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edge of the keel not nodose, and usually but faintly marked by the continuation over it of the transverse wrinkles of the horns.
The horns are divergent, and directed more upwards than backwards: their points are slightly inclined inwards. The colour of the animal is a saturate brown superficially, but internally, hoary blue; and the mane, for the most part, wholly/_of that hue; fore arms, lower part of hams, and backs of the legs, rusty; entire fronts of the limbs, and whole face and cheeks, black-brown; the dark colour on the two last parts divided by a longitudinal line of pale rufons, and another before the eye, shorter ; lips and chin hoary, with a blackish patch on either side below the gape ; tip of tail and of ears, blackish ; tongue and palate, and nude skin of tips and muzzle, black; iris, darkish red hazel. Odour very powerful in the mature male, especially at certain times. Is found in the wild state in the Kachér region of Nipal, in small flocks or solitarily; is bold, capricious, wanton, -eminently scansorial, pugnacious, and easily tamed, and acclimatised in foreign parts.
REMARKS. Jha'ral is closely afiined by the character of the horns to the Alpine (Egagri, and still more nearly, in other respects, to Jemlaica. -It differs from the former by the less volume of the horns, by their smoother anterior edge, and by the absence of the heard ;—-from the latter, by horns much less compressed and nodose. Jharal breed: with the domestic Goat, and perhaps more nearly resembles the ordinary model of the tame races than any wild species yet discovered, The western type of the Himalayan wild goat (called Tehr, at Simla and Mushri) has the anterior edge of the horns decidedly nodose, though less so than in C. Jemlaica. '
The T/Vild Sheep. Genus—Ovz's.
Species—O. Néhoor, mihi.
The Ndhoor of the Nipalese. New P variety of O. Musmon .9 Closely aflined to Musmon, of which it is possibly only a variety. Adult male, 48 to 54 inches from snout to rump, and 32 to 36 high. Head coarse and expressionless, clad entirely in close short hair, without beard on the chin or throat, or any semblance of mane. Chaifron considerably arched. Ears medial, narrow, ereot, pointed, striated. Eye dull, moist space between the nares, evanescent; nares narrow and long. Knees and sternum callous; tail medial, cylindrico-depressed, only —§ nude below. Structure moderately compact, not remarkable for power. Neck sparisb, bowed, with a considerable dip from the crown of the shoulders. Limbs longish, firm, but slender, not remarkable for rigidity, and supported on laxer pasterns, and on hoofs lower and less compact than
the goats ; false hoofs mere callosities. Attitude of rest less gathered and firm, with the head lower and the back straight. Shoulders decidedly lower than croup ; fore-quarters not more massive than the hind, nor their extremities stronger. Hair of two sorts—the outer hair, of a harsh, brittle, quill-like character, serpentined internally with the salient bows of one hair fitting into the resilient bends of another, but externally, straight and porrect from the skin, very abundant, and of medial uniform length all over the body : the inner coat, soft and woolly, rather spare, and not more abundant than in the Goat. Horns, 22 inches along the curve, inserted high above the orbits, on the crown of the forehead, touching nearly at base with their whole depth, and carrying the frontal bones very high up between them; the parietals being depressed in an equal degree. The horns diverge greatly, but can scarcely be said to be spirally turned. They are first directed upwards, considerably before the facial line, and then sweep downwards with a bold curve: the points again being recurved upwards and inwards. They are uncompressed, triangular, broadly convexed to the front, and cultrated to the back. Their anterior face is the widest, and is presented almost directly forwards ; their lateral faces, which are rectilinear, have an oblique aspect, and unite in an acntish angle at the back. They are transversely wrinkled, except near the tips, which are round and smooth. Colour pale.
The colour of the animal is a pale slaty blue, obscured with earthy brown, in summer overlaid with a rufous tint. Head below, and insides of the limbs and hams, yellowish white. Edge of the buttocks behind and of the tail, pure white; face and fronts of the entire limbs and chest, blackish ; bands on the flanks, the same, and also tip of the tail. Tongue and palate dark. Nude skin of lips and nose black. Eye yellow-hazel. No odour. Is found in the wild state in the Kachir region of Nipal, north of the Jharal, amid the glaciers of the Himalaya, and both on the Indian and Tibetan sides of the snowy crest of that range. Is sufficiently bold and scandent, but far less pugnacious, capricious, and curious, than the Jluiral. Much less easily acclimatised in foreign parts than he is ; in confinement more resigned and apathetic, and has none of the Jha'ral's propensity to bark trees with his horns, and to feed upon that bark and upon young shoots and aromatic herbs. I have tried in vain to make the Ndhoor breed with tame sheep, because he will not copulate with them. The female of the species has the chatfron straight, and short, erect, sub-recurved, and greatly depressed horns. The young want, at first, the marks on the limbs and flanks, and their nose is straight.
' Rnmsnxs. Differs from Musmon, to which it is closely allied,by the decided double fiexure of the horns; their presence in the females, and the want of a tuft beneath the throat. With reference to the imperfect account of the Na'koor, published in the Transactions, I should not omit to say, inconclusion, that the Ndhoor and Banbhera are separate species. the former being the Himalayan type of Musmon perhaps: and the latter, certainly, that of Ammon.
Having now completed the descriptions of the wild goat and wild sheep, I shall proceed to the exhibition of the points of difference and
of resemblance existing between the two, beginning with the former.
Limbs thicker and more rigid.
Facial line straight.
Ears shorter and rounded.
Tail short, flat, nude below.
Feebler and more slender.
