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discovered to have been fraudulently exported from the places abovementioned.”
A profit equal to about 18,000 Spanish dollars is supposed to have accrued to the Dutch annually from this monopoly; which so rigid were they in enforcing, that we find it stipulated in the same treaty, " that no boats or vessels, to whomsoever they may belong, shall be allowed to pass the Company's settlement at Lingie without touching, in order that a search may be made in such boats or vessels for tin; any person attempting to evade‘ these rules, will be liable to have their boats, and the tin which may be found in them, confiscated and sold, and the proceeds appropriated for the use of the Company and the said chiefs.” Also, that “ no boats or vessels of any description whatever be permitted to proceed from the north to south, or passing from the latter to the former part, or passing the straits of Malacca, without being provided with a pass, on pain of being seized."
During the British Government at Malacca, from 1795 to 1818, the trade fell into the hands of private individuals, principally Dutch and Chinese merchants residing at Malacca. In 1819, the Dutch resumed the monopoly, as we find from the 7th article of a treaty, dated Naming, the 5th day of June, 1819, between the Supreme Government of Netherlands India and Raja ALI, the Panghzilai and Ampét Su'ku' of Rumbowe, which runs thus: “ Raja ALL the Panghlllu’ and Ampiit Siikd of Rumbowe, must give up to Government all the tin from Lingie, Sungie Ujong, Rumbowe, and any place under their authority, without reservation. The Government binds itself to pay 40 Spanish dollars per bhar of 300 catties, or 370 lbs., &c."
On the resumption of Malacca by the English, in 1825, the tin trade relapsed into the hands of the private merchants.
Miners-.—In 1828, the number of Chinese miners amounted to nearly 1000 men, who were regularly divided into nine Kongsis or companies, each under its respective Tao-kae. They were chiefly of that singular fraternity, the Tim: Tay Huay, or Triad Society, whose mysterious oaths and secret laws appear to be not very dissimilar from those which bound the Carbonari of Modern Europe. Jealousy of their fast increasing power and numbers, or some alleged oifence, but more probably the treasure amassed by this brotherhood, (whose property was in common,) led in 1828, to their massacre by the Malays.
In 1830, the mines were again worked by about 400 Chinese, who went up, at the inducement of some Malacca merchants, and continued there until the late disturbances in 1833, when many of them returned to Malacca. The mines at present are but partially worked, and very little of the tin passes down the river, in consequence of the feud existing between the Rumbowe chiefs and those of Siingie Ujong and Lingie.
The Malays and Chinese employed in the mines were liberally paid. The rate of their wages will shew the difl"erence of value set upon the services of the two classes ;—a Chinese being paid at the rate of 5 to 8 dollars per mensem; and a Malay from 3 to 5 only.
From day-break to 7 A. M., they are employed in clearing the mines from the water which accumulates during the night. From 7 to 8, they rest and breakfast. At 8, the process of digging out the earth and ore is commenced. At 11, they go to dinner, and return to work again about 1 P. M.
At 5, their labours cease for the day. No work is done at the periods of new and full moon.
Like their Cornish brethren, the Malay miners are very superstitious. They believe in the existence of a spirit (Kummang), who watches over the mines, and whose wrath they are particularly careful not to provoke by work or deed. They have “ wise men," or Puwdngs, who pretend to be able to ascertain the most favorable spots for sinking a mine, by various spells and charms; these may be compared with the charlatanic wielders of the virgula divinitoria in our own “ enlightened country."
Previous to a description of the mines, a short outline of the principal geological features of the peninsula, as far as present imperfect informatiom extends, may not wholly be out of place.
The southern part of the Malayan peninsula and Banca assimilate in geological formation. Dr. Hoasrlsnn, in his observations on the mineralogical constitution of Banca, observes, that “ the direction of the island being from north-west to south-west, it follows not only the direction of Sumatra and the Malayan peninsula, but the large chain of Asiatic mountains, one of the many branches of which terminates in Ceylon, while another traversing Arracan, Pegu, the Malayan peninsula, and probably Sumatra, sends off an inferior range through Banca and Billiton, where it may be considered to disappear.”
This chain of mountains may he considered as the termination of one of those beams or pillars of lofty hills, spoken of by M. on Gu1oNEs, in his work on the Huns, as supporting the stupendous edifice, to which he compares the elevated regions of Tartary, comprehending the lofty ranges of Imaiis and Caucasus; and the dome of which is represented as one prodigious mountain, to which the Chinese give the epithet of celestial, down the steeps of which numerous broad and rapid rivers pour their waters.
The Malayan range, as far as has been hitherto explored, is of primitive formation ; principally grey stanniferous granite.
In the gold countries of Tringénu, Pahang, Gominchi, and Mount Ophir, rocks and crystals of quartz are met with. At the southern extremity, and in some parts of Salangore, porphyry occurs.
The islands in the neighbourhood of Malacca, and those of!" the eastern extremity of the Salangore coast, consist principally of granite and laterite with sienite.
According to Dr. WARD, “ The small hills in the neighbourhood of Malacca are formed of a conglomerate, the base of which is clay iron stone. containing imbedded portions of felspar, in a state of decomposition (having all the properties of yellow ochre), and small grains of quartz and iron glance, scattered through its substance.
" The specific gravity of the rock is 2'536 ; when recently dug, it is soft, can be easily cut, and readily stains the fingers; but after exposure to the air for some time, it acquires such a degree of hardness as to be broken with difliculty: and its durability is shewn by the present state of the ancient buildings, which have stood unimpaired for nearly 300 years.
“ In its dry state, it is porous, from the destruction of the ochreous particles by moisture and exposure to the air, resembling old lava in its external appearance.
