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the interior, from four to six dollars per head; they are generally Battaks from the vicinity of Battu Bars, on the opposite coast of Sumatra, and average twenty annually. They fetch a price from 20 to 60 dollars each; according to age, condition, and sex; a higher value being set on the females.
- In addition to these imposts, the chiefs of S1’: ngie Ujong formerly enjoyed the division of a premium paid annually by the Chinese and other merchants of Malacca for the tin monopoly, amounting, it is said, to 2500 dollars; 1000 of which went to the Dattu Mu'da, and 100 each to the three elders of Lingie; 800 to the Klrina of Sdngie Ujong, and the remaining 400 to the Rzija adhi Rrija.
The deputed Menangkabowe prince, it is affirmed by the Rnmbowe people, had the right of levying a duty, at Sempong, on the Lingie river, of two dollars per ‘blltlr, on tin passing that settlement from Sungie Ujong, which was afterwards given up as a subsistence to their Iang de pertéan Mzidas. In consequence of the disavowal of this claim by the Siingie Ujong and Lingie chiefs, and other causes too long for detail, a war ensued in 1833, and a consequent blockade of the river by the Iang de perttian Mlida, Saran SAABAN, at Sempong, still existing, and by which the trade of Snngie Ujong has sufiered very materially. '
Government.--Silngie Ujong was ruled, under the lung de pertzian Besdr, by a Panghlilzi, three Sfikzis, and a Rafa adhi Rlija. The Panghrild, as has been already remarked, owes his title, Kldna Putra, to one of the kings of Johor. He now refuses to acknowledge the control of the Iang de pertzian Besdr.
BANDAHAIRA Snxomu is supposed to be the first chiefinvested with this title; and regarding his origin, along tradition was related to me by the present Rdja ad/ii Rafa, the abstract of which amounts to this, viz. “ In ancient times, one of the princesses of Sungie Ujong having had the presumption to laugh at the naked state of a Batin of the Jacoons, incurred his resentment, and was forcibly compelled to follow him through thicket and brake, until moved with compassion, this sans culotte maitre ale danse broke the spell and married her.
“ The offspring of this sylvan union is said to be SEKUDAI: from whom descend the Panghzilfis of Siingie Ujong."
In all popular traditions of rude nations, there is more or less of truth to be gathered ; and in absence of written and other historical evidence, such testimony ought not to be entirely neglected, and set aside as valueless; though frequently ridiculous, and mingled up with matter known to be incredible and void of truth. We need not instance here the works of the early poets of Greece and Rome.
It is certain, that to this day, in Siingie Ujong, Johole, and Jompole, the twelve Batins, or chiefs of the savage tribes, have a considerable share in the election of the Pcmghu'lu's of these states, though there is not now apparent any permanent mark of connexion, either social or religious, between the Malays and these aborigines.
As Kdfirs and infidels they are despised by the Malays, but superstitiously dreaded. Converts are made to Isldm; but slavery, as far as my observation extends, is their lot. _
A few years ago, the late Pangluilti of Simgie Ujong, Klzina Lanna, died, leaving two nephews, KAWAL and Bunm. It is an ancient custom prevailing in the interior, and, I believe, generally throughout Malavan nations, that when a chief dies, his successor must be elected on the spot, and previous to the interment of the corpse, (which is not, unfrequently, protracted through the observance of this usage to a considerable length of time,) otherwise the election does not hold good*. >
The following are the traditional lines, or Serzipa, in which this custom has been handed down in Siingie Ujong.
Short has been his life, though long his stride!
The grave shall be dug in the red earth :
In one-day sprung up, in one-day cherished.
Now it happened that KAWAL was absent at the time of Panglnilzi LEnun’s death. The three Su'ku's and one of the twelve Batins took advantage of‘ Bnnlvfs being on the spot, elected him, and buried the body of the deceased chief. Against this proceeding, the Rdja adbi Rdja, and the remainder of the elective body, the eleven Batins, protested; a war ensued, which terminated in 1828, pretty much as it began. KAWAL, however, by virtue of the suffrages of eleven out
of the twelve Batins, and by the support of the Rdja adhi Razja, is generally considered the legitimate chief.
* In consequence of this custom, the present Sultan of Johor’s younger
brother was elected during the absence of the elder brother, whose claims were subsequently acknowledged by the British.
He resides at Pantoi, a. village on the left bank of the Lingie river, about 40 miles from the village of Lingie. I had an interview with him at the latter place in 1833.
His features are regular and pleasing; but their expression conveys an idea of indecision and imbecility, probably increased by the immoderate use of opium, to which he was formerly much addicted ; the whole tenor of his conversation and manner evinced plainly how completely he was in the leading strings of his adviser, the wily KAA"rAs, the Dattu Mlida of Lingie, who accompanied him.
His dress manifested a disposition to finery, consisting of a gaudy red I/(iju, or surcoat, flowered with yellow ; a broad crimson sash thrown round his waist, suspending several weapons of Malayan fashion ; a Battik handkerchief, with the bicornuteitie, and a plaid silk sdrong, resembling the tartan worn by the Highlanders, descending to his knees ; underneath the plaid he wore short embroidered trowsers.
