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The Barometer registered on Sundays is a different instrnment, but it agrees with the other within -01 inch, the thermometer accompanying it shews a. much lower temperature in the dwelling house than at the Mint, where the heat given is that of an open laboratory. “‘
I.-—lOn the Government and History qf Naning in the Malay Peninsula. By Lieut. J. T. Nnwsom), 23rd Regt. Madras Nat. Irgf.
Native Government qf Naning.-——The Government of Naning, set ting aside its connexion with the European powers at Malacca, which interfered very little in its internal organization, was at once feudal and pastoral in its character. The classification of the people into tribes was nearly as well defined as that of the children of Israel, described by Moses in the Pentateuch.
Pangku’liZs.—The office of Pangluihi has been hereditary, subject to the approbation of the Government at Malacca, agreeably, generally, to the Menéngluibowe law of succession of the Anak Perpdti Saba’tang, or the Tromba Pusdka lllemingktibowe. The right of succession devolving upon the eldest male child of the sister; who however may be set aside in case of imbecility or other causes. This singular law of succession prevails throughout Naning.
The last Pangku’lu's of Naning were of the tribe Se Melongan. They were generally brought down by the four heads of tribes, or Ampat Szikai, to Malacca, to be confirmed by the European Government.
J ulna’ Mnoan, the first Pangklild of the last line, arrogated to himself the power of inflicting capital punishment on the inhabitants confided to his charge. It was exercised and abused by his successors until 1809, when it was rescinded by the British Resident, Colonel Fnnounaa; a gentleman whose name is held in affectionate remembrance by most of the Malays, both of Malacca and the neighbouring independent states.
The last death sentence passed by Annur. Sann (or D1101. Saran), the ex-Pqnglnilzi, was on a Queda. man, named Sam, in 1805. This Malay had carried off from Malacca two Chinese slaves, a man and
woman; meeting some resistance from the former, he had murdered him, with his kris, in the forest of Londoo, and proceeded with the woman to Pfla, in Sriminéhti, where he sold her.
The present superintendent of Naning, Mr. Wnsraanour, who was
an eye-witness, described to me the ceremony of his trial and execution. The criminal was conducted bound to Bu/ret Penicilang, or " execution hill,” near Tabu. The Panghlilfi, the Ampat Su'/mi, the 12 Panglimds, the Bandiuira, and the Maltdtim were all seated in judgment under a cluster of Tambuseh trees, on the skirt of the hill. The witnesses were brought forward and examined by the Pangluilzi himself. The evidence against the prisoner being deemed conclusive, according to the forms of the Muhammedan law, he was sentenced, agreeably to the Adat Menringkdbowe, to pay one Bluir (equivalent to 24 Spanish dollars, and 30 cents), or to suffer (Salang) death by the lcris. Being unable to pay the .fine, preparations were made for his immediate execution. The grave was dug on the spot, and he was placed firmly bound in a sitting posture, literally on its brink. For further security, two Panglimds sat on each side, whilst the Panglz'ma Besdr SUMUN unsheathed the weapon that was to terminate the trembling wretch’s existence. On the point of the poniard, the ltris panjang, the Panglimci carefully placed a pledget of soft cotton, which he pressed against the man's breast, a little above the right collar bone. He then slowly passed the weapon’s point through the cotton, on which he kept the fingers of his left hand, firmly pressed in a direction obliquely to the left, into his body, until the projection of the hilt stopped its farther progress. The weapon was then slowly. withdrawn, the Panglimd still retaining the cotton in its place by the pressure of his fingers, by which the etfusion of blood externally was effectually stanched.
The criminal, convulsively shuddering, was instantly preciptated into the grave ; but on his making signs for water, was raised. He had barely time to apply his lips to the cocoanut shell, in which it was brought, when he fell back into the grave quite dead. The earth was then hastily thrown over the_body, and the assembly dispersed.
The Ampat Su'kzZ.—Next to the Panghu'l1/5, were the four heads or representatives of the four Szikés, or tribes, into which the population of Naning was divided.
»In the ex-Panghzilfis time, the head of the
There are three other Siikfis or tribes in Naning, viz. thoseof Battd Balong, Tigd Neyney, and Bodoandd. The number of individuals composing these tribes being so insignificant, they were included in the
' four general divisions.
The oflice of the head of the Szikui was not exactly hereditary. In the event of a casualty, the place was generally filled up by the remaining three from the most eligible of the deceased’s family. Their otfice was to assist the Panghu’lu' with their counsel and advice ; if unanimous,‘ they could carry their point against him.
