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the manual operation, is either gentle or rough; food is either useful or noxious; the exercise is either violent or gentle.
Again: though there be numbered 360 practical modes of curing diseases, they may be reduced to these three: examination of the patient (or of the symptoms of the disease). Rules for curing such and such disease. And the manner in which the remedy is applied.
There is taught also of preservatives for a physician, to keep himself safe from any malignant infection from a patient.
27. Recommendation of this treatise to the care of the audience, by the teacher, (S1-IAKYA.) Classification and moral application of the above enumerated 404 diseases.
The volume concludes with an account of the mode in which this treatise on medicine (consisting of four parts) reached Tibet, which is briefly incorporated in the introductory remarks.
II.—Journal of a Tour through the Island of Rambree, with a Geological Sketch of the Country, and Brief Account of the Customs, 8,-c. of its Inhabitants. By Lieut. WM. FOLEY.
[Read at the Meeting of the 2nd Oct. l834.]
The Island of Ramlrree, or Yamawaa'di* as it is termed by the Burmas, is not without those features common to the whole of Arracan._ The same high land, covered with a thick and impenetrable jungle, every where presents itself to the view of one approaching the coast; and the eye strives in vain to discover a diversity of feature in some cleared spot, which would indicate the existence of a cultivation only to be found in the interior of the island. It was with the view of throwing some light upon the geology of Rambree that I prepared this Journal for transmission to the Asiatic Society; a consciousness of my present superficial information on many points connected with the geology of the island would have induced me to reserve this communication for a more favourable opportunity, wasl not apprehensive that such a season would never arrive, and that the little leisurel now have at my disposal must of necessity be devoted to duties of a
* In the year 1148, Mugh series, two years subsequent to the conquest of the country by the Burmas, Arracan was divided into four distinct provinces,each subject toa separate jurisdiction. They were termed thus, 1. Dwynawaddi (Arracan Proper). 2. Yamawaddi (Rambree Island). 3. Megawaddi (Cheduba). 4. Dorawaddi (Sandoway). The proper name for Cheduba is Ma’0ng. The word Cheduba must have been introduced by the Bengalis, I fancy, for it is un
known to the Mughs. The same may be said of Akyab, which should be called
scription in vol. iii. page 209, 213.—En.]
professional nature. To a brief geological description of the island, I have added such other matter connected with the condition, and manners of the inhabitants as appeared deserving of mention, either from its novelty, or the value it may possess in the scale of utility.
With respect to the ge0logy_,of Rambree, I fear there will be found little that is new or interesting; the rocks that have been hitherto observed are chiefly of the newest kind, or owe their origin to volcanic agency : these with the alluvial and diluvial deposits will be found to cover the greater part of the island. Several mountainous ranges occur in Rambree, and their general direction appears to be from N. N. W. to S. S. E. The elevation of these above the plain is not very great, varying from 500 to 1500 feet for the principal extent, and not exceeding 3000 feet at the highest point. Other smaller hills are seen to branch ofi" from the larger ranges, forming those basin-like cavities that afford space for the rice cultivation.
Commencing with Khyouk P113/00*, situated on the N. W. point of the Island of Rambree, I shall proceed from thence along the western coast, passing in gradation to such other places as I may have visited, or have become familiar to me from the report of others.
The military station of Khyouk Pk]/oo, which takes its name from a village distant three miles from the cantonment, stands upon the verge of a low sandy plain, which extending from the south towards the sea and harbour is bounded on the S. W. by a low sandstone range, and on the E. by a small creek, which separates it from the rich alluvial ground that lies at the base of the Nagadong and Oonkymmg hills. Upon the surface of this plain there exists avegetable mould notexceeding four inches in depth, and this is succeeded by a bed of sand and shingle ; the sand in some instances assuming a grey or greenish appearance, and the shingle in every respect similar to that found upon the beach. At the village of Town;/een, in front of the parade, a chalybeate spring is supposed to exist from the presence of carbonate of iron ;—the sand in this place has a ferruginous aspect, but the space occupied by it is very limited, the ochre appearing at the surface, and invariably succeeded by the grey sand above alluded to.
As has been already observed, a sandstone range extends itself on the S. W. side of the cantonment. There are in fact two ranges running parallel to each other, the interval being taken up with patches of rice cultivation; and both are connected with the reefs extending under the sea to the N. W. and marked off by the Reef Buoy. Taking a direction to the S. E. they are terminated abruptly on the margin of the creek which bounds the station of Khyauk Phyoo oo that quarter. The structure of both is alike throughout; the sandstone occurring in large disintegrated masses, rounded by the weather, and loosely embedded in the argillaceous soil that forms the surface of these hills. Here and there some appearance of st-ratification is observed; the sandstone dipping to the S, W. at an angle of 75 or 80°. This order of stratification is most perceptible on the sea beach. where the ranges in question are united with the reefs. The sandstone is here of a grey colour, of a somewhat laminar structure, and in some places so much decomposed by the action of the water as to approach the nature of an aluminous schist. Progressing with the range, it assumes a brown or yellow colour, is of a fine texture, and occasionally interspersed with minute scales of mica. The surface of these hills being coinposediof a stratum of clay, the ground at their base is continually receiving a deposit of the same nature, affording opportunities for cultivation, and forming a striking contrast with the soil in the immediate vicinity of the cantonment. This alluvial deposit sometimes attains to the consistence of a yellow clay, sufliciently plastic for the fabrication of bricks and earthen vessels. Beyond this sandstone range, and bordering upon the village of Khyouk Phyoo, the ground is still of that low diluvial nature which indicates the transition it has undergone; in some places, intersected by narrow creeks accessible to the tide, and every where covered with a thickjungle of mangroves and marine plants. At the village of Khyoul: Pltyoo there occurs an isolated hill, composed entirely of asoft grey sandstone, which had once formed part of some continued range, and was subsequently torn asunder by the sea on its retiring from the island; it is one of the many instances that may be observed in Rambree of the denudating effects of the waters of the ocean at a period that they were subject to some violent commotion, produced probably by the sudden rise of mountains from beneath.