“ In all its properties, it agrees exactly with the rock common on the Malabar Coast, and described by Dr. BUCHANAN under the name of laterite.”
The mountains at Penang are also " composed of fine grey granite, and all the smaller eminenees are of the same material.” “ Some of the small hills near the coast are partly formed of the laterite already described when speaking of Malacca; and Saddle island, at the southwestern angle of Penang, is apparently entirely composed of the same ingredient."
At the Carimons, hornstone is found. Mr. MARTIN states, the aspect of the Island of Singapore, (situate on the southern extremity of the peninsula, in Lat. 1° 17' 22" north, and Long. 103° 51' 5" east,) to be “low and level, with an extensive ‘chain of saline and fresh water marshes; in several parts covered with lofty timber and luxuriant vegetation, here and there low rounded sand-hills interspersed with spots of level ground, formed of aferruginous clay, with a sandy substratum. The principal rock is red sandstone, which changes in some parts to a breccia or conglomerate, containing large fragments and crystals of quartz. The whole contiguous group of isles, about thirty in number, as well as Singapore, are apparently of a submarine origin, and their evulsion probably is of no very distant date.” It may be added, that bouldered pieces of primitive trap are found on the shores of Singapore, though none has hitherto been seen- in sild.
The range of mountains on the peninsula, as it approaches the equator, diminishes in height. The highest of the Rumbowe and Johor ranges, (with the exception of Mount Ophir,) not exceeding, probably, 3000 feet ; while many of those to the north of Kedah are said to be upwards of 6000.
Mount Ophir, a detached mountain, between 80 and 40 miles to the eastward of Malacca, I calculated roughly (by means of the thermometer and boiling water) to be 5693 feet above the- level of the sea; its summit is granite. Gold dust and crystals of quartz are found in considerable quantities around its base*.
From information hi-therto collected, and inquiries made among the natives, it would not appear that any volcanoes exist in theinterior; though the circumstance of numerous hot-springs, scattered over the face of the country, and other indications, sufficiently testify the presence of subterraneous fires. Severe shocks of earthquakes have been felt from time to time, but whether caused by violent eruptions from any of the volcanoes on the opposite coast of Sumatra, or by under-ground explosions there, or in the peninsula itself, is uncertain.
There are hot-springs in the vicinity of Malacca ; at Ayerpénnas, and also near Sabzing, and at L\'1ndi in the Naning territory. 1' have visited the two former places, and found the temperature of the water at noon of the springs at Ayerpannas, to be 120° Fahrenheit, and at 6 A. M., 1l3%°.
The temperature of the hot-springs at Sabang was found at 6 A, M, to be 110° Fahrenheit. The variation in the former instance is accounted for by the different temperatures of atmosphere at the time of taking the heat. The heat of the springs in both cases, I‘ found to exceed that of the atmosphere by an average of 35° Fahrenheit, in several comparative trials.
At the wells near Sabéng, when the bulb of the thermometer was pushed into the soft vegetable mould at the bottom of the spring, the mercury rose to 130».
The springs at both places are situated in swampy flats, environed by small hillst They average from 1 to 2% feet in depth, and are discernible from a distance by the steam and odour that escapes.
[The water is of a pale bluish green tinge; from the bottom bubbles
of air (probably sulphuretted hydrogen) ever and anon find their way to the surface, where they burst. ? See J; A. S. vol. ii. page 497;
Dr. Waan analysed a portion of the water from the springs at Ayerpainnas, and found, that on slow evaporation in a sand-bath, 1000 grains of the water left a residuum of eight grains of saline matter, principally muriate of soda, with a slightly bitter taste, indicating the presence of sulphate of magnesia.
The surface of the peninsula is covered generally by alluvial deposites, rich in ore of tin, and not unfrequently mixed with gold; over this lies a layer of vegetable mould, in which stones or pebbles
are seldom found. In the interior, the land is mountainous, but undulating towards
its coasts, shaded by primaeval forests, and stored with treasures to the botanist and naturalist; it is almost devoid of plains. The strips of low ground lying in the hollows of the undulations are almost inva~ riably swampy, and are converted into Sawaks, or wet rice-grounds, by the natives.
At various places along its western coast are low cliffs, if they may so be termed, of a reddish steatite.
The banks of the most considerable rivers are generally low, swampy, and covered with mangrove, Nipah, Nibong, and other trees of the same nature.
The bottom is for the most part of mud, except at short distances from the estuaries, where sand banks and coral reefs are often met with.
The tin of the peninsula, and the eastern islands, (particularly those of Junk Ceylon, Lingga, and Banca, which may be styled the eastern Cassiterides,) is diffused over a great geographical extent.
Mr. Cmwruan observes, that “ tin, wherever found, has a limited geographical distribution ; but where it does exist, it is always in great abundance. The tin of the Indian Islands has, however, a. much wider range of distribution than that of any other country, being
found in considerable quantity from the 98° to the 107'’ of east longi- '
tude, and from the 8° north to 3° south latitude."
It ‘has, however, been since stated by Mr. ANDERSON, that tin has been found in considerable quantities much farther north, viz. in the interior of Tavoy, in latitude 12° 40' north ; the mines are situated at a place called Sakfina, about four days’ journey from the city of Tavoy.
It has been affirmed, that tin exists so high as 14° north, in Siam.
The peninsula of the present day, although auriferous, appears not to deserve its appellation of " The Golden Chersonesus," so much as its neighbour, the Island of Sumatra, to which, by the way, there is a tradition, mentioned by the early Portuguese historians, that it was formerly united. Sumatra, by some, has been supposed to be the