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The nasal aperture is wide and capacious, and nearly circular, owing it would seem to the very divergent state or distance of the nasal processes of the superior maxillae from each other; the separation being to the full extent of an inch, which is an unusual width for so small a skull. Nasal bones large and prominent, with a good bridge-like convexity. The styloid processes, which in a full grown male adult have often only a ligamentous connection to the temporal bones, have here an ossific union, and are withal unusually long and firm, considering the age and sex of the individual. The great foramen at the base of the skull is elongated from before backwards, and would seem to correspond with the compressed sides of the head, and projecting state of the occipital bone, on which the organs of amativeness and philopr0genitiveness are rather fully developed.
The only marked peculiarity observable in the lower jaw is the recedent chin, which being on a contrary inclination to the facial line, is a further departure from the Grecian ideal model of beauty, while it is a strong characteristic mark of Ethiopian descent.
The vomer or bone forming the partition of the nose was found loose in the cranial vault, and there is little doubt, must have been forced there at the time of embalmment, when the ethmoid bone was broken down, to allow of the removal of the brain and contents of the skull, which, it is evident, could only have been disposed of through the chamber of the nose.
In my examination of this head, it appears to me, that theleading characters of the Caucasian variety of the human race (under which both ancient and modern Egyptian are included) in this individual instance are far from being prominent, or distinct ; and as some of the peculiar traits that characterize the Ethiopian formation, (taking it in its wide extended sense,) on the other hand, are most conspicuous, it is not unlikely that the subject of comparison may be of mixed origin, and probably of Egyptian and Abyssinian descent.
This specimen of the foetus of a shark having been sent to me by Mr. J. C. WILSON, I have put it up in spirits, and have now the pleasure of presenting it, in his name, to the Asiatic Society.
The species appears to be the Squalus Maximus of Linnaeus; and Mr. WILSON states in his note that “ a shark of 11 feet in length was
caught by the Mirldies of the Hashemy on her last voyage here: on being cut open, there were no less than 43 youngsters disclosed to view, all alive and frisky. Two of them were emhalmed in the way you see by Mr. Dawson one of the middies, and by him presented to me. It was the opinion of those on board, from the appearance of the young folks, that they must have been occasional visiters of the salt ocean, and had only retired to rest when discovered.”
Upon this latter point it may be remarked, that setting aside the impossibility of such a thing on other accounts, the specimen is, so far as a mere external examination can decide, in the foetal state; and, consequently, unfitted for a residence for any time, however short, in the water. Nor is such an idea in accordance with what we know of the ovoviviparous fishes, being able to seek for nourishment themselves, and altogether independent of their mother, immediately upon their being ejected from the womb.
June 3, 1835.
V.—Result qf the Observations made on the Tides at Madras, from the
__.._..______ _ Surface of the Water below the Difference Phases and Age of Time of Guage mark. between
61:11 -- 20th, .. 11 42 4 11% 8 2 6 6% 3 2%
7th - 21st, .. 12 12 5 3% 7 11:; 6 7% 2 Bi 8th — 22nd, . . 12 30 5 4% 7 95 6 7 2 5
9th —- 23rd, .. 1 21 6 1% 8 0 7 0% 1 105“
10th -- 24:11, .. 3 6 6 4% s 0 7 2; 1 75 11th --— 25th, . . 4 45 6 6 8 3 7 41} 1 9
12:1. -_ 26th, .. 5 24 6 7 s 5% 7 65 1 10$ 13th —— 27th, . . 6 25 6 4% 8 43' 7 4% 2 0 14th — 28th, .. 7 11 5 ll 8 Oh 6 11>} 2 1 29th, .. 7 37 5 8% 8 0% 6 l0§ 2 4
Average mean level and lift, . . 5 6} 8 1 6 10 2 6%
The Madras Herald of the 3rd June, 1835, whence the above table is extracted, remarks: that “ until the 29th of July, the observations
were frequently interrupted ; but that after that date, they were made daily, at every tide, in every 24 hours: and as there appears some difference in the results obtained from the subsequent period, they are given in the following statement.”
C'ircum.s-tances of the Tides from 29!}: July to 101/: October, 1821, am inclusive
‘ Surface of the Water below the Difference Time of High Gauge mark. between high
“ Although this statement appears less anomalous than the last, in some respects, it is not so in all; and as the other has the advantage of including the period of the long shore winds and strong southerly currents, it is a better average for the whole season than the last.”
[Note.—It would have been more satisfactory if the state of the moon’s declination, parallax, &c. had been attended to in the period selected for the above observations. Still, however, the table will be useful, as a reply tanti to the desiderata of the Rev. Professor WHEWEL'L, regarding tides on our Indian coasts, which was published in the first volume of the Journal. We wish we had similar information from other points on the coast, and especially from the other side of the Bay ; and we cannot let the present opportunity pass of bringing the sub-ject to the notice of our friends at Chittagaon, Raimri, Moulmein, Penang, and Malacca. A single period of a complete lunation, carefully observed as to the direction, velocity, rise, and precise time of the day, and night tides, noting also the time of the moon’s meridional passage, would be useful, and would cost but little trouble. All who have seen Professor \VaEwi=.L1.’s laborious map of the tidal wave, traced in its course over the whole surface of the globe, in the last volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society, would, we are confident, willingly contribute to the perfection of so interesting and useful a problem.—En.]