* Khyoulc Plzyoo, White Stones, (Shingle.)
January 12th, l834.——Leaving Kb]/ouk Pk]/00 at an early hour, and proceeding along the beach with the Saddle and Knot Islands on the right, my route lay towards the villages of Membraan and Kyouprath ,- loose blocks of standstone, rounded by the sea, and apparently forming part of an under-stratum, extending to the Saddle and Knot Islands, cross the beach in several places for the first few miles of the road. The sandstone is of a grey colour, soft, gritty, and frequently intersected with veins of calc-spar ; I observed crystals of iron pyrites on the surface of some of these stones, and red spots on others, perhaps the result of aqueous deposition. The sandstones
in Arracan appear to contain much iron, in different stages of oxida.tion.
Still following the sea-shore, at the base of a long sandstone range, whose utmost elevation above the plain cannot exceed 300 feet, I passed the village of Membraan, the locality of some old Petroleum wells, which I am told no longer afford a suificient supply of oil to induce the working of them. From Membraan to Kyouprath, the road lay along a beautiful beach, covered with afine yellow sand and shingle. I observed the prints of tigers’ feet in several places on the route, and in this place they were particularly numerous. From the circuits the- animals had made on the beach, they would seem to have been sporting with each other by the moonlight; a thing not unusual with the male and female of the Feline species during the season of love. The ground on the left was higher and more open than it had hitherto been on the road, and covered with a fine green sward. Beyond me was the village of Kyouprath, prettily situated on an eminence over the sea-shore, and at no great distance in its rear, the range of sandstone hills, between which and the village I observed a few acres of paddy ground. The bills were in some few places cleared of the forest and underwood, and presented small patches of open ground devoted to the cultivation of cotton. It was near 10 o'clock when I reached Kyouprath, and as my elephants were tired, and it was getting warm, I was not unwilling to make a halt at the place for the remainder of the day. After selecting a spot for the elephants, my next care was to seek quarters for myself; and for this purpose, I requestal the villagers, who had already assembled to have a near view of the Inglee*, to direct me to the house of the Rovagony, or head-man of the village. After my request had been several times repeated, before it was understood, I at length found myself seated in his house. The Ravagony was at work in the field, but his wife, a cheerful-looking woman, was present, and very kindly gave me a mat to lie down upon, some fire for my cheroot, and a fowl for my curry, on the assurance that full payment should be made for every thing received. I fell asleep upon the mat, and did not rise until the sun was nearly down, when I took a stroll upon the beach, and bathed in the sea. A. few blocks of sandstone, and a conglomerate, consisting of a paste of sandstone, with enclosed nodules of a calcareous earth, lay upon the beach ; some of these rocks had a scoriaceous appearance, were encrusted with crystals of iron pyrites, and bore evident marks of igneous origin. Returning to the village, I sat down on the green, to witness a wrestling match between two young Mughs. This is a game that they are very fond of, and I have never seen better wrestlers among any race of people. The vigorous frame of the combatants promised a treat of no ordinary kind, and I was not disappointed ; it was truly astonishing to witness the dexterity of the parties in their endeavours to throw each other. The struggle was long and violent, ere it was terminated by the fall of either party ; it was impossible, however, that both should be declared conquerors, one poor fellow was thrown, and fairly held down at the mercy of the victor. One of my Mahouts, a great stout man, and a native of Chittagong, was present, and had the impudence to speak lightly of the science. He was immediately challenged by a young Mugh, who was far his inferior in size, as well as age. They wrestled, and the Mahout was thrown, once—twice—and three times, to his very great confusion, and the chagrin of his caste. Boxing, wrestling, and the Keeléme, are among the favourite amusements of the Mughs. The latter game is not unlike our “ battledore and shuttlecock,” with this difference, that the ball, which is hollow, and made of cane, is impelled into the air by the foot, instead of by the hand. Half a dozen young men form a circle, and it is the aim of each individual, towards whom the ball falls, to keep it up in the air as long as he can ; not only the foot but the knee is brought into action, much dexterity is displayed, and he that keeps the ball up longest is entitled to the greatest credit. In addition to the games of more general occurrence, the Mughs, like the rest of their neighbours, have their own peculiar festivals, and modes of celebrating them. The principal of these are——
* Inglee, Englishmen, general term for an European.
l. Sangrain-Kyadek*.—This occurs in the month of Tagoo-la, (April,) at the commencement of the new year, and during this season, the games of Rel’:-loundee, and Le‘h-prinedee are held. The former very much resembles what is observed in our own country on Newyear’s-day. The women throw water over the men, who generally return the compliment ; no distinction is paid to rank. The water is thrown indiscriminately, and with an unsparing hand, upon high and low, and all seem determined to enjoy a. season that permits of such unlimited freedom. The Léh-priuedee is the boat-race, which is held at the same time: a number of boats assemble in a broad creek, and start for a certain place, each striving to outstrip the other. The boats are impelled with oars, and those that are light and well manned, have a surprising speed upon the water. The shouts of‘ the rowers, the strains of wild music, and the gay appearance of the boats
* The wholeof these festivals owe their source to some fabulous narrative, preserved in the sacred writings or other books, and religiously believed by an igno. rant and superstitious people. I regret that I am, from my very imperfect acquaintance with the language of this country, debarred an opportunity of transcribing any part of these.