They were always consulted in any matter of importance, and affixed their seals to all deeds and agreements. , Lettersto the Government at Malacca, and to the heads of independent states were invariably written in the name of the Panghu'lu’ and Ampat Sdku'. Each was individually responsible for his tribe to the Panghzilfi, in matters of revenue, levying men and settling disputes. ‘
Their revenue was derived principally from the power they enjoyed
of levying fines on their own particular tribe, and from a portion allotted to them by the Panghiilfi from his annual levy on each house of five gantarns of paddy. ' ' Mantris.—-The Mantrzs were a species of privy councillors to the Panghfiltis, two in number. The last were MELA'NA' HAKlM and GOMPA'R. They fled with the Panghflhi to Mike in Rumbowe, but have since returned.
Panglfmzis or Hulubalangs.—The Piznglimds are the war chiefs. The ex-Panghzilli had 12 ; viz. Panglimas Bescir, Jati, Arrip, Beibas,‘ Sulta'n, Tambi, Prang, Trek, 2 Bangsahs, Kiodin, and Rajd Balang. Four of these were personally attached to the Panghrilli ,- viz. Panglimds Besdr, Prang, Jati, and Arrip.-'the rest to the Ampat Sflkzi.
Besides the levying of men in war, and leading them to combat, building stockades, &c. the duty of a Panglimd is in peace, the apprehension of criminals, bearing official messages and letters, and making requisitions.
On these occasions, the Pangh|ilu"s spear Tombo/: Bandararrwas sent with them, in token of their authority.
This custom prevails generally among Malayan chiefs.
The above form of government was entirely abolished on the settling of the country after the disturbances in_1832, as will appear hereafter.
History/.—Naning was taken possession of, together with the Malacca lands, by the Portuguese, shortly after the capture of Malacca by
Anraonso Annuqunaqvn, in 1511. Previous to this, it had formed an 1’ P 2
integral part of the dominions of MUHAMMED Sula II., Sultan of Malacca; who, onithe fall of his capital, fled to Muar, thence to Pa~ hang, and finally to Johore, where he established a kingdom. Naning remained nominally under‘ the Portuguese, till 1641-2, when with Malacca it fell into the hands of the Dutch, and their allies the sovereigns of Johore and Achin. According to a Malay manuscript in my possession, “ the Hollanders made many bonds with the king of Johore, on golden paper, including numerous divisions of shares and territory,” among which are specified the interior boundaries of Malacca, viz.“ From the mouth of the Cassang to its source southerly ; from the mouth of the Lingi river to Ramoan China northerly to Buket Bruang, Bakowe Rendah, Ramonia Chondong, Padang Chachar, Dason Mariah, Dason Kappar Ulfi Malacca to the source of the Cassang river. Done, written, and sealed by the Hollanders and king of J chore, on paper of gold.”
Vannnrrn, however, asserts, that the 1st article of the treaty between the Dutch and the king of Johore was, that the town be given up to the Dutch, and the land to the king of J ohore, reserving, however, to the Dutch so much territory about the town as is required, and license to cut fire-wood. Be this as it may, Dutch policy soon extended the meaning of this into the possession of‘ an area of nearly 50 miles
by 80, which comprised the whole of Naning up to the frontiers of
Rumhowe and Johore.
This line of latter days has been extended beyond Buket Bruang and Ramoan China, to the left bank of the Lingi river, which it now comprehends.
History of Naning.--The Dutch, on their taking possession of Malacca in 1641, found Naning under the government of the Ampat Su’Icu', or heads of the four tribes, into which the inhabitants are di'~ vided. In the Dutch Governor General Anrnomx VAN Dim/|nN’s administration, an agreement was made by the first Land-voogd, or Governor of Malacca, Jomm VAN Twist, on the 15th of August, 1641, with the chiefs of Naning and the neighbouring villages : by which the latter promised fidelity to the States General and -the Company, and abjured their former engagements with the Spaniards and Por-' tuguese. The property of all persons dying without issue to be di-vided between the Company and the native chiefs; that of persons "guilty of murder, to be appropriated half for the use of the Company, and the remainder for their heirs. The company to be entitled to one-' (tenth of the produce, and to a duty of 10 per cent. on the sale of estates. Such taxes to be collected by native servants, who will be
rewarded by Governor General A. VAN DinMsN.