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*V.——List of Fossil Specimens from Bilwan, and from the Betwd, collected by Lieut. VICARY, in December, l834.

Right branch to the 13th tooth of the lower jaws of a crocodile, I believe the muggur (magar) ,- all the alveoli are empty, except the 7th, which contains a germ.

The scapula, part of a rib, and another bone of the same animal: all found together within 300 yards of the Bugowtl, about a mile to the N. W. of the village of Bilwan, between Mirzapur and Chunar : they were bedded in clay, mixed with kankar and some shells like those of the river; the clay rests on sandstone, which was exposed in the bottoms of the water-courses.

A bone, found on the surface, at the same place.

From the Belwd in Bundelkand, January, 1834.

Bones of a bovine animal, found imbedded in cemented gravel, on the right bank of the Betwd river, about one mile east of Jelzilpur, between Kalpl and Keitah.

No. 1.—Clay on which the gravel rests, and which forms the bed of the river on that side.

No. 2.--The cemented gravel in which I found the bones, at this place; it is about twenty feet in thickness. Half a mile nearer to Jeldlpur, it decreases to two feet; and in some places, is very slightly cemented.

No. 3.—-The bones : some had fallen to the base of the gravel, and were lying on the surface ; others were still firmly imbedded, and broke in the effort to get them out. (I had not a hammer with me.)

No. 4.—Stems or roots P (Dendritical kankar perhaps,) above the gravel; in a light colored clay, of about four feet in thickness.

No. 5.—Plate kankar, alternating two or three times with the above clay, containing shells not differing from those of the river, and often perforated by the roots 9

a. A thin seam, resting on sandstone in the Sonar river, at the waterfall near Hatta, containing shells (recent).

b. A bone from the left bank above the same fall.

c. A bone from the Byarml river.

* This paper was accidentally mislaid, when the article on the Jamna fossils, of the last No. was in the press. It is referred to in page 502 of that paper, and is here printed both to illustrate the remarks there made, and to preserve the record of Lieut. VrcAnY’s donation. The Mirzapur site of fossils is new, and deserves further examination. In regard to the theory of the Jamns. fossils being derived from the Belwd river, Mr. DEAN has pointed out to us that Karim Khdn is 20 miles above the junction of that river.—En.

VI.-—Nole on Tbylacinus C]/nocephalus. Extracted from the Osteological Section ofthe Catalogue of the Museum of the Asiatic Society. By J. T. Pnsason, Esq.

CIdSS—-MAMMALIA. Order—Carnassiers. Fam.—Marsupiata. Gen.-—

Thylacynus. Sp.—Thylacynus Cynocephalus.

Van Diemeu’s Land Tiger.
A Skull.

This specimen (Pl. XLVIII. fig. 49) was taken from the skin of an animal called the Van Diernen's Land Tiger, presented to the Society by Dr. J. Hnnnnason; and described in the 3rd vol. of the Gleanings in Science, by Dr. J. GRANT.

It was before described in the 9th vol. of the Transactions of the Linnaean Society, by HARRIS: and it is mentioned in the Synopsis of Marnrnalia of GR1FF1'rn’s Cuvina, under the name of Dasyurus Cynocephalus. Mr. Baoorcs, as it is there stated, thought it the type of a new genus, to be named Paracyon: and M. Tammmox has since formed it into one, under the name of T/:3/lacynus. In all these, however, the dentition is incorrectly given. In the Linnaean Transactions, and in the Gleanings in Science, the cheek teeth are represented as $3}, and in the Synopsis of Ga1FFr'rn's, the dentary system of Dasyurus is attached to it, viz. incisors 2; canines, H; cheek teeth, gg. So far as relates to the incisors and canines, GRIFFITHS is probably correct; for, although some of the incisors are Wanting in the present specimen, there are eight sockets above, and six below; the second on each side of the latter being situated apparently within the row of the other four, as happens to the middle incisors of Baooxs’ genus Lycaon. The dentition of T/rylacynus is therefore, incisors, %; canines, H ; cheek teeth, 3,5} = 46, and omitting the incisors, some of which are wanting in the present specimen, the teeth may be described as follows :

