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Cotidal Lines which I saw with much pleasure. But I am desirous of removing it misapprehension which I perceive in the remarks accompanying this table. Mr. Smcnam has given the time of high water for every day ofthe moon’s age, at the places contained in his table, calculated on the supposition of a daily retardation of the tide, to the amount of 48 minutes : and in the remarks :1. rule is quoted from my paper for the correction of the time so given. But the rule quoted is erroneous for the purpose there stated. The rule which should have been given is the following nearly.
Correction to be applied to the time of high water calculated by supposing it to be always at the same interval after the moon’s transit as it is on the days
The fact is, that the correction quoted from my paper belongs theoretically to the “ correct establishment,” or mean of all the intervals of moon's transit and tide, not to the “ vulgar establishment” or interval of moon’s travel and tide on the day of new and full moon, which is the establishment taken by Mr. SINonus.
The correction which I have given above is probably not exact for India, for it is taken from the London Tide Observations; and it would be extremely desirable, as you have observed in your Journal, to verify or correct it by obser~ vations at some stations in the Indian seas, made daily for a suflicient length of time. I may add, that the above correction is what has been called the semimenstrual inequality, and does not arise from the inequality of the moon’s daily
~ motion, but from the varying angular distance of the moon from the sun, in con~
sequence of which the solar tide sometimes coincides with the lunar, and at other times is separated from it by a large angle.
I am very glad to find you expressing your hopes that you will be furnished by your correspondents with tide observations from an extensive range of places in India. I would observe, that for the purposes of science, the daily observations themselves are much more valuable than the “establishment,” or any other inference collected from them.
In conclusion, I would beg particularly to state, that directions have been given for tide observations on the whole coast of England from the 9th to the 22nd of June in this year: that I have strong hopes that these observations will also take place on the shores of other states of Europe and America, at the same time; and that it would be very interesting and useful to have contemporary
observations made on the shores of India at as many places as possible.” March 21, 1835.
2.—M1'. TAYLon’s mode of determining the Errors of Division in Astronomical Instruments. [Extract of a letter from Sir Joan Hsnscnnn, dated C. G. H. April 20, 1835.] Feldhausen, near Wanbey, C. G. H. “The Journal for August, 1834, contains Mr. T.\YLon.’s application of the collimating principle to the examination of the mural circle at Madras. It is somewhat singular, that not long before I had suggested to Mr. Macnnau, the Astronomer Royal here, and had also written to Professor AIBY at Cambridge,
suggesting its application to the circles in the British Observatories, as the only fundamental mode of enquiry into their errors, a process which coincides in almost every particular with that adopted by Mr. Tnvnon, and which amounts in fact to an aerial re-division of the circle in situ
“ I do not mention this as in any degree wishing to interfere with Mr. TAYLoR’s just claim to independence and priority of invention; but as I consider the method in question to be one of great importance, and likely to supersede every other method of examination, I wish to obviate any misconception which may arise from the appearance in England in any of the journals, &c. of this method, as proposed by myself, without mention made of Mr. TAYLoR’s name--what he had done being then entirely unknown to myself, and my own thoughts having been turned upon the subject in the course of a severe examination to which Mr. Mncmsnn has been subjecting the Cape circle, and respecting which. he did me the honor to consult me.”
3.-012 a simple mode of Correcting the Index Error in taking observations /or latitude. By Lieut. W. P. J ACOB, Bombay Engineers. [In a letter to the Secretary As. Soc.]
I send you the results of a few observations, made lately at Karanja and Bombay, in illustration of a very simple method by which the errors of an altitude instrument, when employed in finding the latitude of a place, may be rendered insensible. It consists in observing pairs of stars which have nearly the same meridian altitude, the one N. and the other S. The errors of both in altitude will then be the same, but with respect to the pole they will be in opposite directions, so that the latitude resulting from the mean of the two will be free, not only from the errors of the instrument, but also from those caused by the uncertainty of refraction.
In the present instance, the instrument employed was a 10 in. circle, reading 10," which had been subjected to very rough ‘usage, having more than once been bent and reflattened, so that its errors sometimes amount to 40" or more; each star was observed four times, twice with face to the right, and twice to the left, and the observations were afterwards reduced to the meridian,an operation which is very easily and quickly performed by means of the sliding rule:
18 53 34.0 Lat. of Light house,.. .. . .. .. 18 53 33.3 > Here while the individual observations differ greatly, the several pairs have a close agreement, and would doubtless have been still nearer, had the altitudes been more nearly equal, for a Persei and -y Eridani difl'ered more than 2° in alt, By this method with a moderately good instrument, the Latitude might be
found in one night within 1", or much nearer, supposing the catalogues correct. Makadeo, 4th March, 1835.
