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his men, but he adopts various stratagems, and, at last, all the legions opposing him lay down their arms; he makes lenient terms with them, and in forty days the campaign is over. The general he left at Marseilles is also victorious over the fleet which was assisting to hold the city for Pompey.
Further particulars are given of this siege in the second book. We are told that all the inhabitants were seen by Cæsar's troops, who were encamped on high ground, praying for the help of the gods; and that, after the defeat of their ships, they still fought with valour, expecting no mercy should the city be taken. They discharged from the engines on their walls iron-headed poles twelve feet long, whilst Cæsar's troops erected a lofty tower, by means of which, and a covered way, they effect a breach, when a truce is made until Cæsar shall arrive. The Massilians, however, watch their opportunity, and set fire to their assailants' works, but they are again worsted, and are now compelled to surrender. Cæsar carries off their treasure and ships to Rome, but spares their lives, simply leaving two of his legions among them. Before quitting Spain he had been to Andalusia, to settle with another Pompeian general, and to make things pleasant with the towns there. In the meantime matters were not going smoothly for him in Africa. His young lieutenant Curio was distrusted by his troops, and they were also in fear of Juba, the King of Numidia, who was Pompey's friend. Curio made a speech to his legions, in which he appeals to their honour, and reminds them of what they have helped Cæsar to do. He then leads them to attack the forces who side with Pompey; but Juba craftily sends a small body of cavalry to assist them, with which Curio thinks he can cope, and then falls upon him with all his army. Curio is slain, the remnant of Cæsar's troops make for their ships, but they are claimed by Juba, who kills most of them, and sends a few, including two senators, as prisoners to his own kingdom.
Cæsar commences his last book by recording that, having nominated a consul to act with him, he remained at Rome as Dictator for eleven days, and then went to
Brindisi on the track of Pompey, the particulars of whose forces and preparations he gives in detail. He tells his own legions the work he has planned for them, and, crossing with a portion of them into Illyria, forms his camp so near to that of Pompey, with only a river intervening, that the soldiers can talk together. After a fruitless proposal of peace, and the arrival of the remainder of his army under Marc Antony, he endeavours to win over the Greeks to his side, but they hesitate, and he resolves that he will force his rival to fight. Pompey had entrenched himself on a rocky promontory, called Petra, which gave him access to the coast; whilst Cæsar, who commanded the surrounding country, endeavoured to surround him, and cut off his supply of water. Constant fights take place between the two armies, and Cæsar mentions that one of his officers had two hundred and thirty holes made by arrows in his shield. Then two Gauls deserted to Pompey, who, having learnt from them the plan of Cæsar's fortifications, landed a large force by night between his lines, and a total rout ensued, Cæsar losing nearly a thousand men, and thirty-two standards. The Pompeians were so elated with this success that they thought no more of carrying on the war, and Cæsar offers a long apology for his defeat. He, however, makes a speech to his men, and withdraws with them into Thessaly -whither Pompey had gone to join his forces with another army from the east-and siezes the Greek towns of Gomphi and Metropolis. Labienus, one of his generals who has gone over to Pompey, tells him that Cæsar's legions are not the same who conquered Gaul and Germany, but new levies, and that he must be victorious. The battle-field is now chosen near the town of Pharsala, on the banks of the river Eunipius. Pompey's united forces consisted of forty-five thousand fighting men of all arms, whilst Cæsar had only twenty-two thousand. The conflict is minutely described, and Cæsar acknowledges the bravery of his adversaries; but, notwithstanding their overwhelming numbers, and their clouds of horsemen and archers, they were driven back in panic, soldiers and senators, to the shelter of the mountains, Pompey
fled to his camp, and thence to the shore, where he got on board a provision vessel, and was heard to complain that he had been betrayed by those from whose hands he expected victory. The following day Cæsar compels the fugitives to surrender at discretion, and gives them their lives. He declares that he lost only two hundred men, whilst of Pompey's army fifteen thousand were killed, and twenty-four thousand surrendered. Thus was the battle of Pharsala won, and the Roman Republic brought to an end.
Cæsar now thought that Pompey was to be pursued to the neglect of all other things; but, having fled to Egypt, he was murdered by the king's attendants ere he landed. In his last seven chapters, however, Cæsar records how with three thousand of his soldiers he followed him, first to Cyprus and then to Alexandria, where he assisted Cleopatra to depose her brother Ptolemy, and burnt the Egyptian fleet, which things, he says, were the beginning of the Alexandrine war; and with these words his commentaries end.
DIED B.C. 43.
LTHOUGH ancient, if tested by the lapse of years, the times of Cicero, so far as concerns the habits of life, the ways of thinking, the politics, and the tastes of the Romans of his day, were wonderfully like our own; and have, therefore, more interest for a modern reader than classic history generally.
After receiving a good education, Cicero's early manhood was spent in studying for the bar, and in the usual military service. He began to practise as an advocate at the age of twenty-five, and, having succeeded almost too quickly, he retired to Athens for the benefit of his health. There he met his old school-fellow Atticus, with whom he afterwards corresponded for many years, and nearly four hundred of his letters have been preserved. He also travelled in Asia Minor. On his return to Rome, he increased his reputation as a pleader, which led to his holding several public offices, and obtaining a seat in the Senate. Whilst acting as a quæstor in Sicily, he earned a great name for ability and honourable conduct, which so elated him that he tells us how, on landing at Puteoli, on his way home, during the fashionable season there, he was quite disconcerted to find that his doings were no longer in everybody's mouth, and the valuable lesson it taught him. His next public service
was the impeachment of Verres, who was charged with crimes and misdemeanours in his province. One of his offences was that he had scourged a Roman citizen, and Cicero's denunciation of him, in the speech he prepared for the occasion, is considered the most magnificent piece of declamation in any language. But, though handed down to us, it was never spoken, Verres having retired to Marseilles, and allowed judgment to go against him by default. The result of the trial, however, raised Cicero to the leadership of the Roman bar, and thus gratified his jealousy of his rival Hortensius.
In the prime of his manhood he was elected the first of the two consuls for the year rendered famous by the conspiracy of Catiline, whose character he graphically sketched in defending a young friend who had fallen under the conspirator's influence. He also delivered a most eloquent oration against him in the Senate-house, to which Catiline attempted to reply, but he was silenced with the cries of 'traitor,' and the same night joined his fellow-insurgents. Several of them who had been seized. were strangled by Cicero's authority, and for this prompt action he was hailed by the people as the 'Father of his country.' Catiline soon afterwards fell fighting in the struggle with the legions sent against his rebel army. Cicero was now the foremost man in Rome, and he vainly showed that no one had a more profound appreciation of his services than himself. When, however, he was about to retire from the consulship a tribune reminded him that he had put Roman citizens to death without a trial. He was now a very wealthy man, with a noble town mansion, and several country villas, his favourite resort being one at Tusculum, where he indulged his luxurious tastes, and took special pleasure in his library, without which he said a house was a body without a soul. He had his callers too, though in his letters to Atticus he complains that some of them are bores; and to another friend he says, Cling to the city, and live in her light; all employment elsewhere is obscure for those who have abilities to make them famous at Rome.' Other letters prove that he was very happy at this time in his family;