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At this part of the copper-plate the writing is so obliterated, that the names of two or three princes cannot be made out.

16. Mahéraja Cnanaearaa, II. A. D. 524 17. SILADITYA, III. A. D. 559 18. Srnnnrrra MUSALLI, IV.

The first two princes have the title Scmipati alone. All those subsequent to No. 3, Maluirdja. The whole had the title of “ Sin’ BruTancn,” and the device on their banner, was the “ Nauru," or sacred bull of SIVA, as appears from the seals attached to both inscriptions.


II.—Synopsz's of the Tluir and Glionil Antelopes. By B. H. Honosorv, E'sq., Resident in Nipal.

[In a letter to the Secretary As. Soc. read 7th Oct.]

I beg to forward to you, herewith, synoptical descriptions of the Their and Ghorfil Antelopes, derived from careful examination of a great many individuals of both sexes, which were either alive or recently killed at the time of examination. These descriptions are preceded by an amended definition of the group to which the animals belong; that given by Smrrn in the English Regne Animal being so inaccurate, as to be calculated only to lead the inquirer astray. Mine, now proposed, is drawn from an intimate knowledge of three out of the four species comprising the group. But it is probable that very much yet remains to be done before the vast genus Antilope can be successfully divided into subgenera, fitted either to illustrate natural aflinities, or even to render perfect, facility of reference. Mr. Owen has, since

the publication of the English CUVIER, recast this entensive genus in

a manner very different from SM1'rH's, though not, I think, superior to it. Considering, indeed, how extremely superficial is our knowledge of the greater part of this vast assemblage of the hollow-horned

* These seven are from the first inscription, the following from the second inscription. 1' A. D. 319. In his reign, the Valabhi ma is supposed to have commenced.

ruminants, it might be as well, perhaps, for our general classifiers, to bear in mind the Baconian adage, that “ an over-early reduction of knowledge into methods generates acquiescence" in misleading systems of nature.

My apology for the amendedindication of the subgenus Nmmonmznns of the English Regne Animal, now attempted, is, that the celebrity of that work might fix and propagate errors which I happen to possess the means of correcting; and that, as I have an unusually complete knowledge of three out of the four species comprised in this group, my definition of it may perhaps stand the test of time, if the group itself be allowed to remain. '

Nipal, August 1835.

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Subgeneric character (nobis).
Structure assuming a caprine form, suited _for heavy climbing, or

for leaping; horns in both sexes, their cores hollow*, and connected with the frontal sinuses, but not porous, and only sub-cellular, inserted behind the orbits, short, conical, simply bent back, annulo-wrinkled, parallel to the plane of the face, and nearly so to each other, subremote at base; suborbital sinus, small, or Wanting; no inguinal pores ; tail caprine ; ears longish, pointed, and striated ; muzzle small, or none ; knees callous? maned, hair of two sorts, and thick; or, of one sort, and spare ; four teats in the females. Reside in the mountainous and woody regions of the continent and islands of India, solitarily, or in small groups.

Sp. 1. A. SUMATRENSIS. Cambing Ootan.

- Sp. 2. A. DUVAUCELLII. Variety of Ghorcil!

Sp. 3. A. GUORAL. Characters--extremely caprine, being allied to antelope only by its round and ringed horns. Size small, attitude gathered, with back much arched, and structure adapted for leaping ; limbs moderately stout and rigid ; general form of the scull caprine, with the ridge line much bent, and the parietes depressed at a strong angle to the frontal bones, and no indentation before the orbits ; fifty inches long, exclusive of the tail, and twentvseven high ; horns seated on the crest of the frontals, six inches long, the points inclined inwards, 20 to 25 annuli extending §rds up the

V ‘* This, as a generic character, has been used to separate Capra and Damalis .

from Antelope ; upon which I have only to observe, that I know four species still retained under Antelope, which have nevertheless hollow-cored horns.


horns; annuli crowded and vague, especially towards the bases, somewhat interrupted by faint longitudinal striae, truncated, independant of each other, and equally developed all round; no suborbital sinuses, a half muzzle ; upper lip clad, tail conico-depressed, and only half nude below ; fur of two sorts, abundant and loosely applied to the skin ; a short, semi-erect mane on the vertex. Knees usually callous and nude, but not congenitally so ; colours of the animal rusty and brown, paler below ; line of the vertex, tail, chest, and a stripe down the front of the fore legs and back of the hind, brown black ; outsides of ears rusty, lips and chin rufescent white, a large patch of pure white at the junction of the head and neck, below ; horns, boots,

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layan region of Nipal. Female smaller and paler hued ; young, redder and no marks or mane.

