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decked out at the stem with branches of plantain trees and garlands of flowers, give a most pleasing and striking eflect to the scene. Returned to the place from whence they started, a donation in money, or a piece of silk, is generally presented to the winner by the master of the ceremonies. Nautches and entertainments succeed the boatrace, and the festivities are closed with oflerings to the priests and the Rauto0*, who is on this occasion carefully washed and adorned.
2. Oobho-ch0zmde.—This festival is held in the months Wajlw, (July,) Wagoung,(August,) Tantha-leng, (September,) and Sadyne-Kyot, (October.) The people fast for a few days in each month, and proceeding to the Kioumsf, dressed in their smartest attire, prostrate themselves before the Pbraai, and make suitable offerings to the priests.
3. Wingbauh-pile occurs in the month Sad;/ne-Kg/ot. (October.)—By way of celebrating this festival, a labyrinth is constructed by means of bamboo fences, so placed, as to make the path very narrow and intricate from the numerous turns it takes. People of both sexes, and of all ages, flock to this place in the evening, dressed in their smartest clothes; old as well as young thread the labyrinth, enjoying the fun that is occasioned by their several mistakes in endeavouring to get out of it. A temple is erected in the centre of the labyrinth, and within it are four images of the Buddha saint, to which the passengers severally make obeisance, placing small lamps upon different parts of the building for the purpose of illumination. The evening of each day generally closes with a display of fire-works, and the Bout/|sé'_y, a ludicrous dramatic representation, very much resembling the Putlé of India. In addition to the above, a ceremony, termed the Puddéysah, is performed during the month of Sad}/ne-Kyot. This consists in the construction of a frame-work, intended to represent a tree, which is carried about upon the shoulders of the people, and upon it are hung such bequests as are made by individuals, in the shape of cloth, silks, dishes, 8&0. the whole of which are intended for the use of the inmates of the Kioums. Much is collected in this manner, it being considered highly meritorious to make even the smallest gift on this occasion. The procession is generally accompanied by dancers and musicians. whose services are wholly gratuitous ; for whatever they may individually collect, is, in like manner, devoted to the necessities of the Kioum.
4. The Ruttah-bdeh is held in the month of Taboo-dwar, (February,) when the cold weather is supposed to have ended. A small tree is placed upon a car that had been constructed for the purpose, and to each end of this vehicle ropes are attached. The people assemble at the place from all quarters, and two parties (generally selected from
the inhabitants of two neighbouring villages) are formed for a trial of strength : one party pulling against the other. The successful party is allowed to draw the car away to their own village, where it is finally consumed. '
Several other wrestling matches were made, until it became too dark to prolong the game. I now returned to the village, and entering my host’s house, found a supper waiting my arrival. It was laughable to observe the curiosity of the villagers to see an Inglee at the feeding hour. Men, women, and children mounted the michaun, to the very great hazard of its coming down. There was in the appearance of my visitors nothing of that fear and abject submission so characteristic of the natives of India. The women, as well as the men, stood gazing upon me, and all joined in the laugh excited by the European mode of handing the food to my mouth, to them so incomprehensible and ridiculous. The children were not afraid to approach, and I was not so uncivil as to refuse them a share of the viands they apparently coveted. It was received with pleasure, and oifered in return to their parents. A mother had a very pretty infant at her breast, and I was
surprised to see her give it a piece of bread that had been previously
chewed. I found on inquiry that a child is fed with a mouthful of boiled rice, reduced to a state of mucilage, on the second day of its birth. This it is said conduces to its vigour, and hastens the period for its final separation from the breast.
January l3th.—The sun had not risen before I was seated on my elephant, and setting out on my journey to Ladong. Leaving Ky0uprath, and proceeding towards Kaeng, the route at first lay along the sea-beach, and afterwards over a rugged piece of ground, covered with blocks of sandstone and a conglomerate, which appear to have been borne down from the superincumbent hills, by the violence of the waters on their escape to the ocean. These rocks very much impeded my progress, rendering the motions of the elephant rough and tedious to an uncomfortable degree. At the further extremity of the plain, and bordering upon the sea-shore, the remains of a few mud volcanoes may be seen. They have the appearance of extensive mounds, covered with green sward, and (as is invariably the case with all the mud volcanoes in Arracan) have a few Jhow trees growing upon their sides. Proceeding to the spot for the purpose of examination, I could perceive no further evidences of present activity than what was indicated by the existence of a spring of muddy Water on the summit of each volcano; the water rising in bubbles, if at all disturbed, owing to the quantity of carbonic acid gas it contained. The mud was of a grey colour, and impregnated with much calcareous matter.
Emerging from the plain, the traveller may either proceed to Kaeng through the interior, via M'aen-grah and Moreng, or take the direction of the sea-beach. In either case, the features of the country are much alike ; sandstone is still the prevailing rock, and in some instances, when the upper stratum of clay has been washed away, it assumes the substance of an entire hill.
