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minor temples surrounding the great edifice at Gyd; and the assertion of our Ceylonese antiquaries, that there are only five Buddhas, is no other than a confusion of the five celestial, with the seven mortal, Buddhas! As I was looking over your Journal, my Newziri painter came into the room. I gave him the catch word, “ Ye Dharma,” and he immediately filled up the sentence, finishing with Tat/ufgata. I then uttered “ teshan cha,” and he completed the doctrine according to the inscription. But it was to no purpose that _I tried to carry him on through DE K6R6s’s ritual complement : he knew it not. After I had explained its meaning to him, he said, the substance of the passage was familiar to him, but that he had been taught to utter the sentiments in other words, which he gave, and in which, by the way, the ordinary Buddhist acceptation of Kushal and its opposite, or Akushal, came out. Kushal is good. Akushal is evil, in a moral or religious sense. Quod licitum vel mandatum : quod illicitum vel prohibitum.
I will presently send you a correct transcript of the words of the inscription, from some old and authentic copy of the Raksha Bhagavati, or Prajnri Paramitti, as you seem to prefer calling it. So will I of DE K6sos’s supplement, so soon as I can lay my hands on the Shurangama Samzidhi, which I do not think I have by me. At all events, I do not at once recognise the name as that of a distinct Bauddha work. Meanwhile, your will notice, that as my draftsman, above spoken of, is no pandit, but a perfectly illiterate craftsman merely, his familiar acquaintance with your inscription may serve to show how perfectly familiar it is to all Buddhists. And here I would observe, by the way, that I have no doubt the inscription on the Dehli, Allahabad, and Behzir pillars is some such cardinal dogma of this faith.
In the “quotations in proof of my sketch of Buddhism," which I sent home last year,I find the following quotation in proof of the Aiswzirika system.
“ All things existent (in the versatile world) proceed from some
-cause; that cause is the Tathzigata (Adi BUDDHA); and that which
is the cause of (versatile) existence is likewise the cause of its total cessation. So said SAKYA Sn~mA*.’ The work from which this passage was extracted is the Bhadra Kalpavaddn.
1 am no competent critic of Sanscrit, but I have competent authority for the assertion, that Dharma, as used in the inscription, means not human actions merely, but all sentient aristences in the three versatile worlds (celestial, terrene, and infernal). Such is its meaning in the extract just given from the Bhadra Kalpavaddn, and also in the famous Ye’ Dharmanitya of the Sam Sahasrika, where the sense is
* The words bracketed are derived from commentators.
even larger, embracing the substance of all inanimate as well as animate entity, thus: “ All things are imperishable," or, “ The universe is eternal,” (without maker or destroyer.) The passagejust quoted from the Sula Saliasrika serves likewise (I am assured) to prove that the signification of 3/6 is not always strictly relative, but often‘ explotive merely : but let that pass.
The points in question undoubtedly are,—e.z'istence in the Pravriltika or versatile world, and cessation of such existence, by translation to the world of Nirvritti ,- and of such translation, animals generally, and not human beings solely, are capable. Witness the deer and the chakwa, which figure so much in Bauddha sculptures l The tales of their advancement to Nirvritti are popularly familiar. The word nirodha signifies, almost universally and exclusively, extinction, or total cessation of versatile existence; a meaning, by the way, which confirms and answers to the interpretation of dliarmoi, by general existences, entities, and not by merely human actions.
It is scarcely worth while to cumber the present question with the further remark that there is a sect of Bauddha philosophers holding opinions which confound conscious actions with universal entities throughout the versatile world, making the latter originate absolutely and physically from the former, (see my remarks on REMUSA1‘ in the Journal, No. 33, p. 431.)
It is not, however, admissible so to render generally received texts, as to make them correspondent to very peculiar schismatic dogmata. “ Dluiranatmika iti dharmti,” the holding, containing, or sustaining, essence (ens) is dharmd. The substratum of all form and quality in the versatile universe, the sustainer of versatile‘ entity, mundane substances and existences, physical and moral, in a word, all things. Such is the general meaning of dharmd. How many other meanings it has, may be seen by reference to a note at the foot of p. 502, No. 34, of your Journal. The root of the word is dhri, to hold. WILs0N’s dictionary gives Nature aSAMERA Smurfs explanation of dllarnui. This is essentially correct, as might be expected from a Bauddha lexicographer.