Sp. 4. A. Trays, nobis. The Tluir of the Nipalese. New. Characters less decidedly caprine than in the last, very nearly allied to the Cambing Ootan. Back straight, withers higher than the croup, and structure suited for heavy climbing, not for leaping ; limbs very stout and rigid, with higher hoofs than in the last, the edges of which are raised above the pads. General form of the scull cervine, with the ridge line moderately convexed, and the parietes not depressed at a strong angle to the frontal bones. A deep indentation before the orbits. Horns posterior to orbits, but below the crest of frontals, eight inches long, rather stouter and less falcated, than in the preceding, sub-divergent, with the points inclined outwards, 20 to 30 crowded annuli, extending §rds up the horns, the annuli truncated, equal all round, independant, broken by decided longitudinal striae; one inch below the eye, a suborbital sinus, opening on a nude space by a round puncture, and furnished with a fleshy thick gland secreting a viscous humour, as in Sumatrensis; no maxillary sinus, a half muzzle; larger than in the preceding, but existing only as a broad line in front of the upper lip, which is otherwise clad in hair. Tail shorter, depressed nude below ; fur of one sort only, scanty, harsh, and applied to the skin; a semi‘-erect-mane, as in Ghordl; knees, callous, ‘perhaps congenitally ‘so. Sternum not so, size large, 64 inches long by 38 high, and upwards of 200 lbs. in weight. Colour of the whole animal above, with the entire head and neck, jet black ; on the flanks, mixed with deep clay red. The fore arms and hams outside, as far down as the great flexures, clay red, nearly or wholly unmixed ; rest of the limbs, hoary, or rufescent hoary ; outsides of cars, dark ; chest, pale. No stripes down legs; lips and chin dull hoary, and a stripe of pure hoary running

backwards over the jaws from the gape; horns, hoofs, and muzzle, black ; iris, dark hazel ; eye, mean.

Female as large asmale, and like him in all essential respects. The young, paler, and mixed with gray.

Inhabit the precipitous and wooded mountains of the central region oFNipal, which they rush up and down with fearful rapidity, though they do not spring or leap well, nor are speedy.

The Thdr species are denominated Sarau, in the western parts of these mountains, where it is as common as in Nipal. The Cambing Ootan is its analogue in the Indian Islands ,- but the species is not found, I believe, in any other mountainous range of the continent of India.

lII.—-On the Wild Goat and Wild Sheep of the Himrilaya, with Remarks

on the genera Capra and Ouis. By B. H. Honoson, Esq. Resident in Nipal.

In the way of classification, there are few objects, I believe, more important than the establishment of some distinctive marks to separate Antilope, Capra and Ovis. The best naturalists of the present day appear to think that M. Gsomvnofs diagnosis of the former genus, viz. cores of the horns solid, may be relied on. But small as is the number of Antelopes accessible to me, I have proved with the saw, that in respect to at least four species, (viz. Chfrzi, Thrir, Goral, and Duvaucellii,) the fact is not so, all these four having sinuses in the cores of their horns, connected with the frontal sinuses : and, if it be objected, that of three of these the character is confessedly oscnlant towards Capra, that cannot be urged against the fourth, which is a Gazella of H. S1urrn's group.

It is certain, therefore, that solid horns constitute not an invariable character of the genus Antilope ; and it is highly probable, that thischaracter is not of such general prevalence as to warrant the distinction founded upon it.

The truth seems to be this, that in Antilope, the bony nuts of the horns are of a compact structure, possessing at their bases sinuses of only limited extent, and nearly free from cellular partitions ; whereas in Capra, and yet more in Ovis, the cores are porous and uncompact, and furnished at their bases with large sinuses, crowded with cells*.

On the present occasion, I do not propose to make any further mention of the genus Antilope, but to confine myself to some remarks

* The form of the scull along vertical line, forms a much better diagnosis than. the cores of horns.

tending to illustrate the distinctions between Capra and Ovis, and more particularly, to test the accuracy of those indications which are generally admitted by authors, by applying them to the wild species of either genus which belongs to the Himalaya.

For the last two years, I have had alive in my garden, a splendid specimen of the mature male of each, and I have frequently compared them together in all respects of manners and of structure. As the goat in question, as well as the sheep is new*, I will begin with a synoptical description of the two, and then proceed to notice the points of difference and agreement existing between them.

Tribe C.u>n1mz—H. Smrn.

Genus——-Capra, Ditto.

Species—C. JHA/RAL. New, the JHARAL of the Nipalese.

Aflined to the Alpine (Egagri, and to Jemlaica. Adult male, 50 to 56 inches long from snout to rump, and 36 to 40 high. Head finely formed, and full of beauty and expression. Clad in close short hair, and without the least vestige of a beard; facial line, straight; ears small, narrow, erect, rounded at tips, and striated; eye, lively ; between the nares, a black moist skin, nares themselves short and wide; knees and sternum, callous; tail, short, depressed, wholly nude below. Animal of compact, powerful make, with a sparish, short, and bowed neck, deep barrel and chest, and longish, very strong and rigid limbs, supported on perpendicular pasterns and high compact hoofs; false hoofs conic and considerably developed ; attitude of rest gathered and firm, with the head moderately raised, and the back sub-arched. Shoulders decidedly higher than the croup ; fore quarters superb, and wholly invested in a long, flowing, straight, lion-like mane, somewhat feathered vertically from the crown of the withers, and sweeping down below the knees; hind-quarters poor and porcine, much sloped off from the croup to the tail, and the skin much constricted between the hams behind; for of two sorts——the outer hair of moderate harshness, nor wiry nor brittle, straight, and applied to the skin, but erigible under excitement, and of unequal lengths and colours; the inner, soft and woolly, as abundant as in the wild sheep, and finer, of one length and colour. Horns 9 to 12 inches long, inserted obliquely on the crest of the frontals, and touching at base with their anterior edges, sub-compressed, sub-triangular, and uniformly wrinkled across, except near the tips, where they are rounded and smooth ; keeled and sharpened to the front, obtusely rounded behind: the

’* My own imperfect account of both, in the Society's Transactions, is the only one extant.

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