[The method pointed out by Lieut. J A0013 is so obvious as to have been, we imagine, at all times practised by astronomers; we however give insertion to it as likely to furnish an useful hint to amateurs and beginners.-ED ]
4.—Fo.9.s-il Shells found in the Kasya Hills. By Dr. McCLn'Lr.ANn.
" Though not two days in these hills, I have found about a thousand specimens of sea shells, at various altitudes, from 1000 to 4200 feet, and even in and around the station of Churra Punji itself. On a hasty glance, I think I have recognised of known genera, Pectens, Cardiums, Turritella, Teredo, Serpula, Melonia, Cirrus, and Pleurotoma, among my collection ; but many will probably be found on examination to be new genera, and all the species or many of them at least will be found to be new.
“ What makes the discovery of these remains of more consequence is, that I have found them in rocks that have been hitherto considered as primitive in India, at least; but we shall now be able to correct our classification, and to remove many contradictions that exist between the result of Indian and European observations I I
“ The Ponar Fossil is here in great perfection, and is connected with the numu‘lites; but it must come into a new genus, or sub-genus, which may be called annulite; it was the thing that first struck WALLICH and GRIFFITH in the rocks of the Doli river, at the base of the hills, though I did not point it out.”
5.-—Note on the Pea Stalactite of Tibet. By Mr. STEVENSON.
The accompanying sample of a calcareous concretion was a few months ago sent to me for examination, from Dr. CAMPBELL of Nipal, and found in Tibet. The mineral is used in medicine by the Tibetans, and called Kriri by the inhabitants of Nipdl.
It appears to me to be a variety of the Roe-stone of geologists, in a disintegrated state, probably washed from its matrix by hill torrents, and deposited in pools.
A careful analysis of an average from the bulk gave me the following result :
Description. In globular concretions, from the size of a grain of mustard seed, to that of a pea; colour cream yellow, and a few slightly tinged blue, very compact .--hardness equal to statuary marble, externally opake, internally crystalline, crystals needle-like, and radiated from the centre of each globule. Eifervesces strongly in sulphuric, nitric. and muriatic acids, in which it readily dissolves, leaving a few grain of various coloured sand.
According to my analysis, it is composed of,
Carbonate oflime,.... .. 90.
100. If I may be allowed to venture an opinion, I would say, that it is a new mine
ral, or one not described in any of the European scientific journals. If so, Dr. CAMPBELL will be entitled to the thanks of mineralogists, for his discovery. I would (though with difiidence) suggest that the mineral sh ould be named Camp
bellite, or Tibetan eomfits, though the latter is not a scientific name, notwithstanding its comfit-like appearance.
6.——0bservations of Halley’s Comet, mode at the Honorable Company’: Observatory at Madras.‘ The comet first made its appearance on the 30th August, at 15th. 40m. mean
time, astronomical reckoning, or August 31st, at 3h. 40m. A. M. civil reckoning —the observation are as follows :
From the above observations, it would appear that the comet is about ten days later than the time predicted for its return.-—At present it is invisible to the unassisted eye of ordinary observers, and will probably remain so until the 21st of October, when it will be situated in the constellation Corona Borealis, near to B, the proper time to look for it on this day will be immediately after sun-set. T. G. TAYLOR, September 28, 1835. H. C’. Astronomer. [The comet has been visible here since the 12th Oct., after sun-set, and is now very brigbt.—En.]
A French translation of Lieutenant BUR.NES'S interesting Travels to Bokhara, 8:0. has been announced as in preparation at Paris, with notes, by KLAPBOTH, the distinguished orientalist.—Foreign Quarterly Review.
[We have been requested to insert this catalogue in continuation of the Prospectus
published in p. 356.—En.] MAMMALIA.
Plate l.—-The Jharal, wild goat. Capra jharal, mihi, mature male. Inhabits the Kachar. .
Plate II.—The Nahoor, wild sheep. Ovis Nahoor, mihi. Fig. 1, the mature male; 2, the head of mature female; 3, young male. Habitat. Kachar.
Plate 111. fig. 1, the Thar antelope. Antelope Thar, mihi, mature male; figure 2, the Ghoral antelope. A. Ghoral, HARDWICKE. Mature male. Inhabit central and northern divisions of Nipal respectively.
Plate IV. fig. 1, female Ghoral; fig. 2, young male.