Lower, and less so.
Larger and heavier.
Longer and pointed.
Larger, less depressed and Q nude only.
Withers higher than croup. Croup higher.
Fore legs stronger than hind. Fore and hind equal.
Odorous. Not so.
Nose moister, and nares short and wide.
Horns of medial size, keeled and turned upwards.
Eye darker and keener.
Hair long and unequal.
Bears change of climate well.
Is eminently curious, capricious, and confident.
Barks trees with its horns, feeding on the peel and on aromatic herbs.
In fighting, rears itself on its hind legs, and lets the weight of its body fall on the adversary.
The goat and sheep have in common hair and wool ; no beard ; no suborhital sinuses ; evanescent muzzle ; no inguinal pores. Horns in contact at top of head; knees and sternum callous ; angular and transversely wrinkled horns ; striated ears; two teats only in the females: horns in both sexes, and incisors of precisely the same forms.
Of the various diagnostics, then, proposed by HAMILTON Smrrn, it would seem, that the following only can be perfectly relied on to separate Ovis from Capra. Slender limbs; longer pointed ears; chafiiron
Less moist, andnareslargerand narrower.
Does not bark trees, and is less addict-
In fighting, runs a tilt, adding hither the
arched; nares long and oblique; very voluminous horns turned laterally with double fiexures. I should add myself, the strong and invariable distinction ;-—males not odorous, as opposed to the males odorous of the genus Capra. But, after all, there are no physical distinctions at all equivalent to the moral ones, so finely and truly delineated by BUFFON, and which, notwithstanding what H. SMITH urges in favour of the courage and activity of sheep, will for ever continue to be recognised as the only essential diagnostics of the two genera.
Ill.-—On the Fossil Bones of the Jamna River. By Emwun DEAN,
[Extract from a letter, dated ‘2nd April, 1834, accompanying the first despatch of specimens, read at the Meeting of the 3rd July, 1834.]
I have taken the liberty of sending for your inspection some specimens from a collection of Jamua fossils, made by me during a period of nearly two years, that I was employed under Captain E. SMITH, in removing the impediments to navigation in that river.
I consider myself fortunate in having been able to procure several portions of human bones, in so perfect a state, as to enable an eminent medical gentleman to class the major part of them.
With regard to the specimens before you, No. 8, (an elephant’s tooth,) resembles the 2nd and 3rd plates represented in plate x. fig. 10 of PAni<msoN's Outlines of Oryctology ; and No. 9, the 1st and 2nd plates of the same tooth, excepting that the number of the elliptic figures on the crown caused by trituration, is greater in my specimens ; and that great difference in the thickness of the plates of this and the common Asiatic elephant, (a specimen of which I observe is in your possession,) which he appears to consider a distinguishing characteristic of the difierent species, is not so apparent in my specimens as it appears to have been in those of PARKINSON. This difference, however, must be confined to the Asiatic specimens, as the length of his fossil tooth was eight inches, and it was composed of 13 plates, which would make two of them average 1'23 in. : this, allowing for the very apparent diminution in thickness of the plates towards the rear, would make my larger specimen, which averages one inch, correspond nearly enough with the plates 2nd and 3rd of fig. 10,
Nos. 10 and 11, (figs. 1 and 2, of P1. xxxiii.) I have been led to suppose may have belonged to the species of tapir, the crowns of whose teeth are described as being divided into five transverse risiugs, and if by the enamel standing distinctly above the bony parts, the
term rising be understood, I consider this “feature is pretty clearly indicated in the larger specimen ; if they do not belong to this animal, I am utterly at a loss how to class them.
Nos. 14 and 15, I imagine, are portions of the jaws and teeth (broken off at the margins of their alveoli) of some extinct species of the Saurian order, differing in every material point from any species described by Panxmson ; the transverse section of either shewing no cutting ridges, and the longitudinal section of No. 15, plainly shewing from their curved formation, the impossibility of the teeth being shed, or renewed, as also the existence of a core without any cavity; whereas a peculiar feature of the whole crocodile tribe is, the teeth are never solid in the centre. Could the larger one have belonged to that scarce monster, the Bhote of the Jatnna? a species of crocodile, I believe, that has never yet been described.
Of No. l9, it will be of little use for me to take more notice, than by pointing out what appears to me to have been the outline of the crown of a circular cavity, in the centre of the tooth, which might, when perfect, have contained the nerve. Should this prove to be the case, at least one-third of the tooth must have been broken off, and then the present surface would have been a fracture. The exterior edges all round evidently present a decided fracture ; but the interior surface (so beautifully irregular) has every appearance of the exterior enamel of a perfect tooth. Supposing it to have been arranged in plates (of which however there‘ is not the least trace), the decomposition of the crusta petrosa might have occurred here, as in the elephant ; but the separation (except by force) would have been rendered impossible, by the texture of the enamel that surrounds it on three sides, which is sufliciently strong, even had the crusta petrosa been withdrawn, to have held it together. It might be urged, that the exterior substance is not enamel, but an incrustation ; this indeed might hide the disposition of plates ; but I am inclined to believe, that the qualities of the whole and fractured parts are so intimate, that the position is untenable.
The teeth marked 0-2, 4, 6, and 16, have belonged to animals of the deer and ox tribes, but I have not the means of accurately classing them by comparison or otherwise.
No. 44, (fig. 18, Pl. xxxiii.) has defied the anatomical abilities of every one who has hitherto seen it. Ihave been able to form no opinion on it ; never to my recollection having seen any vertebra in the least resembling it.