Surnaroa M.-\xu.1.A--canines strong, large, and curved backward, with the points inclining rather inward -, separated from the incisors by a deep, round fossa, or hollow, nearly half an inch in diameter, to receive the point of the opposing canine of the lower jaw. Cheek teeth gradually increasing in size to the last but one, which is the longest. The three anterior ones are compressed, cuspid, with a heel at the posterior side; but little developed in the first, more so in the second, and largely in the third, where it is formed into almost a sharp tubercle. The fourth, fifth, and sixth cheek teeth irregularly triangular, with the most obtuse angle forward and outward, and the most acute, backward and outward. The fourth tooth has a ‘tubercle at each anterior angle, the outer one having a point, forming a small heel before it ; a larger and sharper central process; a very small additional point arising out of a concave surface between the central process and posterior angle; and a. curved, sharp, cutting edge extending along the inner and posterior side of the tooth, from the central process to the posterior angle. The fifth tooth is, in "general appearance, similar to the fourth, but rather larger than it; with the central process longer in proportion, with only a rudiment of the small point of the concave surface, and the posterior and inner cutting edge larger and sharper. The sixth tooth is the largest: the heel of the anterior tubercle is more strongly developed, and the outer and central processes are larger and sharper than in the other teeth; the posterior interior cutting edge is very sharp, and there is scarcely a trace of the additional point. The seventh tooth is also triangular in its form, but with its longest axis placed cross-wise, with an obtuse anterior interior tubercle, another posterior one, and a third rather sharper than those in the centre, with a sharp elevated ridge extending across to the most acute angle at the outer side, uniting the central with a fourth tubercle at the outer angle.

With regard to the placing of the teeth in the jaw: the sockets of the four incisors on each side are close together, but between those of the two central incisors there is an interval of about ,',th of an inch, indicating a corresponding gap between the teeth. Between the incisors and canines there is the pit in the intermaxillary bones already mentioned. The first molar is almost close to the canine of its side; the second molar is separated by an interval of ,’,ths of an inch nearly, from the first; the third molar is rather more than ,‘3th of an inch from the second, and it adjoins the fourth, forming with it, the fifth and the sixth, a continuous series of four teeth, from which the seventh is separated by about ,',,th of an inch.

Imvnnroa MAXILLA—Cafli1l€8 strong, much curved, approximating at the base, then proceeding outward, with the points turned backward, and rather inward ; placed close to the incisors, which appear jammed between them; and the points not going on the outside of the intermaxillary bones when the jaws are shut, but received into the fossa in those bones, between the upper incisor and canine teeth. Cheek-teeth gradually increasing in size to the third, than which the fourth is rather smaller; and again, from the fourth to the last, which is the largest of all : first, second, and third, like those in the upper jaw ; fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh tricuspid, with an acute angular point in front, a very elevated sharp process, with cutting edges in the centre, and a tuberculous process behind. This last process approaches to a grinding surface, with an acute margin at the outer and posterior sides, in the fourth, fifth, and sixth teeth; and it is of a rather round, tuberculous form, in the seventh tooth.

The first molar in the under jaw is placed close to the canine tooth of its side; the second is about {Uht of an inch from the first; the third rather more from the second ; and there is another space between the third and fourth of about ,‘,th of an inch : the four last teeth form a continuous row.

The lower canines being received into pits in the intermaxillary bones, is somewhat like an approach to what takes place in some of the Saurian reptiles ; and indeed, the whole view of the skull of Thylacynus Cynocephalus reminds the casual observer almost as much of a Saurian as of a Mammiferous animal.

When presented to the Society, the stuffed specimen was, as it is said, in a bad state; and when the present Curator entered upon his office, there was, owing to no care having been taken of it, nothing to be done, but to take out the bones, to preserve them. This, however, was so far fortunate, as it has led to the discovery of the real dental system.

