time after connected with Archbishop Winhis decease, and the result has been chelsey, and that until the result of preserved in the Canterbury Re- their investigation was made known, gister, and published in the Con- the Chapter could proceed no cilia of Wilkins. The affair com- farther in the business. Of this mences somewhat suspiciously, commission nothing more is known; Three letters are preserved from the but there is a Confirmation by the Chapter of Canterbury to the Earl Chapter, which appears to refer to of Lancaster. From these it ap- it, and declares that the facts repears that the Earl, the leader of ported by the Bishop of Rochester Winchelsey's political party, re- are sufficiently proved, and are con. quests information respecting the trary to the ordinary course of namiracles wrought by God in honour ture. of their deceased Prelate, as well From these repeated confirmaduring his life as since his death. tions it would naturally be supposed The Prior ayd Chapter of Christ that the Prior, &c. believed in the Church reply in the first instance, miracles; and the supposition is that they cannot yet certify any, strengthened when we hear that thing upon the subject, but that in they petitioned the Pope for the quiry shall be made before a no- canonization of their late Primate/ tary, assisted by one of the Earl's. But that petition has been pre chaplains. Such inquiry was ac- served, and it states, that although cordingly instituted, and the parti-, the miracles which, according to culars of the reputed miracles in the pious credulity of the people, vestigated. By far the greater num God has wrought for Winehelsey's ber were wrought at the tomb of the sake, are budding and flourishing Archbishop, and consisted of re- before their eyes and ears, yet that storing raving women to their senses, they wish to submit these proofs of curing blindness, lameness, and superior sanctity to the examination other bodily infirmities. The only of the Apostolic See. They theremiracle which Winchelsey was fore request the Pope to inform him.' stated to have wrought during life, self on the subject, to reeeive the was of the nature of exorcism. An evidence of the Prelates, Nobles, adultress, being interrogated re- and other respectable persons, and specting her crimes, perjured her- to decree the canonization of Archself, and was afterwards, as she sup. bishop Robert of Winchelsey, an posed, possessed by an evil spirit. event that must contribute to the The Archbishop being on his visita. exaltation of the Catholic Faith, tion, received this woman as a pe. the increase of divine worship, the nitent, heard her confession, and excitement of more fervent devogave her absolution. Upon which tion, and a more speedy reformation she was relieved from the possession of the entire realm of England. under which she had ' laboured. This singular specimen of artful These circumstances being duly at- suggestion is followed up after an tested by witnesses, both clerical interval of five years, by a similar

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