Note.—If Mr. Honoso1v’s general interpretation of Q1‘; is the true one,
(which seems most probable, though its specification in the sense of moral duties is more agreeable to M. Cso1v1A's supplement)-—its implication, in the present reading, at least, appears manifestly atheistic. For that it cannot mean “ Tathngata or the A’di BUDDHA is the cause,” is evident from the accusative hétfin (which is also plural causas). Even if we were to strike out the word avadat or dha—the former of which is on the inscriptions, and the latter repeated in Ceylon—still some word of that meaning is plainly understood : and this may help to shew that the explication given by the Aisvaraka Buddhists (as though the words were Q?-Qqf aqrqrqg hétus tésham Tathagatas) is a more recent invention,-—and thait the Buddhist system properly recognizes no being superior to the sage expounder of physical and moral causes,—-whose own exertions alone
have raised him tothe highest rank of existences,—the EPICUBUS of this gm“ Oriental system, qui potuit amwm cognoscere cansas, Atque metfis omnes etiuexorabile fatum Subjecit pedibus. _ Wliat is mere figure of speech in the Roman poet, to express the calm dignity of wisdom, becomes religious faith in the east; viz. the elevation of aphilosophical opponent of popular superstition and Brahmanical caste, to the character ofa being supreme over all visible and invisible things, and the object of universal worship.-—W. H. M.
VI.——Description of two new species of Carinaria, lately discovered in the Indian Ocean. By W. H. Benson, Esq. Bengal Civil Service.
Order.—Nucleobranche, Blainville.-—Heleropoda, Lam.
Fain. Firolidae, Rang.
Genus. Carirlaria ,-—B0ry. Lamarck.
Sp. 1. C. Cithara. Tesla dertra ,- ultimo anfractu recto, compresso
conico, verszls spiram gradatim et elcganter attenuate, spiram terminalem
fere ampleclente, rugis obliquis ornalo ; aperturd abligud, oblango-ovatd, versus carinam coarctatd ,- carind mediocri, striis sub-rectis signatd. Habitat in Oceano Indico.
Shell dextral ;_the last whorl straight, compressed, conical, gradually narrowing towards the apex, nearly embracing the terminal spire, marked with oblique wrinkles ; aperture oblique, oblong ovate, narrowed towards the keel ; keel moderate, marked with nearly straight strim_
The animal of this shell is more narrowed and cylindrical than in any other described species, but as the Carinariae are said to have the power of inflating themselves, too much stress should not he laid upon this character. The body is attenuated and pointed at the posterior
extremity. It is by a line, with not very apparent asperities on the surface, and has a central swimmer (on the side opposed to the shell) ; but I found no appearance of the caudal swimmer, which is represented in the figures of C. M editerranea. The male organ, and the parts‘ about the month are pale crimson. The viscera contained in the shell are brownish, and the stomach yellowish or brownish, passing into red
.‘posteriorly. After death, this red colour is often diffused through the
neighbouring parts. The scarf skin is very tender, and strips oil’ the animal, soon after death, in ragged portions.
This shell, with that next to be described, approaches in form to the scarce and precious C. vitrea, which is, with good reason, supposed to be an inhabitant of the Indian Seas. Four specimens, of which two were without the spire, were taken by myself and my companions, between S. Lat. 4° 30', and N. Lat. 4° 30', and E. Long. 87° 30', and W. Long. 90° 30'. They were all taken after night-fall, and from the eagerness with which we plied our nets after I had made known the value
of our discovery, and our want of greater success, it would appear that this and the following species are scarce, even in that region. ' Both species, like all the others known, are h_valine, and very fragile. Their spires consist of three whorls. The obliquity of the rugae of the last or straight whorl, together with its straightness and gradual attenuation, will serve to distinguish Carinaria Cithara from any other species. It is named from its resemblance in form and sculpture to a harp.