VI.»—-Further Notes and Drawings of Bactrian and Indo-Scythic Coins. By James Pnmser, Secy., 8;c.
Various causes have prevented the continuance of my imperfect notes on the numerous and highly curious coins which have passed under my inspection, since I last ventured my observations on the Kammxos and KADPI-USES group, as connected with the Manikyéla Tope. Want of leisure to attempt the engraving of so many plates, and the desire to profit by a farther collection, of which I had received notice from Shekh KERXMAT Au’, but which has not yet reached me, were among the principal causes of my dilatoriness. Some little deference however was also due to many of my subscribers, who complained, that I was deluging them with old coins ! Having at length found time to engrave the first six plates of my proposed series, in elucidation of the principal new coins of Dr. GERARn’s, KERAMAT AI.’1's, and Gen. VENTURA'S splendid discoveries, I cannot refrain from putting on record the little I have to say regarding them ; the rather as we may soon expect to hear from Paris of the reception General VENTURAVS collection has met from the savans of that city, many of them so eminent for this branch of enquiry ; and we are, on the other hand, expecting a fresh memoir from Mr. MASSON, which might anticipate some of the discoveries I would fain claim for myself, in this fair and highly interesting game of antiquarian research! Little indeed can I claim as my own, save the labour of classifying the coins, as they have come down at successive intervals—two or three hundred from KERMMAT Au’, forwarded through Captain WADE; then as many more from the late Doctor GERARD*, brought. down by MOHAN Lin, who assisted him in procuring them ; and lastly, the rich spoils entrusted by Gen. VENTURA to the Chevalier ALLARD for conveyance to Paris. The careful examination of the whole has brought to light the names of several princes unknown to history, and some few not included in the very curious and novel list of Mr. MASSON, published in the 3rd vol. of this Journal. It has also enabled me to appropriate to their right owners many of the coins of Lieut. Bumms and other collectors, engraved in former plates: further, it has furnished me a clue to the Bactrian form (if we may so call it) of the Pehlevi character, which is found on the reverse of many of these coins; and lastly, it has lain open a perfect link and connection between what we have hitherto called the Indo~Scythic
" The death of this zealous and indefatigable traveller has not yet been recorded in these pages. I trust that his brothers, whose labours have always been equally prominent in the cause of science, will favour me with the materials for a. worthy obituary of their lamented brother.
coins, withcorrupted Greek inscriptions, and the Hindu coins attributed with reasonable certainty to the Kanouj dynasties, immediately ante-rior to the Mahomedan irruptions of the llth century. In a few more years we shall doubtless have the whole series, from the time of ALEXANDER downwards, fully developed :—at present in these detached notices we can expect to do no more than hazard fresh conjectures, and wipe out former errors as we advance.
There are but few authors to assist us in our task, and the passages from them have been so often repeated, that it will be unnecessary again to quote. Neither BAYEa’s work not the Baron on SAcY’s are in our library : but, I have to thank Professor Wrnsou for kindly sending me sketches made by himself of the Bactrian coins, depicted in the former author, and in Sssrmr and VISCONTI, several of which I am able to recognize. Of individual friends, who have favored me with their aid in furnishing specimens and information, I cannot omit mentioning Captain C. M. WADE, Dr. Swmnv, and Col. STACY* : the services of the latter numismatologist will be more fully appreciated when we come to talk of Hindu coins. In Bactrian, the field is of course less open to collectors on this side the Satlej ; yet not a few very fine coins have been picked up even within the limits so successfully run over by Col. Ton himself.
The coins of the two first princes of Bactria, by name Tr-rsonorus the I. and II. are yet unknown; perhaps they never struck money, but were content with the Syrian currency then prevalent. With EUTHYDEMUS begins our collection—a purely Grecian coinage, bearing only Greek inscriptions,and,as far as hitherto known,all of silver. The coins of Dams/ratus are more rare, but equally beautiful with those of his predecessor, and supposed father. Hanrocuzs, the prince introduced on the authority of VISCONTI, will, I think, turn out to be our AGATHOCLES- With MENANDER begins the system of native legends on the reverse, which is followed up without intermission throughout the whole series to the barbarous Kanrrnsss. Some only of the coins of Evcnxrinns have a Pehlevi legend, as will be hereafter explained.
As the majority of the coins now to be introduced have these native legends on the reverse, it will better enable us to describe them if we begin by explaining what we have been able to make of the alphabet of this native language; which. from its marked difference from
other types of the same character, I have ventured to term BactrianPehlevi.
* Of Indian coins, my list of donors would be considerably swelled; but it would be too like ostentation to enumerate them in this place.