Leaving Maen-grah by a narrow path, almost concealed from view by the heavy jungle protruding on each side, I observed a bird that answers in description to the Buceros Homrai of Nipal. Indeed, it so closely resembles a drawing of the Buceros published in Part 1, Vol. xviii. Asiatic Researches, that I cannot for a moment doubt its identity with that bird. I shot one of the many that were hopping about the branches, making a disagreeable noise ; their flight was heavy and awkward, owing apparently to the shortness of their wings : opening the stomach, I found it filled with berries resembling those of the Peepul and Burglfhut trees ; this would seem still further to establish the opinion advanced by Mr. Honcson, that the Buceros Homrai was not a carnivorous bird. Passing through the large village of M army, the road to Kaeng lay over an extensive plain, covered with clumps of trees, the most conspicuous among which were the Girjan, Tilsah, and wild Pcepul. Large flocks of the mountain minah were passing over-head, giving the clear chearful chirrup peculiar to these charming birds; andl observed a species of jay that was new to me. It was of an inferior size to the common Indian jay (Neel-kaunt), and of a diiferent colour; but from its shape, flight, and general appearance, there was no mistaking its genus. The plumage of the head, back, and wings was of a peagreen colour; the under part of the belly and tail, of a lighter green, and the legs and bill, yellow. Kaeng is prettily situated upon high ground, not far removed from the sea, and at the mouth of a. creek, which separates it from the district of Ladong, surrounded by extensive plains, clear of low jungle, and diversified with rice-fields, gardens and plots of indigo sowings. This village is superior to any one that Ihave seen on the island, both with respect to situation, and the general appearance of neatness and comfort that prevails throughout the place. Approaching K aeng by the sea shore (in preference to the route above described), the remains of several mud volcanoes may be seen upon the hills to the left. The undulating appearance of these mounds, covered throughout with a beautiful green sward, and studded with a few Jhow trees, has a. striking and agreeable effect amidst so much jungle and similarity of aspect otherwise common to these hills.
At the foot of the volcano, adjoining the sea-beach, I perceived several boulders of a rock, resembling clink-stone ,- it was very hard and sonorous when struck with the hammer, of a sea-green colour, and intersected with veins of calc-spar; it was not improbable that it had been at one time ejected from these volcanoes in a state of igneous fusion, along with other substances.
Crossing the Kaeng creek, I entered a district of Ladong; extensive plains devoted to the cultivation of rice, and only separated from each other by the narrow strips of Girjun trees and underwood, mark the fertility of this part of Rambree ,- the soil is so exceedingly fruitful that the principal exportations of rice from the island are derived from Ladong. There are many Petroleum wells in this district, some of which yield a very fair supply of oil. The whole of the wells known to exist in the islands of Rambree and Cheduba are farmed by Government, and sold annually to the highest bidder; I conceive it would be (in the end) far more advantageous to Government was the sale to take place every three years, instead of annually .- was more labour bestowed upon these wells, the produce would be greater ; but the present system deters a purchaser from devoting his labour to the production of an article that may become the property of a more successful candidate, before he shall have received any return for the capital he had already invested in them. The wells were sold this year for 120 rupees. I am told that six only of the Ladong wells are worked. One well is said to yield as much as three quart bottles of oil (or 2}; seers) per diem, and allowing that the remaining five are nearly as productive, the quantity of oil collected during a season (from the 1st November to the 1st June), would amount to as much as 70 maunds.
The oil is sold in Ladong at the rate of one-half tillia per rupee. The weight of a tillia varies from nine to sixteen seers. The Ladong tillia of oil is said to be as much as can be contained in 18 bottles or 13% seers. The oil is much used, especially for burning; it burns long, and gives a fine clqar flame ; it has, however, a very disagreeable smell, and is so highly inflammable, that it must be used with caution.
The oil produced on the Island of C/leduba is not so abundant or so pure as that of Rambree. One of the Petroleum wells in Ladong is said to exist on the site of a dormant mud volcano—a circumstance not at all improbable, when it is considered, that the gases and imfiammable substances forming the constituent parts of either, are, as far as has been hitherto discovered, essentially alike. The soil thrown up from these wells is highly bituminous, and in some instances abounds with very beautiful crystals of iron pyrites.
I had made up my mind to put up at the thanna of Ladong, so took the nearest direction to it. Tue path lay at the foot of a range of sandstone hills, to the left of the plains; on the summit of this range stood a temple dedicated to Gautama, and in front of it the long pole usually erected near such places of worship. The character of the rock was such as had been hitherto observed, with this exception, that a few rolled pieces of chert and stalactites were visible in a few places, strewed upon the surface. I was fortunate enough to shoot a very beautiful species of green pigeon in these hills ; it was as large as the wood-pigeon of Europe, and had a superb plumage; the colour of the head, back, and tail were of a very dark-green, while the wings and belly presented a bright azure colour.
I had not proceeded far on my way towards the thanna, when my attention was roused by the sound of music and the report of fire-arms. Entering upon the plain, I perceived a multitude of people apparently met on some extraordinary occasion. I drew near, and learned that they had assembled to perform the funeral rite of a Phoongree, who had lately died. These high priests of Buddha denominated Phoongrees, are common in Arracan, and much revered by the laity; they are never known to interfere in the domestic affairs of the people, or exercise that spiritual dominion so generally usurped by the ambitious priesthood of other countries. Confining themselves entirely to the exercise of their religious duties, they are seldom seen beyond the precincts of the Kioum; unless it be to make their morning rounds through the neighbouring villages, accompanied by the boys, to whose keeping are committed the voluntary contributions of the inhabitants. It is worthy of remark that these daily excursions are made not so much for the purpose of obtaining supplies for the inmates of the monastery, as to gratify the wishes of the villagers, who are desirous of enjoying this opportunity of testifying their respect and attachment for the ministers of their religion. The discipline of the Phoengrees is extremely rigid, and not unlike that preserved in the monastic sects of Europe. To a life of celibacy is added the injunction of not holding any communion whatever with the female sex; and so strictly is this precept adhered to, that a Phoongree will neither converse with a female, or receive from her hands the offering she may wish to present to him. The dress of the Phoongree is confined to an orangecoloured mantle, which extends from the shoulders to some little distance below the knee; his head is closely shaved, and always uncovered. He sleeps in the K ioum, upon a mat, with no other covering than that afforded by his mantle; and his diet is of the simplest kind, one