Sp. 2. C. Galea. Testa dextra, ultimo anfractu incurvo, compressoconico, spiram terminalemfere amplectente, rugis transversis ornato, late carinalo, carime rugis perobliquis, recur-vatis ,- aperturd transversd, ovatd, versus carinam coarctatd. Habitat cum precedente.
Shell dextral, with the last whorl incurved, compressed, conical, nearly embracing the terminal spire, marked with transverse rugaz, broadly keeled. Keel with very oblique rugae, which are curved upwards in the direction of the spire. Aperture transverse, ovate, narrowed towards the keel. ' V The animal resembles that of the preceding species, but the yellowish or brownish colour in the stomach is replaced entirely by pale carmine. Belonging to the same type as the last species, and resembling in form a compressed helmet, the shell is easily distinguishable by the greater curve of the outer edge of the last whorl, which does not decrease so delicately as in that species, as well as by the less obliquity of the rugae on the body whorl, and the greater obliquity and curvature of those on its very broad keel. The body strize being parallel with the edge of the aperture, it follows that in the species under review, the mouth is less oblique than in C. Cithara. Its keel, the close embrace of the spire by the last whorl, and the breadth of the latter at this point, will abundantly serve to distinguish it from C. vitrea. The keels of both C. galea and C. Cithara are from their thinness and excessive fragility, very liable to injury even in their native element.
The addition of these two species of Carinaria increases the num
ber known to naturalists to six, the others being C. Mediterranea, fragilis, vitrea, and depressa. Of these one is from the Mediterranean, two from the seas washing the Western Coast of Africa and Mada~ gascar, and the fourth is supposed to belong to the eastern seas. i In N. Lat. 4° 50’, E., Long. 91°. Lieut. MCNAIR took two true Carinariae, the shells of which were replaced by a plate consisting of agglutinated pieces of broken shell, adhering to the suspended viscera. We captured also several species of naked Firolidae belonging to the ~ genus Pterotrachea.
Calcutta, March, 1835.
VII.—On a new species of Snake discovered in the Doab.
,A variety of Coluber, undescribed as far as my means of reference allow me to note with regard to the Ophiology of India,,having lately come under my observation, it may be worth while to describe the animal, as I observe at page 159 of the 15th vol. of the Encyclopedia Britannica under the head of ‘ Coluber Mycterizans’ a variety described as belonging to North America, very closely resembling that in question. The animal was killed in the dry stony bed of a branch of the J umna, through which the Doab canal runs, near the Sewalik mountains; its motion, as described to me by the person who killed it, was similar to that of some varieties of caterpillar, who in their progress forwards, elevate the body until the extremities meet, continuing their journey in a system of jerks or steps.
The great peculiarity of this species cou
~ sists in the proportion of length to breadth,
and the extreme prominence of the upper
/If jaw—-a sketch of which will be the only way of making it intelligible. . ft. in. Length of animal, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5%
From snout to vent, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2%
Vent to end of tail, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2%
Abdominal plates, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Subcaudal, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Diameter of middle and thickest part of the body, § of an inch.
Color grass green, with a yellowish white line running from the cheek to the end of the tail on each side at the junction at the abdominal and subcaudal plates with the dorsal scales: a double line of the same color running also centrically from the chin to the vent in the centre of the abdominal plates ; nose very pointed, and upper jaw extending 7} inch beyond the lower ; head flat, one inch long, and % inches over the occiput, color of eye raw terra sienna (light) ; not poisonous, and without fangs. .
I subjoin an extract from the Encyclopaedia Britannica, as abovementioned.
“ Coluber Mycterizans, ‘ Long-snouted snake ;’ 192 abdominal plates, 167 snbcaudal scales, slender, with a sharp pointed snout: color grass green, with a yellow line on each side of the abdomen. About three feet and a half in length, and half an inch in diameter. Native of North America, where it is often seen on trees, running very quickly
in pursuit of insects.”