In the left-hand slash of his close vest of purple broad cloth, which was lined with light-green silk, and adorned with silk lace and small round buttons of gold filigree, lay a watch of an antique shape, to which were appended a gold chain and seals. He wore his hair long, and it was very palpable to two of the five senses that he, like Dnmosranmrs in the composition of his orations, had not spared the oil in the arrangement of his tresses.
Rdja adhi Ra'ja.—Next to the Panghu'Iu' ranks the Rdja adkf Rdja. The jurisdiction of this oflicer is confined to the river, and its navigation. The oflice and title, as would appear from the inscription on the seal, were renewed or granted to his ancestors by MUHAMMED JALIL, Sultan of Johore, A. H. l2ll. (A. D. 1796-7)
The present Rdja adhi Rzija is a young man, of an extremely prepossessing address and person.
adki Rdja may be perhaps considered as occupying the place of a fourth Su'ku' in councils. .
The functions of the Su'ku’s are similar to those already described, as possessed by the former Ampat Su’/cu’ of Naning*. Their titles are Dattu Mantri Jumaluzd, Dattu Mendalika, and Dattu Mafiarzija Inda. The tribes, of which they are the heads, are those of Se. Melongang, Bodoanda, and Tannah Dattar.
Lingie.—The village of Lingie proper, in contradistinction to the settlement of Qualla Lingie, which is within the Company's territory, at the mouth of the river, is a dependency of Snngie Ujonet.
It is situated high up the right branch of the river, and consisted,
* See page 298 of the present volume.~—En.
in 1832, when I visited the place, of a straggling collection of upwards of 100 houses. The Pankdlangs of Pemfitang, Passir, Ciindang, Diirian, and Mangis, may be styled the wharfs of this little entrepot, for the produce of the Siingie Ujong mines, and the articles brought up for barter. Many of the houses have been pillaged and burnt in the subsequent disturbances.
The establishment of Lingie is of recent date. Between 50 and 60 years ago, six individuals, subjects of Rumbowe, (but originally from Rhio,) removed from Rumbowe to it place on the Malacca coast, between Tanjong Kling and Qualla Lingie, called Kubn Achi, (the fort of Achin ;) where, according to local tradition, the Achinese erected a work during one of their expeditions against the Sultan of Malacca. Be that as it may, they had commenced the clearing of the jungle, when one of their number was crushed on the spot by the fall of a tree.
This his companions regarded as a supernatural prohibition to settling there, and quitting the place, passed up the river to the present spot; where, with the permission of the Siingie Ujong chief, they finally established themselves. Their names were HAMAN, MAHMUD, JAHIUDDIN, LUBBYE, JUMAN, and Kimn ALI.
HAMAN was appointed head of the little colony, by the title of Dattu M Iida, and his four companions, as elders. Of these only one now survives MAHMUD, who is a hale old man of 70. ,
HAMAN was succeeded by his son-in-law the present Dattu Mfida Mnuomnn Alims, more commonly called Knims ; and the three deceased elders, by HA'Ji CA's1M, HXJ1 Munzuvnunn, and Incnr SALInunom. This last chief was killed in the disturbanhes at the close of 1833.
KAA"rAs, the leading character in Silngie Ujong, is a bony, muscular personage in the prime of life; tall in stature for a Malay, and of erect carriage. '
His features are harsh and decided; his dress plain and simple. In character, he is selfish, crafty, persevering, and gifted with some foresight; a quality byino means common among Malays.
He possesses unbounded influence over the weak and sensual Klzina ,and it is said that his ambition extends to the undivided sway of Siingie Ujong, and the monopoly of the duties on tin. The opposition of the Rumbowe chiefs, with whom he is at present at deadly feud, and the Malay popular antipathy to innovation and deviation from ancient usage, or as they term it, the " Addat Zeman Dhu’lii," the “ Addat Dattu Nenek,” &c. will prove considerable obstacles in the attainment of his wishes.
KAA"rAs has, on various occasions, evinced an inimical disposition to the English government.
The following are copies of the inscriptions on the seals of the present Panghfllri and Rdja adhi Ru'ja of Siingie Ujong, and of, the Daltu Mzida of Lingie.
From the dates and inscriptions on these seals, it would appear that the two first were originally granted, or more probably, renewed to their possessors, by Sultan Munammun JALIL of Johor, in 1211 A. H.
The last is of still more modern date (1239), and merely bears the date, name, and assumed title (Incki Bander) of Karfras.
May 6th.—-Anchored in the evening in the Min river, a short way below a narrow passage, guarded on each side by a fort, and hence named by Europeans, the Bogue, as resembling the entrance to the inner river of Canton. We immediately hoisted out our boat, and prepared every thing for setting out, as soon as the return of the flood, which we expected would be about midnight, would enable us to do so. We determined on trying the western branch of the Min, as laid down in Do H.u..na's Map of the province of Fuh-kin. We took with us one copy of a petition, for permission to import rice, on the same footing of exemption from charges as is granted at Canton, and grounded upon the unusual drought of the regular season for planting rice. Another duplicate we left with Captain McKay of the “ Governor Findlay,” to be presented by him to any Mandarin who might come on board to urge the departure of the vessel from the river. As the subject of the petition would require reference to Pekin, we calculated. that sufiicient time would thus be gained to enable us to accomplish our object. The copy in our o\vn possession would be resorted to only in case of our being intercepted. The delay in its delivery might be attributed to the altered appearance of