Plate V.—The Changra or shawl goat of the Himalaya towards Nipal. Fig. 1, the larger or true shawl goat; figure 2, the lesser variety. Inhabit the Kachar.
Plate VI.—Sculls. Figs. 1 and 2, the Jhfiral mas.; 3 and 4, the Nflh00l' fem. ; 5 and 6, the Thar mas.; 7 and 8, the Ghoral mas.; 9 and 10, the Banbhera, or Himalayan variety of Ovis. Ammon. mas. junior; 11 and 12, the P11\1Sl‘0 Jarai, or Cervus Aristotelis. Horns cast. mas.; 13 and 14, the Ratwa Mantjac, mas. (N. B. Several of the sculls, with the horns torn ofl’, show the cellular cavity
of the core.) Plate VII. figs. 1 and 2, head of the larger Changra ; 3 and 4, scull of the lesser. Plate VIII. fig. 1, head of the Thar, mature male; 2, scull of ditto; 3, forefoot, and 4, hind foot of ditto.
Plate IX. fig. 1, head of the Chiru antelope, mature male; 2, direct front view of the nose of ditto, showing the position of the intermaxillary pouch and its connexion with the nares; 3, scull of ditto; 4, the inguinal pouch of ditto.
Plate X.—The Chiru antelope. Antelope Hodgsonii, C. Am-21., mature male. A. Gazella of H. Smrrn’s sub-genus. Habitat. the open plains of N. E. Thibet ;
fig. 2, represents the female.
Plate 1. fig. l, the male ; 2, the female ; and 3, the young male of the Ratwa Mantjac. Inhabits the central region of Nipal. .
Plate Il.—The Nipalese Paradoxurus. P. Nipalensis, mihi, mature female. lnhabits central and northern regions of Nipal.
Plate l1l.—The Wah. Ailurus Fulgens, mature male. Figs. 2 and 3, showing the attitudes of repose of the same. Kachar only.
Plate IV.—The Kathiah Nyool of Nipal. Martes Kath-iah, mihi. Central and northern regions.
Plate V.—The Bharsiah of the Nipalese, mature male. Ursitawus Inauritua, mihi. PnNN.4r»zr’s Indian Badger? Fig. l, the head of ditto, natural size; 2, scull of ditto, ditto ; 3 and 4, direct and oblique views of the lower jaw ; 5 and 6, ditto ditto of the upper jaw ; 7, the fore foot, and 8, the hind.
Plate VI.-The Koiral of the Nipalese. Sciuropterus magnificua, mihi. Central and lower regions of Nipal.
Plate VIl.—DiEerent views of the preceding.
Plate VIIl.—Head of the Ratwa Mantjac, mature male.
Plate IX.—Hea.d and members of the Nipalese Paradoxurns. Fem. : 1-l, vulva and glands; 2-2, anus and pores; 3, fore foot; 4 and 5, hind foot.
Plate X.-—Scull of the same animal.
Plate Xl.—-Front and side views of the head of the Wah. Figs. 1 and 2 exhibit the ear, denuded ofall hair, and invested with it; 3, the fore foot (sole of);
and 4, the hind foot.
Plate I.-The Machabba, or Malva of the Tarai. Paradowums Bondar? Inhabits the open tracts of the lower region of Nipal. Figs. 1 and 2, side and front views of the head ; 3, sole of hind foot.
Plate II.—-Thulo Chuah of the Nipalese. Norway Rat? all parts of Nipal.
Plate III. fig. 1, the Nyool of the Tarai. Mangasta Cafra? 2, the Nyool of the hills. M.* Javanica .7 Central region of Nepal.
Plate IV. fig. l, Viverra Indica. The Sayer of the Tarai; 2, Viverra Rasse, also called Sayer. Both inhabit the Tarai portion of the lower region of Nipal exclusively; 3, head of Rasse; 4, ditto of Indica; 5 and 6, anal and genital parts, with the skin on and 0d ; 7, the hind foot to the tarsus; 8, head of Rasse.
Plate V.—The Chittra Bilow of the Tara'i. Felis Serval .7 varietas, mature male. Felis Viverrinus of Hannwicxn? Open parts of lower region of Nipal only.
Plate VI.—The Biraloo of the Nipalese. Felix Lynclms Erythrolua, mihi. Central region and lower ; 2, the young of ditto ; 3, the Moormi Cat, F. Murmensis, mihi. Central region only. Mature male.
* Since ascertained to be a new species of M. auropunctata, mihi. Gold-tipped Mongoose.