Mr. GRANT, who drew up the paper in the “ Gleanings in Science," proposed the name of Lycocephalus for this species, apparently not aware that HARRIS had before named and described it. His mistake as to the number of teeth arose from not having been able to open the mouth far enough to allow him to examine them properly ; and HAarus’s specimen may have been an old one, and lost a tooth on each side. The Society's specimen was of a middle age, rather young perhaps than otherwise: the bones of the skull being well knit together, though not fixed by bony union.

It is greatly to be wished, that some friend to the Society would present another specimen.

[graphic]

VII.—Analysis of Copper Ore from Nellore ,- with notice of the Copper-_ Mines at Ajmir and Singhcina. By Lmns Pamsnv, Sec. &-c.

Through the kindness of Mr. C. A. Knlm, l have had a further opportunity of examining the produce of the Nellore copper mines, of which cabinet specimens were presented to the Asiatic Society two years ago*, before the formation of the “ Indian Copper Mining

Company” at Madras, for the purpose of turning to profit the mineral stores of this promising district.

* See Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. Feb. 1833, in vol. ii. p. 95.

From a pamphlet published at Madras, we learn that the copper mines in the Nellore and Cuddapah districts were discovered about 40 years ago, by Mr. BENJAMIN HAYNE, whose report to Government, inserted in his Tracts on India, gives the fullest and most satisfactory account of them. From this pamphlet, we glean the following particulars of the locality, and of the quality of the ore.

“ The districts on the coast in which copper ores have been discovered are those of the Calastry and Vencatagherry zemindaries, and the Udygherry Jag-hire, in the zillahs of Nellore and Duppaud, and other places in the ceded districts.

“ The principal mining places are at the distance of about 30 miles N. W. from Nellore, 30 miles from the sea, about the latitude of Ramapatam, and about 40 miles N. E. from Cuddapah.

“ Several rivers run right through it on their way to the sea from the western hills, of which the Pillapeyroo, Vuppovagoo, and Manyroo form a junction not far from Guramanypenta, the principal mining place, and form a pretty large river, which is said to have a good deal‘ of water throughout the year. Its beds are very stony, which seems in the eyes of the natives the greatest objection against its being made navigable for boats: it deserves therefore an accurate survey.

“ The general aspect of the country is barren, and uncomfortable in the extreme : large trees are only found in and near the villages; and on the wide extended plains, on both sides of the river, nothing encounters the eye, but here and there a small thorny shrub. The grass, which, in the rainy season, every where else carpets the country with a refreshing green, is here both scanty and of the poorest kind, a species of “ aristida,” which, as the name implies, is a compound of long beards or bristles. This is the case in most mining countries ; the surface of the soil contains in many places so much salt, that the inhabitants could make enough, if allowed to do so, for their own consumption.

“ To the eastward, the country is open ; only here and there a few low hills are to be seen; but to the westward, there are ranges of bills, the nearest at the distance of about 10 miles. Due west is one called Malla-coudah, from being the highest hill in the range. It is said to abound with wood. The Udygherry mountains are to the south-west, about 16 miles, and the highest in this part of the country: the highest point I take to be about 3000 feet above the level of the low country: I have seen myself, that plenty and large wood grows there, particularly between the valleys.

“ About 20 miles on the way to the sea, in the direction ofltiamapatam, are ex

. tensive jungles, consisting of—1. Korra, Panicum italicum, L. 2. Aruga, Paapalum

iamentacium, L. 3. Woolava, Glycene tomentosa, L.

“ This country is, geologically speaking, of a primitive description; the general rock formation is a mica-slate, of difierent colors and consistence. It shows itself first in the low country, at the distance of about 15 miles east from the hills; it forms sloping mountains, which are often capped with horn-stone slate, which passes into sand-stone, and on the other hand, into jasper. The tabular summits and mural precipices of the Udygherry hills consist of the latter stone kind : the layers or strata of the mica-slate occur in different positions, and inclination to the horizon; often in the low country forming a right angle with it; on and about the Udygherry hills, the strata appear in the utmost confusion, as if thrust by force out of their proper position. Traces of copper ores are often found

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